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1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii
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This site recounts the struggle for control of Hawaii between native Hawaiians and American business interests in the late 1800s. This 1897 petition and a lobbying effort by native Hawaiians convinced the U.S. Congress not to annex the islands. But months later the U.S.S. Maine exploded in Havana and the Spanish-American War began. The U.S. needed a mid-Pacific fueling station and naval base.

Primary source images, standards correlation, and teaching activities are included in this resource.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
1948: A Year of Decisions
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The 2008 Summer Teachers Conference focused on the year 1948. Lesson plans created by teachers attending the conference and powerpoint presentations delivered by speakers are presented on this site.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
World History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Provider Set:
Truman Presidential Library and Museum
ARC Guide for Educators and Students
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This is a searchable database of the cornerstone documents of our government. It has more than 100,000 digitized copies of the National Archives most popular and significant manuscripts, photographs, maps, drawings and other documents.
The guide introduces educators and students to the National Archives' ARC. Searching in ARC to learn more about National Archives' historical documents could enrich a classroom activity, a homework assignment, or a research project.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Affidavit and Flyers from the Chinese Boycott Case
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This site introduces students to one instance in which immigrants overcame the ramifications of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 through the U.S. judicial system. This lesson correlates to the National History Standards and National Standards for Civics and Social Sciences. It also has cross-curricular connections with history, government, language arts, and math.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Alexander Graham Bell's Patent for the Telephone and Thomas Edison's Patent for the Electric Lamp
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This lesson introduces students to significant inventions of the late 19th century and examines the power of Congress to pass laws related to the granting of patents. It correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Social Sciences. It also has cross-curricular connections with history, government, language arts, and science.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
The Amistad Case
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This lesson presents documents produced around and during the historic 1841 trial of 53 Africans, captured and sold as slaves, and subsequently accused of murder for commandeering the slave ship, Amistad, and killing its captain and cook. The site also contains a detailed lesson plan.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Anti-Railroad Propaganda Poster: The Growth of Regionalism, 1800-1860
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This lesson uses a poster decrying the disruptive influence of railroads on local culture to launch a discussion on local differences and their effect on American politics. Explanatory text, materials for teachers, and links to further resources accompany the documents. This lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Social Sciences. It also has cross-curricular connections with history, government, and art.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Visual Arts
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Artifact Analysis Worksheet
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The following artifact analysis worksheet was designed and developed by the Education Staff of the National Archives and Records Administration. You may find this worksheet useful as you introduce students to artifacts and primary sources of material culture, society and history.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Primary Source
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Provider Set:
Teaching With Documents
Cartoon Analysis Worksheet
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The cartoon analysis worksheet was designed and developed by the Education Staff of the National Archives and Records Administration. This worksheet will be useful when introducing students to cartoons as sources of historical, social and cultural information.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Primary Source
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Provider Set:
Teaching With Documents
Charters of Freedom
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This site features primary documents that shaped U.S. history. See images of the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights. Learn about the Articles of Confederation, Constitutional Convention, Marbury v. Madison, Louisiana Purchase, slavery, Civil War, 13th Amendment, immigration, and woman suffrage.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
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This site provides a summary, history, and teaching activities related to the EEOC and this historic law, which forbade discrimination on the basis of sex as well as race in hiring, promoting, and firing.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
The Civil War as Photographed by Mathew Brady
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This lesson asks students to visualize the Civil War by studying dozens of period photographs, and illustrates how the Civil War threatened the very purpose of the Constitution as stated in the Preamble. This lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Social Sciences. It also has cross-curricular connections with history, American studies, and language arts.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Visual Arts
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Constitutional Issues: Separation of Powers
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This lesson explores the important Constitutional mechanism providing for the separation of powers of government among three branches so that each branch checks the other two. Lesson plans use the New Deal to help teach this concept.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Constitutional Issues: Watergate and the Constitution
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This lesson plan examines Constitutional issues surrounding the resignation of President Nixon and looks at the specific question: Should the Watergate Special Prosecutor seek an indictment of the former President?

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Court Documents Related to Martin Luther King, Jr., and Memphis Sanitation Workers
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This lesson provides fliers and other documents related to the demonstration in Memphis on March 28, 1968. On that day, students near the end of the march broke windows of businesses. Looting ensued. The march was halted. King was deeply distressed by the violence. He and fellow leaders negotiated a commitment to nonviolence among disagreeing factions in Memphis, and another march was planned for April 8. On April 4, as he stepped out of his motel room to go to dinner, he was assassinated.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
A Date Which Will Live in Infamy
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This site shows the typewritten draft of the December 8, 1941, speech in which Franklin Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan. The draft shows Roosevelt's hand-written edits, including his change of the phrase a date which will live in world history to a date which will live in infamy. Students can also listen to the beginning of the speech.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription
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The Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Instead they formed a union that would become a new nation—the United States of America. Read a transcription of the document here.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Documents Related to Churchill and FDR
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This site examines the friendship and working relations that developed between U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill beginning in 1940. Their relationship was crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
The Don Henry Story: The Documents
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This site offers teaching activities using primary documents (tied to academic standards) on a student who became a leader in campus organizations, volunteered to fight in the Spanish Civil War with the Lincoln Brigade, and died on a battlefield in Aragon in September 1937.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Drawing of a Raft 02/14/1818
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Read the Fine Print
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On February 14, 1818, David Gordon received a patent for his raft design. When a patent is granted, it excludes others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention. This drawing accompanied Gordon’s application.

Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Provider Set:
National Archive Experience DocsTeach
The Eighth Avenue trolley, New York City (1904)
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The Eighth Avenue trolley, New York City, sharing the street with horse-drawn produce wagon and an open automobile. Downtown, looking north (1904)

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Provider Set:
National Archive Experience DocsTeach
Eli Whitney's Patent for the Cotton Gin
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This site provides facsimile reproductions of the handwritten patent application and its accompanying drawing, together with explanatory text and lesson plans. This lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Social Sciences

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces (1948)
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On July 26, 1948, President Harry S. Truman signed this executive order establishing the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, committing the U.S. government to integrating the segregated military. Read and see the document here.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Primary Source
Reading
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Provider Set:
www.ourdocs.gov
Author:
Harry S. Truman
Expansion and Reform (1801-1868)
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This site features documents, maps, and images for learning about the Lewis and Clark Expedition, the growth of regionalism, the Amistad case, Lincoln's spot resolutions, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the petition of Amelia Bloomer regarding suffrage in the West, migration north to Alaska, and the Sioux Treaty of 1868.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
FDR's Fireside Chat on the Purposes and Foundations of the Recovery Program
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This site presents the text of one of Franklin Roosevelt's fireside chats with the American people. In this 07/24, 1933, radio broadcast, he addressed issues of the Great Depression and described what industry, employers, and workers could do to bring about economic recovery.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
FDR's First Inaugural Address: Declaring War on the Great Depression
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This lesson includes Franklin Roosevelt's first inaugural address, in which he said, I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis [the Depression] broad Executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
The Fight for Equal Rights: Black Soldiers in the Civil War
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This site provides a lesson that uses primary documents such as the Emancipation Proclamation. This lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Social Sciences. It also has cross-curricular connections with history, government, and language arts.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Fugitive from Labor Cases: Henry Garnett and Moses Honner
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This lesson encourages students to analyze historic documents related to two fugitive slave cases and determine the impact events of the period 1850 to 1860 had on them. The Henry Garnett and Moses Honner cases demonstrates the political crisis in the 1850s arising over the issue of slavery and the necessity for the enactment of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. This lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Social Sciences.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Glidden's Patent Application for Barbed Wire
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This lesson presents the drawing and description that helped Joseph Glidden, a farmer from De Kalb, Illinois, win a patent for barbed wire in 1874. Glidden's design remains today the most familiar style of barbed wire. This site also examines the considerable impact of barbed wire on the economy, society, and politics in the West.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
History in the Raw
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This page discusses the importance of primary documents and uses them to illustrate historical concepts such as the subjective nature of written history, the intimate view of historical people's lives that primary documents can provide, and the importance of developing analytical skills when reconstructing history.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
The Homestead Act of 1862
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This lesson recounts efforts to improve homesteading laws and make land ownership possible for more settlers. The distribution of government lands had been an issue since the Revolutionary War. Preemption -- settling the land first and paying for it later -- became national policy; however, supporting legislation was stymied until the secession of Southern states. See one of the first applications for land under this law. Teaching activities are included.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
How Effective Were the Efforts of the Freedmen’s Bureau?
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Students will analyze documents from the War Department’s Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands — better known as the Freedmen’s Bureau — that Congress established on March 3, 1865, as the Civil War was coming to an end. Using the scale in Weighing the Evidence, students will evaluate the effectiveness of the Freedmen’s Bureau in assisting formerly enslaved persons. Learning Objectives: Students will be able to identify and draw conclusions about the roles of the Freedmen’s Bureau (Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands), critically analyze primary sources, formulate opinions about the effectiveness of the Bureau, and back up their opinions verbally or in writing.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Reading Informational Text
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Diagram/Illustration
Interactive
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Author:
National Archives Education Team
How Effective Were the Efforts of the Freedmen’s Bureau?
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This lesson leads students through analyzing primary source documents from the Civil War to determine if the Freedman's Bureaus was effective in assisting formerly enslaved persons.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration
Provider Set:
National Archive Experience DocsTeach
Images of the American Revolution
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This lesson focuses on the American Revolution, which encouraged the founding fathers' desire to create a government that would, as stated in the Preamble, insure domestic tranquility and provide for the common defense. This lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Social Sciences.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Provider:
National Archives and Records Administration