This session presents an overview of the association between water, sanitation, hygiene and human health. A particular focus upon transmission and treatment of diarrhea disease among small children. Other diseases given particular priority in the presentation include Hepatitis A and E viruses and bacteria that cause cholera or typhoid fever. Likewise, the importance of water-washed diseases, especially infectious skin and eye diseases, such as scabies and trachoma are presented. The preventive actions needed to reduce the burden of the various infectious diseases associated with water, sanitation and hygiene will be introduced.
This session will expand the student´s knowledge about human health and quality of life in the context of global and local ecology. Examples will be provided on how environmental management and development influence human health. The session provide an overview of the disease burden attributable to the environment, and much of this burden is placed across different geographical regions of the world. Examples will be presented on the impacts of poor quality water, insufficient access to water, lack of appropriate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Other examples of environmental health factors included relate to reduced forest cover, unsustainable agricultural production systems, climate change, and poor management of natural resources that significantly influence livelihood, food security and migration patterns.
This presentation provides an introduction to diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites and other disease causing agents or pathogens. Furthermore, we’ll look at the range of syndromes associated with diarrhea and uncover two significant pathogens: rotavirus and vibrio cholera. Finally, we’ll delve into methods for managing diarrheal diseases and the significance of sanitation in preventing diarrheal diseases.
This lesson focuses on the impact of limited sanitation coverage and the experiences gained from past sanitation programs. Some of the challenges of expanded sanitation relate to barriers at the community level but equally important at the institutional and policy levels. The most basic problem is that there are limited funds available for investment in sanitation. It is argued that the most important priority will be to design and promote toilets that people can afford and in a design that they would use.
Participants: Professor Sandy Cairncros.
Downloadable transcripts for the videos from Karolinska Institutet, from the course "An Introduction to Global Health".The course is originally published at EdX.
Handwashing is one of he most cost-effective way to improve health that we know of. Learn more about handwashing, hygiene and toilets in this session.
Get transcript for video here: https://www.oercommons.org/courseware/module/58789/overview
This is an introduction to the fascinated multidisciplinary world of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). An area relevant due to the 1,5 million people annually dying of WASH-related disease, but also highly relevant during any emergency, whether it is a cholera outbreak in the slums of Dhaka Bangladesh, drought and water shortage in Kenya or hygiene-related virus outbreaks anywhere on the globe. The course ties theories of engineering, anthropology, public health, epidemiology, microbiology, disaster management, etc. with practical exercises to provide the student with the multifaceted background knowledge needed to be able to respond in an emergency actively. The course Water and sanitation in Emergencies started as a response to the Tsunami in 2004 and is now an independent elective course under the world-renowned Master of Disaster Management program, http://www.mdma.ku.dk, at University of Copenhagen. Read more and register for the course on https://globalhealth.ku.dk/studies/courses/water_supply_and_sanitation_in_emergencies.
A framework of public hygiene and epidemiology is given. Human pathology related to water and sanitation is dealt with, as well as the relation between health and society and environment.
This lesson is for safety and sanitation in the kitchen. Specifically what food-borne illness is and how to prevent it from happening.
The purpose of this Science NetLinks lesson is to develop an understanding of the impact of improved sanitation on human health. In this lesson, students learn something about the ways that sanitation technology has helped people by examining the history of sanitation in the context of disease outbreaks and comparing the quality of life in those times to that of today. By the end of this lesson, students should recognize that advances in health and human life expectancy have resulted in large part because of technologies that we now take for granted, such as modern waste-disposal, sanitary food handling, and refrigeration.
The Tippy Tap hand-washing station is an inexpensive and effective device used extensively in the developing world. One shortcoming of the homemade device is that it must be manually refilled with water and therefore is of limited use in high-traffic areas. In this activity, student teams design, prototype and test piping systems to transport water from a storage tank to an existing Tippy Tap hand-washing station, thereby creating a more efficient hand-washing station. Through this example service-learning engineering project, students learn basic fluid dynamic principles that are needed for creating efficient piping systems.
Inadequate water supplies and lack of sanitation facilities represent major hazards to the public health in many parts of the world. In spite of the International Water Supply Decade, (1980-1990) there are more people without facilities approaching minimum standards now than existed at the beginning of the program. Without improvements in these areas, there can be no hope that there will be an overall improvement in the health of the nations which constitute the Third World. Yet appropriate technologies do exist which can go a long way to ameliorate these problems. Simple, low cost projects can be built and maintained by village-based methods. These are being used in some countries and provide a basis for the improvement of living standards for the poorer people of the world. This is a practical course designed to demonstrate actual details of construction and provide a working knowledge of simple mechanisms involved in ventilating latrines and also on how simple pumps work. You should end with a good idea about how these tings work and how they can be maintained. During this class we will be discussing some of the problems arising from poor facilities in many developing countries. We will examine problems associated with solid waste disposal and see the enormity of the problem. We will come up with some suggestions about how to ameliorate the problems... There are few real solutions....
The purpose of this lesson is to understand that most of the materials and energy used by a city come from outside the city boundaries. To understand that the pathway of these materials through the city tends to be linear (as opposed to cyclic in natural ecosystems), and that flowpaths into the city are longer than flowpaths out.
This lesson was developed by Dr. Penny Firth, a scientist, as part of a set of interdisciplinary Science NetLinks lessons aimed at improved understanding of environmental phenomena and events. This is the fourth of a strand of five lessons.
This four-part series on water and sanitation leads with an article by Jamie Bartram and Sandy Cairncross who argue that the massive burden of ill health associated with poor hygiene, sanitation and water supply demands more attention from policymakers. In the second article, Paul Hunter et al. focus on water supply and argue that more effort is needed to improve access to safe and sustainable water supplies. David Trouba et al. discuss the importance of improved sanitation to health and the role that the health sector can play in its advocacy in the third article. And in the final article, Sandy Cairncross et al. outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation and water for all. They argue the active involvement of health professionals in hygiene, sanitation and water supply is crucial to accelerating and consolidating progress for health.
Presents a historical overview of the influence of water and sanitation on human health; types of water and sanitation facilities and equipment presently available and particularly suited to refugee populations displaced by war, famine, drought, and economic turmoil; and methodologies for assessing and quantifying water and sanitation needs.
This collection uses primary sources to explore the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1878. Digital Public Library of America Primary Source Sets are designed to help students develop their critical thinking skills and draw diverse material from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States. Each set includes an overview, ten to fifteen primary sources, links to related resources, and a teaching guide. These sets were created and reviewed by the teachers on the DPLA's Education Advisory Committee.