# 24 Results

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By the end of this section, you will be able to:Explain what a correlation coefficient tells us about the relationship between variablesRecognize that correlation does not indicate a cause-and-effect relationship between variablesDiscuss our tendency to look for relationships between variables that do not really existExplain random sampling and assignment of participants into experimental and control groupsDiscuss how experimenter or participant bias could affect the results of an experimentIdentify independent and dependent variables

Subject:
Social Science
Psychology
Material Type:
Module
Author:
Melinda Boland
01/12/2018
Rating

Students will use state and regional unemployment data for various education levels to create scatter plots and calculate correlation coefficients. Students will then compare scatter plots with different strengths of linear relationships and will determine the impact of any influential points on the correlation coefficient.

Subject:
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
U.S. Census Bureau
Provider Set:
Statistics in Schools
10/15/2019
Conditions of Use:
Rating

This resource illustrates the difference between correlation and causation using the example of a study, which links aggression and body symmetry.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Psychology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lecture
Provider:
AAAS
Provider Set:
09/21/2008
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
Rating

Students act as R&D entrepreneurs, learning ways to research variables affecting the market of their proposed (hypothetical) products. They learn how to obtain numeric data using a variety of Internet tools and resources, sort and analyze the data using Excel and other software, and discover patterns and relationships that influence and guide decisions related to launching their products. First, student pairs research and collect pertinent consumer data, importing the data into spreadsheets. Then they clean, organize, chart and analyze the data to inform their product production and marketing plans. They calculate related statistics and gain proficiency in obtaining and finding relationships between variables, which is important in the work of engineers as well as for general technical literacy and decision-making. They summarize their work by suggesting product launch strategies and reporting their findings and conclusions in class presentations. A finding data tips handout, project/presentation grading rubric and alternative self-guided activity worksheet are provided. This activity is ideal for a high school statistics class.

Subject:
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
TeachEngineering
Provider Set:
Activities
Author:
Tom Falcone
05/03/2017
Conditions of Use:
Remix and Share
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The applets in this section allow you to see how different bivariate data look under different correlation structures. The Movie applet either creates data for a particular correlation or animates a multitude data sets ranging correlations from -1 to 1.

Subject:
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Provider Set:
Causeweb.org
Author:
Anderson-Cook, C.
C. Anderson-Cook
Dorai-Raj, S.
Robinson, T.
S. Dorai-Raj
T. Robinson
02/16/2011
Conditions of Use:
Remix and Share
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Understanding why correlation does not imply causality (even though many in the press and some researchers often imply otherwise).

Subject:
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Lesson
Provider:
Author:
Salman Khan
12/27/2017
Rating

An introduction and examples of how to use Correlation and Simple Linear Regression. Explaining concepts as coefficient of correlation, dependent variables, independent variables and the straight line equation and residuals.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
Umeå University
Provider Set:
Quantitative Research Methods
Author:
Associate professor in epidemiology and biostatistics
Marie Lindqvist
11/01/2014
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
Rating

With your mouse, drag data points and their error bars, and watch the best-fit polynomial curve update instantly. You choose the type of fit: linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic. The reduced chi-square statistic shows you when the fit is good. Or you can try to find the best fit by manually adjusting fit parameters.

Subject:
Mathematics
Material Type:
Simulation
Provider:
Provider Set:
PhET Interactive Simulations
Author:
Michael Dubson
Trish Loeblein
08/01/2008
Rating

This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students understand the notion of correlation. In particular this unit aims to identify and help students who have difficulty in: understanding correlation as the degree of fit between two variables; making a mathematical model of a situation; testing and improving the model; communicating their reasoning clearly; and evaluating alternative models of the situation.

Subject:
Mathematics
Material Type:
Assessment
Lesson Plan
Provider:
Shell Center for Mathematical Education
U.C. Berkeley
Provider Set:
Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP)
04/26/2013
Rating

Students will develop, justify, and evaluate conjectures about the relationship between two quantitative variables over time in the United States: the median age (in years) when women first marry and the percentage of women aged 25–34 with a bachelor’s degree or higher. Students will write a regression equation for the data, interpret in context the linear model’s slope and y-intercept, and find the correlation coefficient (r), assessing the strength of the linear relationship and whether a significant relationship exists between the variables. Students will then summarize their conclusions and consider whether correlation implies causation.

Subject:
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
U.S. Census Bureau
Provider Set:
Statistics in Schools
10/15/2019
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
Rating

Frequency distributions of weave density should match if two paintings are from the same canvas roll according to the thread counting algorithm we employ.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
Connexions
Author:
Jash Guo
02/16/2011
Conditions of Use:
Remix and Share
Rating

After the completion of this module, the student will be able to

*read scatter plots and bar graphs
*identify error bars on a graph
*explain the role of a trend line
*produce simple graphs in Excel

The curricular materials contain a workbook (pdf and docx formats) and spreadsheets to work on the data and generate graphs.

Subject:
Biology
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Homework/Assignment
Author:
Claudia Neuhauser
10/26/2018
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
Rating

Introduction to Sociology 2e adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical, one-semester introductory sociology course. It offers comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories, which are supported by a wealth of engaging learning materials. The textbook presents detailed section reviews with rich questions, discussions that help students apply their knowledge, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. The second edition retains the book’s conceptual organization, aligning to most courses, and has been significantly updated to reflect the latest research and provide examples most relevant to today’s students. In order to help instructors transition to the revised version, the 2e changes are described within the preface.

Subject:
Social Science
Sociology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
02/01/2012
Conditions of Use:
Remix and Share
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Differentiate between four kinds of research methods: surveys, field research, experiments, and secondary data analysisUnderstand why different topics are better suited to different research approaches

Subject:
Social Science
Sociology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
11/15/2016
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
Rating

You are probably asking yourself the question, "When and where will I use statistics?". If you read any newspaper or watch television, or use the Internet, you will see statistical information. There are statistics about crime, sports, education, politics, and real estate. Typically, when you read a newspaper article or watch a news program on television, you are given sample information. With this information, you may make a decision about the correctness of a statement, claim, or "fact." Statistical methods can help you make the "best educated guess."

Subject:
Statistics and Probability
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax CNX
Author:
Mihai Nica
12/02/2019
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
Rating

Psychology is designed to meet scope and sequence requirements for the single-semester introduction to psychology course. The book offers a comprehensive treatment of core concepts, grounded in both classic studies and current and emerging research. The text also includes coverage of the DSM-5 in examinations of psychological disorders. Psychology incorporates discussions that reflect the diversity within the discipline, as well as the diversity of cultures and communities across the globe.Senior Contributing AuthorsRose M. Spielman, Formerly of Quinnipiac UniversityContributing AuthorsKathryn Dumper, Bainbridge State CollegeWilliam Jenkins, Mercer UniversityArlene Lacombe, Saint Joseph's UniversityMarilyn Lovett, Livingstone CollegeMarion Perlmutter, University of Michigan

Subject:
Social Science
Psychology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
02/14/2014
Conditions of Use:
Remix and Share
Rating

By the end of this section, you will be able to:Explain what a correlation coefficient tells us about the relationship between variablesRecognize that correlation does not indicate a cause-and-effect relationship between variablesDiscuss our tendency to look for relationships between variables that do not really existExplain random sampling and assignment of participants into experimental and control groupsDiscuss how experimenter or participant bias could affect the results of an experimentIdentify independent and dependent variables

Subject:
Social Science
Psychology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College