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  • Research Methods
Animals in Research: Law, Policy, and Humane Sciences
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This course introduces students to the principles, laws, and policies that influence the use of animal and alternative, non-animal-based (humane sciences) research techniques in biomedical research.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Full Course
Homework/Assignment
Reading
Syllabus
Provider:
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Provider Set:
JHSPH OpenCourseWare
Author:
Alan M. Goldberg
Paul A. Locke
Date Added:
09/15/2010
Applied Statistics, Spring 2009
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CC BY-NC-ND
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I designed the course for graduate students who use statistics in their research, plan to use statistics, or need to interpret statistical analyses performed by others. The primary audience are graduate students in the environmental sciences, but the course should benefit just about anyone who is in graduate school in the natural sciences. The course is not designed for those who want a simple overview of statistics; we’ll learn by analyzing real data. This course or equivalent is required for UMB Biology and EEOS Ph.D. students. It is a recommended course for several of the intercampus graduate school of marine science program options.

Subject:
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
UMass Boston
Provider Set:
UMass Boston OpenCourseWare
Author:
Eugene Gallagher
Date Added:
10/14/2015
Remix
Archival, Case Studies and Natural Observations
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CC BY-NC
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By the end of this section, you will be able to:Describe the different research methods used by psychologistsDiscuss the strengths and weaknesses of case studies, naturalistic observation, surveys, and archival research

Subject:
Social Science
Psychology
Material Type:
Module
Author:
Melissa Tapia
Date Added:
03/18/2019
Remix
Archival Research, Case Studies, and Developmental Research Designs
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CC BY-NC
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0.0 stars

After reading this module, you will be able to:Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of archivall research and case studiesDescribe longitudinal, cross-sectional, and sequential research designs

Subject:
Social Science
Psychology
Material Type:
Module
Author:
Lisa Bauer
Date Added:
03/18/2019
Remix
Archival Research, Case Studies, and Developmental Research Designs
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC
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0.0 stars

After reading this module, you will be able to:Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of archivall research and case studiesDescribe longitudinal, cross-sectional, and sequential research designs

Subject:
Social Science
Psychology
Material Type:
Module
Author:
Lisa Bauer
Date Added:
03/15/2019
Basic research methods
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CC BY-SA
Rating
4.5 stars

This unit covers basic research methods in an easily accessible way, and includes research tips and pros and cons for each method. It also takes learners through a step-by-step approach to planning research.

Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Case Study
Full Course
Lecture Notes
Lesson Plan
Provider:
ItrainOnline
Provider Set:
ItrainOnline MMTK
Author:
ItrainOnline MMTK
Date Added:
11/28/2004
Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating
4.0 stars

Choosing & Using Sources presents a process for academic research and writing, from formulating your research question to selecting good information and using it effectively in your research assignments. Additional chapters cover understanding types of sources, searching for information, and avoiding plagiarism. Each chapter includes self-quizzes and activities to reinforce core concepts and help you apply them. There are also appendices for quick reference on search tools, copyright basics, and fair use.

Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Full Course
Textbook
Provider:
The Ohio State University
Provider Set:
Pressbooks
Author:
Cheryl Lowry
Date Added:
01/01/2015
DRUG TARGETS (2014)
Only Sharing Permitted
CC BY-NC-ND
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Drug research has contributed more to the progress of medicine during the past century than any other scientific factor. With lecture snippets of Gerhard Domagk, Gertrude Elion and Brian Kobilka this Mini Lectures introduces to the fundamental research methods of drug targeting.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings
Provider Set:
Mini Lectures
Date Added:
04/13/2018
Degrees of Freedom in Planning, Running, Analyzing, and Reporting Psychological Studies: A Checklist to Avoid p-Hacking
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in designing, running, analyzing, and reporting of psychological research. The list can be used in research methods education, and as a checklist to assess the quality of preregistrations and to determine the potential for bias due to (arbitrary) choices in unregistered studies.

Subject:
Psychology
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
Frontiers in Psychology
Author:
Coosje L. S. Veldkamp
Hilde E. M. Augusteijn
Jelte M. Wicherts
Marcel A. L. M. van Assen
Marjan Bakker
Robbie C. M. van Aert
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Effect of Population Heterogenization on the Reproducibility of Mouse Behavior: A Multi-Laboratory Study
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CC BY
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In animal experiments, animals, husbandry and test procedures are traditionally standardized to maximize test sensitivity and minimize animal use, assuming that this will also guarantee reproducibility. However, by reducing within-experiment variation, standardization may limit inference to the specific experimental conditions. Indeed, we have recently shown in mice that standardization may generate spurious results in behavioral tests, accounting for poor reproducibility, and that this can be avoided by population heterogenization through systematic variation of experimental conditions. Here, we examined whether a simple form of heterogenization effectively improves reproducibility of test results in a multi-laboratory situation. Each of six laboratories independently ordered 64 female mice of two inbred strains (C57BL/6NCrl, DBA/2NCrl) and examined them for strain differences in five commonly used behavioral tests under two different experimental designs. In the standardized design, experimental conditions were standardized as much as possible in each laboratory, while they were systematically varied with respect to the animals' test age and cage enrichment in the heterogenized design. Although heterogenization tended to improve reproducibility by increasing within-experiment variation relative to between-experiment variation, the effect was too weak to account for the large variation between laboratories. However, our findings confirm the potential of systematic heterogenization for improving reproducibility of animal experiments and highlight the need for effective and practicable heterogenization strategies.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
PLOS ONE
Author:
Benjamin Zipser
Berry Spruijt
Britta Schindler
Chadi Touma
Christiane Brandwein
David P. Wolfer
Hanno Würbel
Johanneke van der Harst
Joseph P. Garner
Lars Lewejohann
Niek van Stipdonk
Norbert Sachser
Peter Gass
Sabine Chourbaji
S. Helene Richter
Vootele Võikar
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Exercise 2- Reading and Outlining an Empirical Article
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This exercise guides students through reading and outlining an empirical journal article. It reviews the basic structure of empirical journal articles and prompts students to take detailed notes of each article as they read.

Subject:
Social Science
Social Work
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Matthew DeCarlo
Date Added:
06/22/2018
Exercise 3- Reading and Outlining a Non-Empirical Article.docx
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CC BY-NC-SA
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0.0 stars

This exercise guides students through how to outline a non-empirical (theoretical, philosophical, practical) journal article. Students are prompted to take detailed notes as they read within a structured format.

Subject:
Social Science
Social Work
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Matthew DeCarlo
Date Added:
06/22/2018
Foundations of Public Health: Pub Hlth 200 (English)
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CC BY-SA
Rating
0.0 stars

This course presents the overarching framework, principles, and core responsibilities of public health research and practice from a multidisciplinary perspective. The course also provides the necessary foundation for further studies toward advanced cross-cutting approaches essential for public health practice.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
U.C. Irvine
Provider Set:
UCI Open
Author:
Oladele Ogunseitan
Date Added:
01/15/2019
Guidebook for Social Work Literature Reviews and Research Questions
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This short guidebook provides information about selecting a research topic and research questions, searching for literature, reading and understanding scholarly writing, and writing a literature review to synthesize what is known and what remains to be learned about a social problem. For students who appreciate the availability of resources on the internet, it also provides links to additional materials. It can be used with its companion textbook, Foundations of Social Work Research by Rebecca L. Mauldin and Matthew DeCarlo, or as a stand-alone guide.

Subject:
Social Work
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
University of Texas at Arlington
Provider Set:
Mavs Open Press
Author:
Matthew DeCarlo
Rebecca L. Mauldin
Date Added:
05/22/2020
Impact of genetic background and experimental reproducibility on identifying chemical compounds with robust longevity effects
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CC BY
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Limiting the debilitating consequences of ageing is a major medical challenge of our time. Robust pharmacological interventions that promote healthy ageing across diverse genetic backgrounds may engage conserved longevity pathways. Here we report results from the Caenorhabditis Intervention Testing Program in assessing longevity variation across 22 Caenorhabditis strains spanning 3 species, using multiple replicates collected across three independent laboratories. Reproducibility between test sites is high, whereas individual trial reproducibility is relatively low. Of ten pro-longevity chemicals tested, six significantly extend lifespan in at least one strain. Three reported dietary restriction mimetics are mainly effective across C. elegans strains, indicating species and strain-specific responses. In contrast, the amyloid dye ThioflavinT is both potent and robust across the strains. Our results highlight promising pharmacological leads and demonstrate the importance of assessing lifespans of discrete cohorts across repeat studies to capture biological variation in the search for reproducible ageing interventions.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
Nature Communications
Author:
Anna B. Crist
Anna C. Foulger
Anna L. Coleman-Hulbert
Brian Onken
Carolina Ibanez-Ventoso
Christina Chang
Christine A. Sedore
Daniel Edgar
Dipa Bhaumik
Elizabeth A. Chao
Erik Johnson
Esteban Chen
Girish Harinath
Gordon J. Lithgow
Jailynn Harke
Jason L Kish
Jian Xue
John H. Willis
June Hope
Kathleen J. Dumas
Manish Chamoli
Mark Lucanic
Mary Anne Royal
Max Guo
Michael P. Presley
Michelle K. Chen
Monica Driscoll
Patrick C. Phillips
Shaunak Kamat
Shobhna Patel
Suzanne Angeli
Suzhen Guo
Theo Garrett
W. Todd Plummer
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Instead of "playing the game" it is time to change the rules: Registered Reports at AIMS Neuroscience and beyond
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CC BY
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0.0 stars

The last ten years have witnessed increasing awareness of questionable research practices (QRPs) in the life sciences, including p-hacking, HARKing, lack of replication, publication bias, low statistical power and lack of data sharing (see Figure 1). Concerns about such behaviours have been raised repeatedly for over half a century but the incentive structure of academia has not changed to address them. Despite the complex motivations that drive academia, many QRPs stem from the simple fact that the incentives which offer success to individual scientists conflict with what is best for science. On the one hand are a set of gold standards that centuries of the scientific method have proven to be crucial for discovery: rigour, reproducibility, and transparency. On the other hand are a set of opposing principles born out of the academic career model: the drive to produce novel and striking results, the importance of confirming prior expectations, and the need to protect research interests from competitors. Within a culture that pressures scientists to produce rather than discover, the outcome is a biased and impoverished science in which most published results are either unconfirmed genuine discoveries or unchallenged fallacies. This observation implies no moral judgement of scientists, who are as much victims of this system as they are perpetrators.

Subject:
Life Science
Psychology
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
AIMS Neuroscience
Author:
Christopher D. Chambers
Eva Feredoes
Peter Etchells
Suresh Daniel Muthukumaraswamy
Date Added:
08/07/2020
Introducing Observational Approaches in Research With Children and Young People
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This unit introduces you to analysing academic writing and, in particular, the way an article might be structured to clearly explain an investigation to other researchers. It explores observation of children and young people using qualitative observation approaches in small-scale studies.

Subject:
Social Work
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Reading
Syllabus
Provider:
The Open University
Provider Set:
Open University OpenLearn
Date Added:
09/06/2007
Introduction to Academic Research
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This is the textbook (reader) for the course Introduction to Academic Research, taught at the Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen (The Netherlands). This is a compilation of four chapters from 3 different textbooks that are classified as open educational resources (OER) and together provide the accompanying literature for the course.

The chapters cover the following topics:
- Academic research and the research process
- What are spatial sciences?
- Theories in scientific research
- Research ethics

The original sources of the chapters in this textbook are mentioned on every page. These texts are taken almost verbatim from the mentioned sources; small adjustments have been made for the consistency of referencing, providing a little context, or aligning the numbering of sections.

Subject:
Social Science
Cultural Geography
Sociology
Material Type:
Reading
Textbook
Author:
Sander van Lanen
Date Added:
05/03/2021
Introduction to Political Science Research Methods – An Open Education Resource Textbook
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CC BY-NC
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0.0 stars

Introduction to Political Science Research Methods, 1st edition, is an Open Education Resource Textbook that surveys the research methods employed in political science. The textbook includes chapters that cover: history and development of the empirical study of politics; the scientific method; theories, hypotheses, variables, and units; conceptualization, operationalization and measurement of political concepts; elements of research design including the logic of sampling; qualitative and quantitative research methods and means of analysis; and research ethics.

Authors:
- Josh Franco, Cuyamaca College
- Charlotte Lee, Berkeley City College
- Kau Vue, Fresno City College
- Dino Bozonelos, Victor Valley College
- Masa Omae, San Diego City College
- Steven Cauchon, Imperial Valley College

PDF Version ISBN: 978-1-7351980-0-2

Subject:
Political Science
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Charlotte Lee
Dino Bozonelos
Josh Franco
Kau Vue
Masa Omae
Steven Cauchon
Date Added:
06/25/2020