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26f. Transcendentalism, An American Philosophy
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Transcendentalism is a very formal word that describes a very simple idea. People, men and women equally, have knowledge about themselves and the world around them that "transcends" or goes beyond what they can see, hear, taste, touch or feel.

Subject:
Philosophy
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
12/03/2014
5. Ancient Greece
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Democracy. Philosophy. Sculpture. Dramatic tragedies. The Olympic Games. Many of the fundamental elements of Western culture first arose more than 2000 years ago in ancient Greece.

Subject:
Philosophy
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
12/05/2014
5f. Thinkers
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2,500 years ago, most humans were concerned with providing food and protection for their families and little else. Most of them were ruled by kings or pharaohs who had supreme decision-making power. The Athenian democracy encouraged countless innovative thoughts among its citizens.

Subject:
Philosophy
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
12/05/2014
Advanced Artificial Intelligence
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This course will present advanced topics in Artificial Intelligence (AI), including inquiries into logic, artificial neural network and machine learning, and the Turing machine. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: define the term 'intelligent agent,' list major problems in AI, and identify the major approaches to AI; translate problems into graphs and encode the procedures that search the solutions with the graph data structures; explain the differences between various types of logic and basic statistical tools used in AI; list the different types of learning algorithms and explain why they are different; list the most common methods of statistical learning and classification and explain the basic differences between them; describe the components of Turing machine; name the most important propositions in the philosophy of AI; list the major issues pertaining to the creation of machine consciousness; design a reasonable software agent with java code. (Computer Science 408)

Subject:
Computer Science
Philosophy
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
11/16/2011
Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights
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CC BY-SA
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This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best moral reasons.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Nathan Nobis
Date Added:
11/26/2019
Augustine on the Goodness of All Things
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CC BY-ND
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Augustine argues that everything that exists is good.  His argument is criticized, showing how arguments of the same form could show that completely blackened pans cannot exist and that God is an impossible object.   So, the paper shows how to paradoy an argument by giving parallel reasoning that yields absurd conclusions. 

Subject:
Philosophy
Religious Studies
Material Type:
Module
Author:
William Holly
Date Added:
11/23/2019
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Beyond facts and statistics: Restoring order to how we understand logos in writing
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This resource aims to generate ideas and possibilities about how to advance student understanding of logic in writing beyond the notion that logic is always a collection of data points or a reference to facts. Instead of reducing logic to numbers and statements, this source hopes to introduce students and teachers to the existential questions that are always involved in the logical appeals of a text: how do we know what we know and why does it matter?

Subject:
Literature
Philosophy
Composition and Rhetoric
Reading Literature
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Samuel Sullivan
Date Added:
06/02/2020
Beyond facts and statistics: Restoring order to how we understand logos in writing
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This resource aims to generate ideas and possibilities about how to advance student understanding of logic in writing beyond the notion that logic is always a collection of data points or a reference to facts. Instead of reducing logic to numbers and statements, this source hopes to introduce students and teachers to the existential questions that are always involved in the logical appeals of a text: how do we know what we know and why does it matter?

Subject:
Literature
Philosophy
Composition and Rhetoric
Reading Literature
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Homework/Assignment
Lecture Notes
Author:
Bryan Harvey
Date Added:
12/21/2019
The Big Questions
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With recent advances in physics (and philosophy), we are finally able to make some headway into some of the most pressing questions of the universe. We will explore such topics as the big bang theory, time travel, relativity, extraterrestrial life, and string theory. We will attempt to answer some big questions such as: Was there a beginning of time? Will there be an end? Is time travel possible?

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Physics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT Highlights for High School
Author:
Nicholas DiBella
Date Added:
09/18/2013
Bioethics: An Introduction Lecture Series
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An introductory series by Marianne Talbot exploring bioethical theories and their philosophical foundations. These podcasts will explain key moral theories, common moral arguments, and some background logic.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Material Type:
Lecture
Lecture Notes
Provider:
University of Oxford
Provider Set:
University of Oxford Podcasts
Author:
Marianne Talbot
Date Added:
05/29/2012
Bronze, Silver and Gold Questions
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Questioning is one of the most important critical thinking skills in education. This worksheet introduces a bronze-silver-gold question classification scheme. Bronze questions are factual, basic comprehension questions; silver questions require some inference and a bit more insight; gold questions are discussion questions that do not have one answer. The classification system is designed for the students to generate their own questions, rather than analyze ready-made questions.

Subject:
Environmental Science
Arts and Humanities
Literature
Philosophy
World Cultures
World History
Life Science
Material Type:
Homework/Assignment
Author:
Dean Williams
Date Added:
12/28/2018
CIENCIA, ÉTICA Y SOCIEDAD (2016)
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CC BY-NC-ND
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Con la clonación, la energía nuclear y la investigación con células madre, la ciencia sigue progresando rápidamente. Pero en este contexto, el debate sobre la ética en la ciencia ha vuelto a ponerse de actualidad en el siglo XXI.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings
Provider Set:
Mini Lectures
Date Added:
04/13/2018
Close Reading Exemplar: Living Like Weasels (Grades 11-12)
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By reading and rereading the passage closely and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will be equipped to unpack Dillard's essay. When combined with writing about the passage, students will learn to appreciate how Dillard's writing contains a deeper message and derive satisfaction from the struggle to master complex text. This close reading exemplar is intended to model how teachers can support their students as they undergo the kind of careful reading the Common Core State Standards require. Teachers are encouraged to take these exemplars and modify them to suit the needs of their students. Additional teacher background material: http://teachers.sduhsd.k12.ca.us/lcaston/documents/WeaselsEssayAnal.pdf

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Literature
Philosophy
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Assessment
Lesson Plan
Reading
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
New York State Education Department
Provider Set:
EngageNY
Date Added:
03/13/2015
Commentary on Descartes’ Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy
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In Rene Descartes’ Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes outlines ideas about truth, how people perceive and observe it, and how it can be altered. He questions if God is deceiving him about the truth, and questions God’s character. Descartes even takes the questioning of truth so far as to question his own existence and the significance of thought.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
Connexions
Author:
Mark Pettinelli
Date Added:
02/16/2011
Common Core Curriculum Grade 9 ELA: Making Evidence-Based Claims
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Making Evidence-Based Claims ELA/Literacy Units empower students with a critical reading and writing skill at the heart of the Common Core: making evidence-based claims about complex texts. These units are part of the Developing Core Proficiencies Program. This unit develops students€' abilities to make evidence-based claims through activities based on a close reading of an excerpted text from Plato€'s Apology.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Literature
Philosophy
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Unit of Study
Provider:
New York State Education Department
Provider Set:
EngageNY
Date Added:
04/04/2013
A Concise Introduction to Logic
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A Concise Introduction to Logic is an introduction to formal logic suitable for undergraduates taking a general education course in logic or critical thinking, and is accessible and useful to any interested in gaining a basic understanding of logic. This text takes the unique approach of teaching logic through intellectual history; the author uses examples from important and celebrated arguments in philosophy to illustrate logical principles. The text also includes a basic introduction to findings of advanced logic. As indicators of where the student could go next with logic, the book closes with an overview of advanced topics, such as the axiomatic method, set theory, Peano arithmetic, and modal logic. Throughout, the text uses brief, concise chapters that readers will find easy to read and to review.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
State University of New York
Provider Set:
OpenSUNY Textbooks
Author:
Craig DeLancey
Date Added:
03/27/2017
Confessions by St. Augustine
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Confessions is the name of an autobiographical work, consisting of 13 books, by St. Augustine of Hippo, written in Latin between AD 397 and 400. Modern English translations of it are sometimes published under the title The Confessions of St. Augustine in order to distinguish the book from other books with similar titles. Its original title was Confessions in Thirteen Books, and it was composed to be read out loud with each book being a complete unit. It is generally considered one of Augustine's most important texts.

Subject:
Philosophy
History
Material Type:
Case Study
Reading
Provider:
Wikisource
Author:
St. Augustine
Date Added:
01/27/2017
Confucianism Explained
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This video explains the teachings of Confucius. Education is the path to moral excellence, which is central to building a harmonious society. Education is a lifelong process and the purpose of learning is to acquire virtues.

Subject:
Philosophy
Religious Studies
World Cultures
History
Ancient History
World History
Ethnic Studies
Material Type:
Lecture
Lesson
Module
Unit of Study
Author:
Anupama Mande
Date Added:
07/09/2020
Conversations with History: A Surgeon’s Journey Beyond Science
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Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes neurosurgeon Allan J. Hamilton for a discussion of his new book: the Scalpel and the Soul: Encounters with Surgery, the Supernatural and the Healing Power of Hope. Focusing on his intellectual and spiritual odyssey, Dr. Hamilton offers insights into the craft of surgery and discusses how his patients have broadened his understanding of the human condition, the resilience of the human spirit, the healing process, and the world beyond science. (58 minutes)

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
U.C. Berkeley
UCTV Teacher's Pet
Date Added:
07/07/2007
Conversations with History: Biblical Insights into the Problem of Suffering
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Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes biblical scholar Bart Ehrman for a discussion of his intellectual odyssey with a focus on how the Bible explains the problem of human suffering. The conversation includes a discussion of the challenges of biblical interpretation when confronting this age old problem of the human condition. Included are topics such as the contribution of the prophets, a comparison of the old and new testaments, the book of Job, and the emergence of apocalyptic writers. (57 minutes)

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Religious Studies
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
U.C. Berkeley
UCTV Teacher's Pet
Date Added:
07/28/2007
Conversations with History: Ethics and Foreign Policy, with Father J. Bryan Hehir
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Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes Father J. Brian Hehir for a discussion of the role of religion in framing ethical issues in a nuclear age. (56 min)

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Religious Studies
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
U.C. Berkeley
UCTV Teacher's Pet
Date Added:
04/03/1991
Conversations with History: Freedom of Expression, Tolerance, and Human Rights with T.M. Scanlon
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Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes Harvard philosophy professor T.M. Scanlon for a discussion of freedom of expression, tolerance, and human rights. (53 minutes)

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Political Science
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
U.C. Berkeley
UCTV Teacher's Pet
Date Added:
08/13/2007
Conversations with History: On the Trail of our Human Ancestors, with Tim D. White
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Tim White, Professor of Integrative Biology at UC Berkeley, joins host Harry Kreisler for a discussion of how science is changing our understanding of mankind's origins. (53 min)

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Biology
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
U.C. Berkeley
UCTV Teacher's Pet
Date Added:
04/06/2008
Conversations with History: Philosophy and the Habits of Critical Thinking, with John R. Searle
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Conversations with History and Host Harry Kreisler welcome UC Berkeley Professor of Philosophy John R. Searle who talks about the work of a philosopher, critical thinking, and lessons of the Free Speech Movement. (58 min)

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
U.S. History
Political Science
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
U.C. Berkeley
UCTV Teacher's Pet
Date Added:
09/23/2003
Conversations with History: Women's Rights, Religious Freedom, and Liberal Education, with Martha C. Nussbaum
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Conversations Host Harry Kreisler welcomes philosopher Martha Nussbaum for a discussion of women and human development, religious freedom, and liberal education. (55 min)

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Religious Studies
Women's Studies
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
U.C. Berkeley
UCTV Teacher's Pet
Date Added:
11/07/2010
Convince Your Teacher or Principal
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CC BY-NC-ND
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This lesson is designed to meet the following learning objectives:
1. Formulate an argument
2. Learn how to anticipate and respond to objections

Subject:
Literature
Philosophy
Elementary Education
Material Type:
Assessment
Homework/Assignment
Lesson
Lesson Plan
Reading
Simulation
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Author:
PLATO - Philosophy Learning and Teaching Organization
Date Added:
10/27/2019
Course: Open for Insight
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CC BY-SA
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This is an online course in experimentation as a method of the empirical social sciences, directed at science newcomers and undergrads. We cover topics such as:
- How do we know what’s true?
- How can one recognize false conclusions?
- What is an experiment?
- What are experiments good for, and what can we learn from them?
- What makes a good experiment and how can I make a good experiment?

The aim of the course is to illustrate the principles of experimental insight. We also discuss why experiments are the gold standard in empirical social sciences and how a basic understanding of experimentation can also help us deal with questions in everyday life.

But it is not only exciting research questions and clever experimental set-ups that are needed for experiments to really work well. Experiments and the knowledge gained from them should be as freely accessible and transparent as possible, regardless of the context. Only then can other thinkers and experimenters check whether the results can be reproduced. And only then can other thinkers and experimenters build their own experiments on reliable original work. This is why the online course Open for Insight also discusses how experiments and the findings derived can be developed and communicated openly and transparently.

Subject:
Philosophy
Psychology
Sociology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Tilburg University
Author:
Rima-Maria Rahal
Date Added:
08/25/2020
Critical Reasoning for Beginners
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Are you confident you can reason clearly? Are you able to convince others of your point of view? Are you able to give plausible reasons for believing what you believe? Do you sometimes read arguments in the newspapers, hear them on the television, or in the pub and wish you knew how to confidently evaluate them? In this six-part course, you will learn all about arguments, how to identify them, how to evaluate them, and how not to mistake bad arguments for good. Such skills are invaluable if you are concerned about the truth of your beliefs, and the cogency of your arguments.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Material Type:
Lecture
Lecture Notes
Provider:
University of Oxford
Provider Set:
University of Oxford Podcasts
Author:
Marianne Talbot
Date Added:
01/29/2010
Critical Thinking
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CC BY
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Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally about what to do or what to believe. It includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Someone with critical thinking skills is able to do the following:

Understand the logical connections between ideas.
Identify, construct, and evaluate arguments.
Detect inconsistencies and common mistakes in reasoning.
Solve problems systematically.
Identify the relevance and importance of ideas.
Reflect on the justification of one’s own beliefs and values.
Critical thinking is not simply a matter of accumulating information. A person with a good memory and who knows a lot of facts is not necessarily good at critical thinking. Critical thinkers are able to deduce consequences from what they know, make use of information to solve problems, and to seek relevant sources of information to inform themselves.

Critical thinking should not be confused with being argumentative or being critical of other people. Although critical thinking skills can be used in exposing fallacies and bad reasoning, critical thinking can also play an important role in cooperative reasoning and constructive tasks. Critical thinking can help us acquire knowledge, improve our theories, and strengthen arguments. We can also use critical thinking to enhance work processes and improve social institutions.

Some people believe that critical thinking hinders creativity because critical thinking requires following the rules of logic and rationality, whereas creativity might require breaking those rules. This is a misconception. Critical thinking is quite compatible with thinking “out-of-the-box,” challenging consensus views, and pursuing less popular approaches. If anything, critical thinking is an essential part of creativity because we need critical thinking to evaluate and improve our creative ideas.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Oklahoma State University
Author:
Brian Kim
Date Added:
06/04/2020
Critical Thinking: Analysis and Evaluation of Argument
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CC BY
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It is our hope that the successful student who completes a class using all or some of this text will have improved skills with application inside the discipline of philosophy, but also with application to work in other disciplines within academia. Our ultimate goal, however, is to help people develop techniques which support curiosity, open-mindedness, and an ability to collaborate successfully with others, across differences of experiences and background. Our dream is to help people “put their heads together.”

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Portland Community College
Author:
Hannah Love
Martha Bailey
Martin Wittenberg
Shirlee Geiger
Date Added:
06/23/2017
Critical Thinking: guidelines, questions, and key terms
Unrestricted Use
Public Domain
Rating

Critical thinking skills are vitally important for all secondary students, needed in reading, research, writing, and in peer discussion. This Pdf is informative for teachers trying to encourage more critical thinking in students and in the classroom.
The content is divided into four parts:
1) Guidelines for student inquiry & discussions;
2) Key elements of critical thinking;
3) Questions for critical thinking;
4) Glossary of critical thinking terms

Subject:
Environmental Science
Philosophy
Reading Informational Text
Speaking and Listening
Social Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Matthew Martin
Date Added:
08/29/2018
Cybersecurity-Fake News
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CC BY-NC-SA
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The goals of this activity are to facilitate team work, critical thinking, and presentation skills in the area of cybersecurity and fake news. Students will be grouped into two teams. As a team, they will choose and analyze cases and ethical questions about fake news through the questions presented in the activity. They will present their analysis to the class.

Subject:
Philosophy
Criminal Justice
Law
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
CUNY Academic Works
Provider Set:
Hostos Community College
Author:
Amy J Ramson
Date Added:
07/04/2020
Cybersecurity-The Internet of Things
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CC BY-NC-SA
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With 38.5 billion smart devices in existence in 2020 and increasing every year, the potential for security breaches in the Internet of things is also escalating at a dramatic pace. The goal of this team activity is to facilitate team work, critical thinking, and presentation skills in the area of cybersecurity and the Internet of Things. Students will be grouped into two teams. As a team, they will analyze cases about security cameras and smart dolls through the questions presented in the activity. They will present their analysis to the class.

Subject:
Philosophy
Criminal Justice
Law
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Homework/Assignment
Provider:
CUNY Academic Works
Provider Set:
Hostos Community College
Author:
Amy J Ramson
Date Added:
07/04/2020
David Hume
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This unit examines Hume's reasons for being complacent in the face of death, as these are laid out in his suppressed essay of 1755, 'Of the immortality of the soul'. More generally, they examine some of the shifts in attitude concerning death and religious belief that were taking place in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century, through examination of this and other short essays.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Reading
Syllabus
Provider:
The Open University
Provider Set:
Open University OpenLearn
Date Added:
09/06/2007
David Hume
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This unit examines Hume's reasons for being complacent in the face of death, as these are laid out in his suppressed essay of 1755, ͢__ëńOf the immortality of the soul͢__ë_ ˘. More generally, they examine some of the shifts in attitude concerning death and reli

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Material Type:
Reading
Syllabus
Provider:
The Open University
Provider Set:
Open University OpenLearn
Date Added:
06/15/2009
Death
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CC BY-NC-SA
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There is one thing I can be sure of: I am going to die. But what am I to make of that fact? This course will examine a number of issues that arise once we begin to reflect on our mortality. The possibility that death may not actually be the end is considered. Are we, in some sense, immortal? Would immortality be desirable? Also a clearer notion of what it is to die is examined. What does it mean to say that a person has died? What kind of fact is that? And, finally, different attitudes to death are evaluated. Is death an evil? How? Why? Is suicide morally permissible? Is it rational? How should the knowledge that I am going to die affect the way I live my life?

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Yale University
Provider Set:
Open Yale Courses
Author:
Shelly Kagan
Date Added:
02/16/2011