Search Results (1957)
Combining Kuhn and Jung: half edited long version of a ‘step ladder model’ (SLM) forscientific discovery and paradigm shift researchSam Keenan*Learning Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia(Received 5 December 2014; accepted 7 April 2015)This half edited book provides the outline of a ‘step ladder model’ (SLM) comprising 13 steps ofscientific discovery making. It incorporates both a ‘leap-off point’ from Kuhn’sStructure of Scientific Revolutions, and ideas from Jungian psychology to revealpatterns in the way in which scientific discoveries are made, across 40 examples fromthe history of science. The current consensus is that these discoveries are accidental.This paper aims to provide a model for deliberately making dream-based scientificdiscoveries. The key to this model is intrapsychic patterns in how discoveries of thiskind can be made. As these patterns become gradually clearer, greater understandingof the dream-based scientific discovery-making process can develop. Gradually as acollective endeavour, as the SLM develops, the dream-based scientific discoveryprocess can by degrees become less accidental, and progressively more deliberate. Step 13 is included here as suggestions on how to fail as safely as possible while innovating. This is because success cannot be guaranteed and fails outnumber successes overwhelmingly. A background analysis section is also included. Further editing and writing and re-writing is welcomed. Thank you.Keywords: Kuhn; Jung; paradigm; revolutionary science; inspiration; creativity
In this professional development session, we will develop a shared understanding of how formative assessment works and different approaches that have been developed. The material for this resource come from a series of PD sessions on formative assessment developed by the ACESSE team: Philip Bell, Shelley Stromholt, Bill Penuel, Katie Van Horne, Tiffany Neill, and Sam Shaw.We will be updating this Facilitator's Guide for ACESSE Resource A with the most up-to-date information about this resource over time. If you encounter problems with this resource, you can contact us at: STEMteachingtools@uw.edu
The NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education and the resulting Next Generation Science Standards focus on an integrated three-dimensional view of science learning in which students develop understanding of core ideas of science and crosscutting concepts in the context of engaging in science and engineering practices.How is assessing three-dimensional science learning different than how we have thought of science learning in the past? How can we design assessment tasks that elicit student’s current understanding of specific aspects of the disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, and crosscutting concepts in order to shape future instruction? In this workshop, participants will learn how to interpret and design cognitive formative assessment to fit a three-dimensional view of learning.This resource originates from a series of PD sessions on 3D formative assessment developed and provided by Katie Van Horne, Shelley Stromholt, Bill Penuel, and Philip Bell. It has been improved through a collaboration in the ACESSE project with science education experts from 13 states. Please cite this resource as follows:Stromholt, S., Van Horne, K., Bell, P., Penuel, W. R., Neill, T. & Shaw, S. (2017). How to Assess Three-Dimensional Learning in Your Classroom: Building Assessment Tasks that Work. [OER Professional Development Session from the ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/SessionB
How can science instruction be meaningfullyconnected to the out-of-school lives of students? In this professional development, we will consider how to design formative assessments that build on learners’ interest and knowledge, promoting equity and social justice in the process. The material for this resource comes from a series of PD sessions on formative assessment originally developed by Philip Bell and Shelley Stromholt.We will be updating this Facilitator's Guide for ACESSE Resource C with the most up to date information about this resource over time. If you encounter problesm with this resources, you can contact us at STEMteachingtools@uw.eduThis resource was refined through a 13-state collaboration to make the resource more broadly useful. If you choose to adapt these materials, please attribute the source and that it was work funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).
Abstract: This session provides a step-by-step process to support participants as they design a 3D assessment task for the science classroom. Along the way, they learn how to define 3D learning performances for specific lessons—and how to use a range of tools to support their assessment design work. A key goal of the session activity is to improve the connection of intended learning goals to assessment practices. Participants build their 3D assessment design capacity by designing and workshopping tasks—before piloting them in their classrooms. The approaches learned in this workshop can be used with any curricula, at any grade level, and across all subjects of science.
In August 2008, the "Mountain Weather Workshop: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Forecasting" was held in Whistler, BC, Canada. It was sponsored by the American Meteorological Society, UCAR/COMET, and the Meteorological Service of Canada. The workshop brought together researchers, faculty, students, and operational forecasters. Its primary goals were to help provide a better understanding of the state of the science of mountain meteorology from both a research and an operational perspective, and to discuss ways of improving interaction between the research and forecasting communities. The workshop consisted of lectures by distinguished speakers covering numerous topics related to weather in complex terrain. This webcast collection contains recordings of the presentations from the workshop.
This Free Mini MOOC provides Quick introduction to "Anatomy Physiology - The Appendicular Skeleton" in just a Single Week, on your Smartphone with Off-Line Access after initial onetime download ! This Mini MOOC provides following features:
01. Smartphone compatible Responsive Design
04. HTML5 Interactive Activities
05. Question-Answer Discussion Forum
06. Single Week duration with Study Plan for each Day
07. Fully Randomized Examination with Negative Marking, which is Open Book and Open to Discussion among peer students / teachers
08. Online Certificate generation after student achieves minimum 40% score.
09. Very simple intuitive design which nurtures effective learning
In the last two decades, research in various aspects of mobile ad-hoc networks, MANETs, has been very active, motivated mainly by military, disaster relief and law enforcement scenarios. More recently, location information has become increasingly available; partially prompted by the emerging trend to incorporate location or position sensing into personal handheld devices. An evolutionary natural step is to adopt such position-based operation in MANETs. This results in what we call position-based MANETs. In such settings, devices are equipped with position-sensing capabilities and rely on position information in their operation. The main distinguishing feature of the envisaged position-based MANET environment is the communication paradigm based not on permanent or semi-permanent identities, addresses or pseudonyms, but on instantaneous node locations or positions. In some application settings, such as: military, law enforcement and search-and-rescue, node identities are not nearly as important as node positions. Such settings have certain characteristics in common. First, node position is very important: knowledge of the physical, as opposed to logical or relative topology, makes it possible to avoid wasteful communication and focus on nodes located within a speciﬁc area. Thus, the emphasis is not on the longterm node identity, but rather on current node position. Second, critical environments face security and privacy attacks. Security attacks aim to distribute false location and network ing control information, e.g., routing control messages, or impede the propagation of genuine information. The goal of privacy attacks is to track nodes as they move. Third, when the operating environment is hostile, as is the case in military and law enforcement settings, node identities must not be revealed. We use the term hostile to mean that communication is being monitored by adversarial entities that are not part of the MANET. The need to hide node identities becomes more pressing if we further assume that MANET nodes do not trust each other, due to a suspicious environment where nodes can be compromised. In such an environment, it is natural for node movements to be obscured, such that tracking a given node is impossible or, at least, very diﬃcult. While we do not claim that such suspicious and hostile location-based MANET environments are commonplace, they do occur and require high security and privacy guarantees. While doing all these;there is a challenge for nodes to maintain anonymity protection from outside observers or malicious attackers. Full anonymity protection can be achieved only when ;sources,destinations and routes all are protected. In this work, to oﬀer better anonymity protection, we propose an Anonymous Position-based Security Aware Routing Protocol (APSAR). Experimental results exhibit consistency with the theoretical analysis, and show that APSAR achieves better route anonymity protection compared to other anonymous routing protocols. Also, APSAR achieves comparable routing eﬃciency to the GPSR geographical routing protocol. The work in this thesis addresses a number of security and privacy issues arising in position-based MANETs. models. We address the problem of position based security aware routing in consideration with better anonymity protection .
The module examines the 2009 drought in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA), focusing on conditions in Kenya. The module begins by reviewing drought conditions in the years leading up to 2009. From there, it examines the seasonal climate forecast for the beginning of 2009 and see what it portends. Satellite products are used to study rainfall performance throughout the year and its impact on the drought situation. Finally, the module describes the climate oscillations that can impact drought in the GHA and identifies patterns that were present in 2009 and contributed to its severity. By the end of the module, weather forecasters and students should have a better understanding of drought and the tools available for its early detection and monitoring.
The hazards associated with convective systems present some of the most dangerous conditions encountered by aircraft and pose many challenges to aviation operations. When convection is forecast to develop, aviation forecasters are required to issue a series of warning messages and other meteorological aeronautical products to various members of the aviation community. This lesson teaches these forecasters how to produce the products, doing so in the context of a case study in which learners assume the role of aeronautical forecaster on duty at the airport in Niamey, Niger on a night when convection develops. The lesson is one of three aviation weather case studies developed by the ASMET team to improve aviation forecasting in Africa.
Turbulence is a major concern for the aviation industry. It often goes undetected in cloud-free areas, catching pilots off guard when they fly into it. Turbulence can injure passengers and crew, and cause structural damage to aircraft. This makes it critical for aviation weather forecasters to closely monitor the atmosphere for signs of turbulence and issue special warnings when it is likely to be present. This lesson helps prepare forecasters for these tasks by providing general information about turbulence and showing them how to detect it using satellite imagery, tephigrams, and NWP products. The latter is presented in the form of a case study in which learners assume the role of aviation forecaster at Cape Town International Airport (South Africa), and need to determine if turbulence is likely to be present along a particular flight path. The lesson is intended for aviation weather forecasters, general weather forecasters interested in aviation meteorology, and meteorological instructors and students. Note that the lesson is one of three aviation weather case studies developed by the ASMET team to improve aviation forecasting in Africa.
This lesson aims to improve aviation forecasts of fog in the African airspace by teaching forecasters to make more accurate forecasts using satellite imagery, numerical weather prediction, and other available data. A process for diagnosing and forecasting fog is presented and applied to a case over the Nairobi, Kenya region. Learners assume the role of aviation forecaster, analysing various products to determine whether the current Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) is valid or needs to be amended. The lesson is intended for aviation forecasters, general weather forecasters interested in aviation meteorology, and meteorological forecasting instructors and students. This lesson is one of three aviation weather case studies developed by the ASMET project to improve aviation forecasting in Africa. They also support COMET's Review of Aeronautical Meteorology – Africa online learning curriculum, which provides training that supports the WMO/ICAO competencies for Aeronautical Meteorological Forecasters.
The rainy season in Sahelian West Africa extends from June to September and is tied to the position of the intertropical front. During this period, mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) often produce significant rainfall that can lead to flooding. This module examines an extreme flooding event that occurred in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from 31 August to 1 September 2009. Learners assume the role of forecaster, assessing meteorological conditions to see if an MCS will develop that can lead to heavy rain and flooding. They follow a forecast process that emphasizes the use of satellite data, standard surface and upper-air charts, and model output. The forecast process is tied to a conceptual model of the key features that drive convective activities in West Africa.
This module introduces a variety of meteorological and hydrological products that can improve the quality of heavy rainfall forecasts and assist with hydrological management during extensive precipitation events in Southern Africa. Among the products are the satellite-based ASCAT, SMOS, and ASAR GM soil moisture products and the hydro-estimator. The products are presented within the context of a case, the flooding of South Africa's Vaal Dam region in 2009/2010.
This worksheet prompts students to consider their digital identity in terms of academic development and to prepare for a portfolio project. Created by Steven Harris-Scott, Ph.D., and Amy Lewis, Ed.D., for INTO George Mason University with support from Mason 4-VA. Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)
Being a graduate student and further studying in your academic discipline comes with the responsibility to deeper understand and apply academic integrity in a variety of situation. Students apply the knowledge gained about academic integrity to a situation described in a case study. This emphasizes ethical decision-making skills. It can be designed to expose students to a situation in which they work independently on a response as an assignment or collaborative conditions during class time. A comprehensive debrief is also recommended. Created by Steven Harris-Scott, Ph.D., and Amy Lewis, Ed.D., for INTO George Mason University with support from Mason 4-VA. Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)
The purpose of activity reflections is to encourage graduate students to become involved in academic and professional communities. By engaging in their field of study outside of the classroom environment, they are able to: introduce themselves in different situations, build academic and professional relationships, connect issues that they learn in the classroom to current discourse, and use reflection techniques to refine their academic and professional goals. Created by Steven Harris-Scott, Ph.D., and Amy Lewis, Ed.D., for INTO George Mason University with support from Mason 4-VA.
The purpose of this module is to train operational meteorologists at NWS WFOs and elsewhere how to maximize opportunities to add value to NWP forecasts. The training includes use of the methods and tools from earlier modules in Course 2 of Effective Use of NWP in the Forecast Process. Included in the module are two case examples for the short- and medium-range. Additionally, a WES "caselet" is available from the NWS Warning Decision Training Branch that further illustrates how to add value to NWP guidance.
This is the Conceptual Explanations part of Kenny Felder's course in Advanced Algebra II. It is intended for students to read on their own to refresh or clarify what they learned in class. This text is designed for use with the "Advanced Algebra II: Homework and Activities" and the "Advanced Algebra II: Teacher's Guide" collections (coming soon) to make up the entire course.
The “Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course Orientation” module introduces the organization of the course, the topics presented, and the intended audience, as well as the motivation for converting this course to online training. This web module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course..
This brief lesson provides an overview of the AHI on Himawari and highlights its differences from the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). It discusses AHI’s improved capabilities in spectral coverage, spatial resolution, and imaging interval over the MTSAT-2 imager; the differences in spectral coverage and scan strategy between AHI and ABI and the impact on products; and how AHI data and products benefit forecasters in Alaska, Pacific Region, and CONUS. Note that the lesson complements COMET’s GOES-R ABI lesson, which should be taken before going through this lesson.
This lesson is an update to the 2008 expert lecture on hyperspectral observations presented by Dr. Mitch Goldberg, Program Scientist for NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program. The lesson discusses what hyperspectral observations are, how they are made, some current products, their contributions to improved monitoring of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces, as well as their impact on numerical weather prediction. The lesson begins by discussing the importance of satellite observing systems. From there, it reviews the principles of remote sensing that are needed for deriving products from hyperspectral infrared observations. The third and largest section of the lesson examines results from and operational applications of the AIRS, IASI, and CrIS hyperspectral sounders. The final section discusses the importance of hyperspectral soundings from geostationary satellites. The lesson has been updated from the original presentation to include information about NASA and NOAA's new polar orbiting programs and CrIS, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder on the Suomi NPP polar orbiter.
This Webcast covers the ocean surface wind retrieval process, the basics of microwave polarization as it relates to wind retrievals, and several operational examples. Information on the development of microwave sensors used to retrieve ocean surface wind speed and the ocean surface wind vector (speed and direction) is also included.
Only around 0.2-2.0% of the patient population will have detectable RBC antibodies -- fewer still will have multiplePatients more frequently exposed to RBC antigens are more likely to have antibodies (multiply transfused sickle cell adult patients ~47%)So you've mastered the type & screen and antibody panels... but what do you do if an antibody panel is inconclusive?Selected Cell Panels - select cells with minimal overlap of antigens; helpful for patients with a known history of an antibodyEnzyme-treated panels - destroy certain antigens and enhance expression of others; modify RBC surface by removing sialic acid residues and by denaturing or removing glycoproteinsExamples: ficin, papain, bromelin, trypsinOne-step enzyme method: enzymes utilized in place of enhancement media (instead of LISS or PEG)Two-step enzyme method: panel RBCs are treated with an enzyme first, then the antibody ID panel is done with treated cells; should compare reactivity to antibody ID panel of same cells without enzyme treatmentA special case seen in blood banking: Daratumumab ("Dara") patientsDaratumumab is a drug used in treatment of Multiple MyelomaPlasmacytoma or plasma cell cancer - plasma cells express CD 38~30k new cases, ~12.5k deaths per yearAnemia is a key symptom (with calcium levels, renal insufficiency, bone lesions)CD 38 is a cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase - with roles in calcium signalling & NAD metabolismExpressed on all cell types: notably Plasma cells and RBCsOne option for treating Multiple Myeloma is the drug Daratumumab: a monoclonal antibody IgG1K anti-CD 38; kills myeloma cells through patient's own immune responseWhat does this have to do with blood bank?CD38 is found on RBCs -- including screen and panel cells, in crossmatchesDara patients show PANAGGLUTINATION in all AHG testing - positive screen, panel, crossmatch, variable/weak positive DAT (at IgG)Multiple myeloma patients need frequent transfusions - increased chance of developing alloAbEnzyme treated panel case studyDara patient case study
This series of courses and learning modules are designed to offer a two-quarter entry-level employment preparation or college readiness program targeting either employment in aerospace and advanced manufacturing or continuing education in a manufacturing program. The pre-employment program includes applied mathematics, blueprint reading, computer skills, manufacturing basics, English-as-a-second language for aerospace, and shop safety. OSHA 10 and OSHA 30 certification student handbooks, and a course outline for integrating WorkKeys into the program are included. An outline of assembly skills in drilling and riveting illustrate a specific entry level employment opportunity.
This module describes characteristics of African easterly waves including horizontal and vertical structure, evolution, speed, frequency, methods of tracking, and their downstream transformation over the Atlantic, Caribbean, and East Pacific. Mechanisms for wave formation are presented. Also explored are differences between waves that develop into tropical cyclones and those that do not. The final sections focus on extratropical interactions and variability of easterly waves.
This case study focuses on a snow and blowing snow event in the Canadian prairies and US northern high plains on 11-13 November 2003. The key aim of this module is to step through the forecast process during an Alberta Clipper event from the perspective of a forecaster with the Meteorological Service of Canada. This involves consideration of various observations and model guidance, identification of potential areas of snowfall and blowing snow, nowcasting snowfall development and termination, and considering and providing nowcast updates throughout.
Students connect polynomial arithmetic to computations with whole numbers and integers. Students learn that the arithmetic of rational expressions is governed by the same rules as the arithmetic of rational numbers. This unit helps students see connections between solutions to polynomial equations, zeros of polynomials, and graphs of polynomial functions. Polynomial equations are solved over the set of complex numbers, leading to a beginning understanding of the fundamental theorem of algebra. Application and modeling problems connect multiple representations and include both real world and purely mathematical situations.
Module 2 builds on students previous work with units and with functions from Algebra I, and with trigonometric ratios and circles from high school Geometry. The heart of the module is the study of precise definitions of sine and cosine (as well as tangent and the co-functions) using transformational geometry from high school Geometry. This precision leads to a discussion of a mathematically natural unit of rotational measure, a radian, and students begin to build fluency with the values of the trigonometric functions in terms of radians. Students graph sinusoidal and other trigonometric functions, and use the graphs to help in modeling and discovering properties of trigonometric functions. The study of the properties culminates in the proof of the Pythagorean identity and other trigonometric identities.
In this module, students synthesize and generalize what they have learned about a variety of function families. They extend the domain of exponential functions to the entire real line (N-RN.A.1) and then extend their work with these functions to include solving exponential equations with logarithms (F-LE.A.4). They explore (with appropriate tools) the effects of transformations on graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions. They notice that the transformations on a graph of a logarithmic function relate to the logarithmic properties (F-BF.B.3). Students identify appropriate types of functions to model a situation. They adjust parameters to improve the model, and they compare models by analyzing appropriateness of fit and making judgments about the domain over which a model is a good fit. The description of modeling as, the process of choosing and using mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to make decisions, is at the heart of this module. In particular, through repeated opportunities in working through the modeling cycle (see page 61 of the CCLS), students acquire the insight that the same mathematical or statistical structure can sometimes model seemingly different situations.
Students build a formal understanding of probability, considering complex events such as unions, intersections, and complements as well as the concept of independence and conditional probability. The idea of using a smooth curve to model a data distribution is introduced along with using tables and techonolgy to find areas under a normal curve. Students make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies. Data is used from random samples to estimate a population mean or proportion. Students calculate margin of error and interpret it in context. Given data from a statistical experiment, students use simulation to create a randomization distribution and use it to determine if there is a significant difference between two treatments.
In this module, students reconnect with and deepen their understanding of statistics and probability concepts first introduced in Grades 6, 7, and 8. Students develop a set of tools for understanding and interpreting variability in data, and begin to make more informed decisions from data. They work with data distributions of various shapes, centers, and spreads. Students build on their experience with bivariate quantitative data from Grade 8. This module sets the stage for more extensive work with sampling and inference in later grades.
In earlier grades, students define, evaluate, and compare functions and use them to model relationships between quantities. In this module, students extend their study of functions to include function notation and the concepts of domain and range. They explore many examples of functions and their graphs, focusing on the contrast between linear and exponential functions. They interpret functions given graphically, numerically, symbolically, and verbally; translate between representations; and understand the limitations of various representations.
In earlier modules, students analyze the process of solving equations and developing fluency in writing, interpreting, and translating between various forms of linear equations (Module 1) and linear and exponential functions (Module 3). These experiences combined with modeling with data (Module 2), set the stage for Module 4. Here students continue to interpret expressions, create equations, rewrite equations and functions in different but equivalent forms, and graph and interpret functions, but this time using polynomial functions, and more specifically quadratic functions, as well as square root and cube root functions.
This module discusses global climate change that is occurring largely because of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, and in particular the impact that tropical deforestation plays in the climate system. It also covers signs of climate change, the current thinking on future changes, and international agreements that are attempting to minimize the effects of climate change. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD Programme) is also discussed.