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  • Bias
Accepting Size Differences
Read the Fine Print
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There is no doubt that modern lifestyle changes have contributed to the problems of overweight and obesity among adults and children. Some school health and physical education programs are tackling the challenge of integrating healthier eating and regular exercise into the lives of students. But what about the social challenges that face children who are overweight? And how do media messages reinforce the bias they already experience among many of their peers? In these lessons, students will evaluate both their own biases related to size differences and the ways in which media shape those biases.

Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
Southern Poverty Law Center
Provider Set:
Learning for Justice
Date Added:
12/02/2016
Advanced Analytic Methods in Geospatial Intelligence
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CC BY-NC-SA
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General James Clapper, former United States Director of National Intelligence and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), once said \everything happens somewhere.\" He stressed that there are aspects of time and place to every intelligence problem. In this course, you will examine how time and place work with general intelligence techniques to create geospatial intelligence. You will learn and apply critical thinking skills, structured analytical techniques, and other intelligence methods in a geospatial context. You'll also learn how to reduce personal and organizational bias by conducting an Analysis of Competing Hypotheses, by R. Heuer, a 45-year veteran of the CIA. As a result, you will be better prepared for the world of geospatial intelligence analysis."

Subject:
Information Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences
Author:
Dennis Bellafiore
Todd Bacastow
Date Added:
10/07/2019
Association between trial registration and treatment effect estimates: a meta-epidemiological study
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CC BY
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To increase transparency in research, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors required, in 2005, prospective registration of clinical trials as a condition to publication. However, many trials remain unregistered or retrospectively registered. We aimed to assess the association between trial prospective registration and treatment effect estimates. Methods This is a meta-epidemiological study based on all Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and September 2014 with meta-analyses of a binary outcome including three or more randomised controlled trials published after 2006. We extracted trial general characteristics and results from the Cochrane reviews. For each trial, we searched for registration in the report’s full text, contacted the corresponding author if not reported and searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform in case of no response. We classified each trial as prospectively registered (i.e. registered before the start date); retrospectively registered, distinguishing trials registered before and after the primary completion date; and not registered. Treatment effect estimates of prospectively registered and other trials were compared by the ratio of odds ratio (ROR) (ROR <1 indicates larger effects in trials not prospectively registered). Results We identified 67 meta-analyses (322 trials). Overall, 225/322 trials (70 %) were registered, 74 (33 %) prospectively and 142 (63 %) retrospectively; 88 were registered before the primary completion date and 54 after. Unregistered or retrospectively registered trials tended to show larger treatment effect estimates than prospectively registered trials (combined ROR = 0.81, 95 % CI 0.65–1.02, based on 32 contributing meta-analyses). Trials unregistered or registered after the primary completion date tended to show larger treatment effect estimates than those registered before this date (combined ROR = 0.84, 95 % CI 0.71–1.01, based on 43 contributing meta-analyses). Conclusions Lack of trial prospective registration may be associated with larger treatment effect estimates.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
BMC Medicine
Author:
Agnès Dechartres
Carolina Riveros
Ignacio Atal
Isabelle Boutron
Philippe Ravaud
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Avoiding Confirmation Bias
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CC BY-NC-SA
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We may be leaving out information or disregarding it because it doesn't conform with our own beliefs.  Students will learn about confirmation bias, different perspectives and how to avoid confirmation bias.  This lesson is part of a media unit curated at our Digital Citizenship website, "Who Am I Online?". 

Subject:
Educational Technology
English Language Arts
Speaking and Listening
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson
Lesson Plan
Author:
Dana John
John Sadzewicz
Beth Clothier
Angela Anderson
Date Added:
06/14/2020
Bias
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CC BY-NC-ND
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Systematic error, or 'bias' is of particular importance in any epidemiological investigation, and should be avoided wherever possible. Biases will reduce the validity of any results obtained, whether it be by overestimating or underestimating the frequency of disease in a population or the association between an exposure and disease. The forms of bias covered here can only be minimised through careful study design and execution - they cannot be accounted for in the analysis. Although confounding is considered by many authors as a form of bias, it can be accounted for during analysis, and so is covered separately.

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Veterinary Epidemiology
Date Added:
02/27/2015
COMPare: a prospective cohort study correcting and monitoring 58 misreported trials in real time
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Discrepancies between pre-specified and reported outcomes are an important source of bias in trials. Despite legislation, guidelines and public commitments on correct reporting from journals, outcome misreporting continues to be prevalent. We aimed to document the extent of misreporting, establish whether it was possible to publish correction letters on all misreported trials as they were published, and monitor responses from editors and trialists to understand why outcome misreporting persists despite public commitments to address it. Methods We identified five high-impact journals endorsing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal, and Annals of Internal Medicine) and assessed all trials over a six-week period to identify every correctly and incorrectly reported outcome, comparing published reports against published protocols or registry entries, using CONSORT as the gold standard. A correction letter describing all discrepancies was submitted to the journal for all misreported trials, and detailed coding sheets were shared publicly. The proportion of letters published and delay to publication were assessed over 12 months of follow-up. Correspondence received from journals and authors was documented and themes were extracted. Results Sixty-seven trials were assessed in total. Outcome reporting was poor overall and there was wide variation between journals on pre-specified primary outcomes (mean 76% correctly reported, journal range 25–96%), secondary outcomes (mean 55%, range 31–72%), and number of undeclared additional outcomes per trial (mean 5.4, range 2.9–8.3). Fifty-eight trials had discrepancies requiring a correction letter (87%, journal range 67–100%). Twenty-three letters were published (40%) with extensive variation between journals (range 0–100%). Where letters were published, there were delays (median 99 days, range 0–257 days). Twenty-nine studies had a pre-trial protocol publicly available (43%, range 0–86%). Qualitative analysis demonstrated extensive misunderstandings among journal editors about correct outcome reporting and CONSORT. Some journals did not engage positively when provided correspondence that identified misreporting; we identified possible breaches of ethics and publishing guidelines. Conclusions All five journals were listed as endorsing CONSORT, but all exhibited extensive breaches of this guidance, and most rejected correction letters documenting shortcomings. Readers are likely to be misled by this discrepancy. We discuss the advantages of prospective methodology research sharing all data openly and pro-actively in real time as feedback on critiqued studies. This is the first empirical study of major academic journals’ willingness to publish a cohort of comparable and objective correction letters on misreported high-impact studies. Suggested improvements include changes to correspondence processes at journals, alternatives for indexed post-publication peer review, changes to CONSORT’s mechanisms for enforcement, and novel strategies for research on methods and reporting.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
Trials
Author:
Aaron Dale
Anna Powell-Smith
Ben Goldacre
Carl Heneghan
Cicely Marston
Eirion Slade
Henry Drysdale
Ioan Milosevic
Kamal R. Mahtani
Philip Hartley
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Confounding
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The issue of confounding is of central importance in any analytic epidemiological study (as well as in those descriptive studies aiming to compare different populations), especially in the case of observational studies. Confounding results from non-random differences between the groups of animals being compared in relation to a second, 'confounding' exposure which is independently associated with both the exposure of interest (although not a consequence of this) and the outcome of interest (although not an effect of this). This results in the effect of the exposure of interest is 'mixed up' with the effect of the confounding exposure, and therefore an incorrect estimate of the true association. As such, confounding is viewed by many authors as a form of bias - however, unlike forms of selection and information bias, it is a natural feature of the data (in the case of an observational study), and techniques are available to account for it during analysis.

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Veterinary Epidemiology
Date Added:
02/27/2015
Degrees of Freedom in Planning, Running, Analyzing, and Reporting Psychological Studies: A Checklist to Avoid p-Hacking
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in designing, running, analyzing, and reporting of psychological research. The list can be used in research methods education, and as a checklist to assess the quality of preregistrations and to determine the potential for bias due to (arbitrary) choices in unregistered studies.

Subject:
Psychology
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
Frontiers in Psychology
Author:
Coosje L. S. Veldkamp
Hilde E. M. Augusteijn
Jelte M. Wicherts
Marcel A. L. M. van Assen
Marjan Bakker
Robbie C. M. van Aert
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Disrupting Inequity: Having Brave Conversations About Bias
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The toolkit contains a high-level overview of the facilitated conversation, with individual PowerPoint presentations and materials containing detailed notes, resources, and activities that will help you move through each part of the conversation. Educators are encouraged to modify these presentations so they work for your school community.

Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Author:
Alice Wiggins
Amy Rudat
Rolanda Baldwin
UnboundEd
Date Added:
12/04/2020
Does use of the CONSORT Statement impact the completeness of reporting of randomised controlled trials published in medical journals? A Cochrane reviewa
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CC BY
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Background
The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement is intended to facilitate better reporting of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). A systematic review recently published in the Cochrane Library assesses whether journal endorsement of CONSORT impacts the completeness of reporting of RCTs; those findings are summarised here.

Methods
Evaluations assessing the completeness of reporting of RCTs based on any of 27 outcomes formulated based on the 1996 or 2001 CONSORT checklists were included; two primary comparisons were evaluated. The 27 outcomes were: the 22 items of the 2001 CONSORT checklist, four sub-items describing blinding and a ‘total summary score’ of aggregate items, as reported. Relative risks (RR) and 99% confidence intervals were calculated to determine effect estimates for each outcome across evaluations.

Results
Fifty-three reports describing 50 evaluations of 16,604 RCTs were assessed for adherence to at least one of 27 outcomes. Sixty-nine of 81 meta-analyses show relative benefit from CONSORT endorsement on completeness of reporting. Between endorsing and non-endorsing journals, 25 outcomes are improved with CONSORT endorsement, five of these significantly (α = 0.01). The number of evaluations per meta-analysis was often low with substantial heterogeneity; validity was assessed as low or unclear for many evaluations.

Conclusions
The results of this review suggest that journal endorsement of CONSORT may benefit the completeness of reporting of RCTs they publish. No evidence suggests that endorsement hinders the completeness of RCT reporting. However, despite relative improvements when CONSORT is endorsed by journals, the completeness of reporting of trials remains sub-optimal. Journals are not sending a clear message about endorsement to authors submitting manuscripts for publication. As such, fidelity of endorsement as an ‘intervention’ has been weak to date. Journals need to take further action regarding their endorsement and implementation of CONSORT to facilitate accurate, transparent and complete reporting of trials.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
Systematic Reviews
Author:
David Moher
Douglas G Altman
Kenneth F Schulz
Larissa Shamseer
Lucy Turner
Date Added:
08/07/2020
English Language Arts, Grade 11
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CC BY-NC
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The 11th grade learning experience consists of 7 mostly month-long units aligned to the Common Core State Standards, with available course material for teachers and students easily accessible online. Over the course of the year there is a steady progression in text complexity levels, sophistication of writing tasks, speaking and listening activities, and increased opportunities for independent and collaborative work. Rubrics and student models accompany many writing assignments.Throughout the 11th grade year, in addition to the Common Read texts that the whole class reads together, students each select an Independent Reading book and engage with peers in group Book Talks. Students move from learning the class rituals and routines and genre features of argument writing in Unit 11.1 to learning about narrative and informational genres in Unit 11.2: The American Short Story. Teacher resources provide additional materials to support each unit.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Pearson
Date Added:
10/06/2016
English Language Arts, Grade 11, Project: Growing Up Digital
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In this unit, students will produce two major pieces of work.  The first piece is an argument essay that grapples with one of the core questions of the unit: who are we, and who have we become because of the ways we connect? Students will read, annotate, and discuss several texts together as they consider the issues surrounding this question, and they will also research and annotate independently as they search for more evidence and perspectives to help deepen their ideas.  They will also create a museum exhibit as part of a team.  The exhibit project will help students identify what's worth preserving about their unique place in history.

PROJECT UNITS

This project unit continues to meet the English Language Arts standards as it also utilizes the learning principles established by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. It is designed to support deep content knowledge and perseverance through long-term project planning and implementation. In addition, it will help students to recognize, develop, and apply the planning, teamwork, communication, and presentation skills they will use while presenting a final product to their class and/or the greater community. This real-world project-based activity will give students an opportunity to apply the skills they have been learning all year and will guide them to develop the motivation, knowledge, and skills they need in order to be college and career ready.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Students write an argument paper where they develop a claim about current culture as it has been influenced by digital connectivity.
Students participate in a group project to create a museum exhibit that captures a unique place, time, and relationship to technology. Students acknowledge the differing perspectives of each group member and use those perspectives to synthesize one cohesive visual argument together.

GUIDING QUESTIONS

These questions are a guide to stimulate thinking, discussion, and writing on the themes and ideas in the unit. For complete and thoughtful answers and for meaningful discussions, students must use evidence based on careful reading of the texts.

What does it mean to be digitally connected?
What are the implications of living in a world where everyone is digitally connected?
How does the availability of instant connectivity shape our relationships?
What does our Internet use reveal about people's needs as humans?

BENCHMARK ASSESSMENT: Cold Read

During this unit, on a day of your choosing, we recommend you administer a Cold Read to assess students’ reading comprehension. For this assessment, students read a text they have never seen before and then respond to multiple-choice and constructed-response questions. The assessment is not included in this course materials.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Reading Informational Text
Reading Literature
Speaking and Listening
Material Type:
Unit of Study
Provider:
Pearson
English Language Arts, Grade 11, Project: Growing Up Digital, The Effect of Digital Connectivity, Research On Information & Interaction
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CC BY-NC
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In this lesson, you will consider the ways that ubiquitous computing has changed how we interact with information and how it has changed how we think about knowledge. You'll also have an opportunity to research independently.In this lesson, students will consider the ways that ubiquitous computing has changed how we interact with information and how it has changed how we think about knowledge. They'll also have an opportunity to research independently.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Composition and Rhetoric
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
Pearson
Date Added:
09/21/2015
An Exploration of Data & Bias
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CC BY-NC-ND
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This unit will explore the concepts of bias and confirmation bias and how they affect people's presentation and interpretation of data. It includes 5 days of lessons and independent work that culminate in students being able to show what bias and confirmation bias are and how they affect the way we interpret data.

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Rachel Bartlett
Angie Miller
Date Added:
06/22/2017
Fake News: Bias in the Media
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CC BY-NC
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The media plays an important role in how you interpret current events. The news media can use particular wording to sway public opinion. This seminar will help you build necessary skills to analyze and understand the media you consume to help you make informed decisions.StandardsCC.8.5.9-10.F: Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.CC.8.5.9-10.I Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.CC.1.2.11-12.D Evaluate how an author’s point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.CC.1.2.11-12.F Evaluate how words and phrases shape meaning and tone in texts.

Subject:
Reading Informational Text
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Author:
Tracy Rains
Date Added:
01/02/2018
False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and/or Satirical “News” Sources
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating
4.0 stars

This is a list of fake, false, or regularly misleading websites that are shared on Facebook and social media. Some of these websites may rely on “outrage” by using distorted headlines and decontextualized or dubious information in order to generate likes, shares, and profits. These websites are categorized with the number 1 next to them. Some websites on this list may circulate misleading and/or potentially unreliable information, and they are marked with a 2. Other websites on this list sometimes use clickbait-y headlines and social media descriptions, and they are marked with a 3. Other sources on this list are purposefully fake with the intent of satire/comedy, which can offer important critical commentary on politics and society, but have the potential to be shared as actual/literal news. They are marked with a 4.

Subject:
Communication
Material Type:
Reading
Author:
Melissa Zimdars
Date Added:
11/15/2016
Gender Stereotypes Online
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CC BY-NC-SA
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Students are introduced to the concept of gender stereotypes, in both an
online and offline context. Students first discuss stereotypes about boys
and girls: where they come from, how we learn them, and why they can
be restrictive. Students then identify and discuss gender stereotypes in
the “Dress Up Your Avatar” feature of a virtual world for kids.

Subject:
U.S. History
Ethnic Studies
Women's Studies
Material Type:
Reading
Author:
Common Sense Education
Date Added:
05/19/2021
THE HUMAN TERRAIN SYSTEM: Operationally Relevant Social Science Research in Iraq and Afghanistan
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CC BY-ND
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The Human Terrain System is now a defunct initiative that had been created as early as the 1970s. The concept was that anthropologists would be useful to military troops trying to understand the cultural framework within the country that the troops were assigned to. The anthropologist would be embedded within a specific branch of the service, usually the US Army, to assess, evaluate and create relationships with local peoples. The result of this initiative were poor for a variety of reasons, not the least of which was the death of several anthropologists within war zones.

Subject:
Languages
Religious Studies
World Cultures
Communication
Public Relations
U.S. History
General Law
Anthropology
Cultural Geography
Ethnic Studies
Political Science
Material Type:
Case Study
Homework/Assignment
Lecture
Lesson
Primary Source
Author:
Jay B Winchester (Judge Advocate
PhD Janet Harris (Director
US Army Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs)
US Army Medical Research and Material Command)
Date Added:
09/06/2018
Hi my name is Artificial Intelligence (English & Spanish)
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How does Artificial Intelligence impact Diversity?Explore what Artificial Intelligence in your own words and pictures.Español¿Cómo impacta la inteligencia artificial en la diversidad?Explore qué Inteligencia Artificial en sus propias palabras e imágenes.

Subject:
Computer Science
Engineering
Environmental Science
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Information Science
Arts and Humanities
Graphic Arts
Languages
Philosophy
Religious Studies
Visual Arts
Communication
Career and Technical Education
Electronic Technology
Educational Technology
Law
Genetics
Mathematics
Physical Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Ryan Maguire
Date Added:
06/25/2020
How Trustworthy is the internet?
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CC BY-NC
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  Students will spend 3-5 days learning about bias. They must figure out what bias is and how to spot bias in an online article. For the final product students will be asked to create a product that their peers can use to identify bias.

Subject:
English Language Arts
Social Science
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Author:
Blended Learning Teacher Practice Network
Date Added:
06/08/2018