Despite promises made by presidential candidates, the President has no direct power to pass any legislation. This very important power lies solely with the House of Representatives and the Senate.
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The Constitution specifically grants Congress its most important power the authority to make laws. A bill, or proposed law, only becomes a law after both the House of Representatives and the Senate have approved it in the same form. The two houses share other powers, many of which are listed in Article I, Section 8. These include the power to declare war, coin money, raise an army and navy, regulate commerce, establish rules of immigration and naturalization, and establish the federal courts and their jurisdictions.
The American Revolution began the process of creating a new nation in a number of different ways; by protesting British rule through legal and extra-legal actions; by waging a war to end America's status as a colonized territory; and by designing new forms of government for what Patriots hoped would become independent states.
A framework for a new and stronger national government had been crafted at the Philadelphia Convention by a handful of leaders. But how could their proposed system be made into law?
No protesting the government? No immigrants allowed in? No freedom of the press. Lawmakers jailed? Is this the story of the Soviet Union during the Cold War? No. It describes the United States in 1798 after the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts.
California was admitted to the Union as the 16th free state. In exchange, the south was guaranteed that no federal restrictions on slavery would be placed on Utah or New Mexico. Texas lost its boundary claims in New Mexico, but the Congress compensated Texas with $10 million. Slavery was maintained in the nation's capital, but the slave trade was prohibited. Finally, and most controversially, a Fugitive Slave Law was passed, requiring northerners to return runaway slaves to their owners under penalty of law.
At the dawn of the 20th century, nine out of ten African Americans lived in the South. Jim Crow laws of segregation ruled the land. The Supreme Court upheld the power of the Southern states to create two "separate but equal" societies with its 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson opinion. It would be for a later Supreme Court to judge that they fell short of the "equal" requirement.
Hammurabi is the best known and most celebrated of all Mesopotamian kings. He ruled the Babylonian Empire from 1792-50 B.C.E. Although he was concerned with keeping order in his kingdom, this was not his only reason for compiling the list of laws. When he began ruling the city-state of Babylon, he had control of no more than 50 square miles of territory. As he conquered other city-states and his empire grew, he saw the need to unify the various groups he controlled.
Three years after the Supreme Court declared race-based segregation illegal, a military showdown took place in Little Rock, Arkansas, when nine black students attempted to attend the all-white Central High School on September 3, 1957.
Slaves did not accept their fate without protest. Many instances of rebellion were known to Americans, even in colonial times. These rebellions were not confined to the South. In fact, one of the earliest examples of a slave uprising was in 1712 in Manhattan. As African Americans in the colonies grew greater and greater in number, there was a justifiable paranoia on the part of the white settlers that a violent rebellion could occur in one's own neighborhood. It was this fear of rebellion that led each colony to pass a series of laws restricting slaves' behaviors. The laws were known as slave codes.
The emergence of the Internet and the digital world has changed the way people access produce and share information and knowledge Yet people in Africa face challenges in accessing scholarly publications journals and learning materials in general At the heart of these challenges and solutions to them is copyright the branch of intellectual property rights that covers written and related works This book gives the reader an understanding of the legal and practical issues posed by copyright for access to learning materials in Africa and identifies the relevant lesson best policies and best practices that would broaden and deepen this access This book is based on the work of the African Copyright and Access to Knowledge ACA2K research network launched in late 2007 as a network of researchers committed to probing the relationship between copyright and learning materials access in eight African countries Egypt Ghana Kenya Morocco Mozambique Senegal South Africa and Uganda
The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few researchers have examined the link between adequacy lawsuits and student outcomes.
This study analyzed the relationship between school finance adequacy litigation and academic proficiency, as measured by scores on the 2003 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The results showed that successful adequacy litigation had a small, significant, positive relationship with NAEP scores, but little differential benefit for students living in poverty or for children of color, with the exception of African American students. Therefore, this evidence suggests that adequacy litigation has had little impact on reducing the achievement gap, though it may have contributed to a small, across the board improvement in student outcomes.
Law has different meanings as well as different functions. Philosophers have considered issues of justice and law for centuries, and several different approaches, or schools of legal thought, have emerged. In this chapter, we will look at those different meanings and approaches and will consider how social and political dynamics interact with the ideas that animate the various schools of legal thought. We will also look at typical sources of “positive law” in the United States and how some of those sources have priority over others, and we will set out some basic differences between the US legal system and other legal systems.
An interview conducted by the ACLU in March of 2005, preceding a Supreme Court hearing in the case of Castle Rock, Colorado v. Gonzales. This case determined the accountability of local law enforcement for failing to enforce court orders that protect victims of abuse by a spouse or acquaintance.
This course will acquaint the student with some of the ancient Greek contributions to the Western philosophical and scientific tradition. We will examine a broad range of central philosophical themes concerning: nature, law, justice, knowledge, virtue, happiness, and death. There will be a strong emphasis on analyses of arguments found in the texts.
Many textbooks mention the Trail of Tears, but fail to mention that this early displacement of an ethnic minority is only the one of many legally-sanctioned forced relocations. This lesson will address the displacement of American Indians through the Trail of Tears, the forced deportation of Mexican Americans during the Great Depression, and the internment of Japanese American citizens during WWII.
This feature allows users to train their vocabulary in one of 13 different topics including general terms, economy, politics, law, medicine, zoology, and a number of other professional and academic topics. Users can select to go from English to Arabic or Arabic to English. The trainer focuses on Modern Standard Arabic exclusively.
In this lesson, students will examine a copy of twelve possible amendments to the United States Constitution as originally sent to the states for their ratification in September of 1789. Students will debate and vote on which of these amendments they would ratify and compare their resulting “Bill of Rights” to the ten amendments ratified by ten states that have since been known by this name.
There are several hundred thousand Brownfield sites across the country. The large number of sites, combined with how a majority of these properties are located in urban and historically underserved communities, dictate that redevelopment of these sites stands to be a common theme in urban planning for the foreseeable future. Students form a grounded understanding of the Brownfield lifecycle: how and why they were created, their potential role in community revitalization, and the general processes governing their redevelopment. Using case studies and guest speakers from the public, private and non-profit sectors, students develop and hone skills to effectively address the problems posed by these inactive sites.
In this course students will learn how to: Demonstrate an understanding of law, its historical development, judicial process, and the role of law in a complex social system, with emphasis on the American legal system and its institutions; Demonstrate the ability to analyze fact patterns in accordance with the legal professional case analysis method; to apply appropriate vocabulary and substantive legal principles; and then to analyze, compare, and evaluate the logic, reasoning, and arguments of other students, in accordance with established legal principles; Demonstrate the ability to complete a group project with other students, by identifying the applicable legal issues in a case or proposed statute, debating those issues, and producing a live course presentation; Identify and describe the basic principles of major business law subjects, such as constitutional authority to regulate business; common law contracts; the Uniform Commercial Code; agency; business associations; real and personal property and business-related torts; And identify and describe approaches to business ethics, social responsibility, and justice, and, demonstrate the ability, when confronted with an ethical dilemma, to weigh the arguments for alternative courses of action, and logically and persuasively argue for a particular course of conduct.