Keywords: Phase Transitions (49)

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Atomistic Computer Modeling of Materials (SMA 5107), Spring 2005
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Atomistic Computer Modeling of Materials (SMA 5107), Spring 2005

This course uses the theory and application of atomistic computer simulations to ... (more)

This course uses the theory and application of atomistic computer simulations to model, understand, and predict the properties of real materials. Specific topics include: energy models from classical potentials to first-principles approaches; density functional theory and the total-energy pseudopotential method; errors and accuracy of quantitative predictions: thermodynamic ensembles, Monte Carlo sampling and molecular dynamics simulations; free energy and phase transitions; fluctuations and transport properties; and coarse-graining approaches and mesoscale models. The course employs case studies from industrial applications of advanced materials to nanotechnology. Several laboratories will give students direct experience with simulations of classical force fields, electronic-structure approaches, molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Case Study
Full Course
Lecture Notes
Syllabi
Video Lectures
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Ceder, Gerbrand
Marzari, Nicola
Bose-Einstein condensation in low-dimensional traps
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Bose-Einstein condensation in low-dimensional traps

The authors demonstrate the possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal Bose ... (more)

The authors demonstrate the possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal Bose gas confined by one- and two-dimensional power-law traps. Problem 6.66 in Gould & Tobochnik is based on this paper. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Daniel Kleppner
Vanderlei Bagnato
Chemical Potentials by Monte Carlo Simulations Model
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Chemical Potentials by Monte Carlo Simulations Model

The Chemical Potentials by Monte Carlo Simulations Model performs canonical (NVT) and ... (more)

The Chemical Potentials by Monte Carlo Simulations Model performs canonical (NVT) and isothermal-isobaric (NPT) Monte Carlo simulations focusing the calculation of chemical potentials, for the fluid phases of the Lennard-Jones system, by using the virtual particle insertion method of Widom. Although it can not determine phase-equilibrium directly, the gas-liquid line can be approached as illustrated in the included case study. The model paves the way to uVT and Gibbs Ensemble simulations, and shows the limitation of Widom's method at high fluid densities. The Chemical Potentials by Monte Carlo Simulations Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Data
Instructional Material
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Fernando Silva Fernandes
Concord Consortium: Phase Change
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Concord Consortium: Phase Change

This interactive activity for grades 8-12 features eight models that explore atomic ... (more)

This interactive activity for grades 8-12 features eight models that explore atomic arrangements for gases, solids, and liquids. Highlight an atom and view its trajectory to see how the motion differs in each of the three primary phases. As the lesson progresses, students observe and manipulate differences in attractions among atoms in each state and experiment with adding energy to produce state changes. More advanced students can explore models of latent heat and evaporative cooling. This item is part of the Concord Consortium, a nonprofit research and development organization dedicated to transforming education through technology. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Chemistry
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Data
Full Course
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Interactive
Lecture Notes
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Concord Consortium
Provider Set:
ComPADRE Classroom-Ready Resources
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Concord Consortium Collection
Author:
The Concord Consortium
Counting Calories
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Counting Calories

This site by Paul Doherty, Senior Scientist at the Exploratorium, describes the ... (more)

This site by Paul Doherty, Senior Scientist at the Exploratorium, describes the burning peanut experiment and provides an introduction to food energy and how it is measured. The site presents an explanation of how food energy is converted to other forms in the human body. Also included is a discussion of the first law of thermodynamics, with applications to dieting. (less)

Subject:
Ecology
Engineering
Forestry and Agriculture
Life Science
Physics
Technology
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Paul Doherty
Design guidelines for adapting scientific research articles: An example from an introductory level, interdisciplinary program on soft matter
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Design guidelines for adapting scientific research articles: An example from an introductory level, interdisciplinary program on soft matter

We present design guidelines for using Adapted Primary Literature (APL) as part ... (more)

We present design guidelines for using Adapted Primary Literature (APL) as part of current interdisciplinary topics to introductory physics students. APL is a text genre that allows students to comprehend a scientific article, while maintaining the core features of the communication among scientists, thus representing an authentic scientific discourse. We describe the adaptation of a research paper by Nobel Laureate Paul Flory on phase equilibrium in polymer-solvent mixtures that was presented to high school students in a project-based unit on soft matter. The adaptation followed two design strategies: a) Making explicit the interplay between the theory and experiment. b) Re-structuring the text to map the theory onto the students' prior knowledge. Specifically, we map the theory of polymer-solvent systems onto a model for binary mixtures of small molecules of equal size that was already studied in class. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Education
Material Type:
Reference
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Edit Yerushalmi
Elon Langbeheim
Samuel A. Safran
Dipping Bird
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Dipping Bird

This Exploratorium activity uses dipping birds to provide an introduction to heat ... (more)

This Exploratorium activity uses dipping birds to provide an introduction to heat engines which convert heat energy to mechanical work. The site contains an explanation of the physics involved and also an extension activity that powers the bird with a light source. (less)

Subject:
Engineering
Geoscience
Physics
Technology
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Instructional Material
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Evaporative Cooler
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Evaporative Cooler

Explore the concept of evaporative cooling through a hands-on experiment. Use a ... (more)

Explore the concept of evaporative cooling through a hands-on experiment. Use a wet cloth and fan to model an air-conditioner and use temperature and relative humidity sensors to collect data. Then digitally plot the data using graphs in the activity. In an optional extension, make your own modifications to improve the cooler's efficiency. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Chemistry
Engineering
Geoscience
Physics
Education
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Images and Illustrations
Instructional Material
Lecture Notes
Provider:
Concord Consortium
Provider Set:
Concord Consortium Collection
Author:
The Concord Consortium
Exploring the Nanoworld: Memory Metal
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Exploring the Nanoworld: Memory Metal

This Project-Based Learning module explores the properties of Nitinol, a nickel-titanium alloy ... (more)

This Project-Based Learning module explores the properties of Nitinol, a nickel-titanium alloy with shape memory that is representative of "smart materials". It presents real-world situations allowing students to explore the alloy and witness its remarkable atomic ballet. The wire samples used in the unit can be bent at room temperature, but return to original shape when heated by hot air or water. <i>Editor's Note: This week-long module meets multiple national standards in a highly engaging manner. It could be instrumental in helping students understand how structural changes at the atomic level are the basis for many types of phase change. It also gives students crucial experience in materials design. Nitinol wire is readily available for purchase at approximately $2.00 per foot.</i> <i>Exploring the Nanoworld</i> is an initiative to create educational materials that promote understanding of nano-scale science in grades 6-12. It features movies, curricula, lesson plans, and interactive student activities. (less)

Subject:
Chemistry
Engineering
Physics
Technology
Education
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Instructional Material
Lesson Plans
Student Guide
Unit of Study
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE Classroom-Ready Resources
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
National Science Foundation
Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model
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Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model

The Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model illustrates grand canonical ensemble (µVT) Monte ... (more)

The Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model illustrates grand canonical ensemble (µVT) Monte Carlo simulations: the chemical potential, volume and temperature are the system constraints. This means that the system has porous and diabatic walls, exchanging molecules and heat with a reservoir at constant chemical potential and temperature. The molecules interact through the Lennard-Jones. potential and fluid states at densities 0.0025 ? ? ? 0.85 and temperatures T ? 0.70 can be simulated. Although the volume is kept constant, the number of molecules fluctuates and so does the density. The aim is to reach a chemical potential approaching the imposed one. The input fields can be edited to probe different regions of the phase diagram. Chemical potentials, activity coefficients, Helmholtz free energies, entropies and their excess contributions are worked out. The Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Data
Instructional Material
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Fernando Silva Fernandes
HS-WCA-LJ Monte Carlo Model
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HS-WCA-LJ Monte Carlo Model

The HS-WCA-LJ Monte Carlo Model performs simultaneous canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations ... (more)

The HS-WCA-LJ Monte Carlo Model performs simultaneous canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of 108, 256 or 500 particles interacting through the hard sphere (HS), the Weeks, Chandler and Andersen (WCA) and the Lennard-Jones (LJ) pair potentials. It was inspired by the review of Chandler, Weeks and Anderson on WCA theory, illustrating that "the attractive interactions help fix the volume of the system, but the arrangements and motions of molecules within that volume are determined primarily by the local packing and steric effects produced by the repulsive forces". The radial distribution functions for the three systems are plotted after every MC cycle, at densities and temperatures chosen by the user, and the data Tables display thermodynamic results from the LJ and WCA potentials. The thermodynamics of the HS system was addressed to another application cataloged at Open Source Physics. The objective of this application is: (i) to illustrate the canonical MC method with three different systems;(ii) to probe the densities and temperatures at which the HS and WCA potentials approach the structure(defined by the radial distribution functions) of the LJ system, regarding their use in perturbation theory. The HS-WCA-LJ Monte Carlo Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Physics
Material Type:
Data
Instructional Material
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Fernando Silva Fernandes
Hard Spheres Monte Carlo Model
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Hard Spheres Monte Carlo Model

The Hard Sphere Monte Carlo Model performs canonical Monte Carlo simulations of ... (more)

The Hard Sphere Monte Carlo Model performs canonical Monte Carlo simulations of 256 or 500 hard spheres covering the fluid and solid states. The results are analysed through the radial distributions functions from which the equation of state (EOS) is estimated. This is done by fitting a polynomial to the radial distribution functions in order to exrapolate them to the hard spheres distance of contact. The consistency of the simulations is assessed by the errors of the predicted compressibility factors relatively to the accurate EOS reported by Wu and Sadus. The Hard Sphere Monte Carlo Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Data
Instructional Material
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Fernando Silva Fernandes
Filomena Freitas
Hypervolume Monte Carlo Model
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Hypervolume Monte Carlo Model

The Hypervolume Monte Carlo Model implements microcanonical simulations by sampling the position ... (more)

The Hypervolume Monte Carlo Model implements microcanonical simulations by sampling the position and momentum spaces. Although it is strictly proven in the thermodynamic limit, HVMC works well with a relatively small number of molecules. In contrast to other algorithms for Monte Carlo simulations, HVMC does not involve previous integration over the momentum space or demons. It is the full non-deterministic counter part of the NVE molecular dynamics method, also providing speed distribution functions. Moreover, the method allows a straightforward simulation of the ideal gas. The Hypervolume Monte Carlo Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. (less)

Subject:
Chemistry
Physics
Material Type:
Data
Instructional Material
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Fernando Silva Fernandes
Make-a-Flake
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Make-a-Flake

This Flash applet allows users to make intricate virtual snowflake designs which ... (more)

This Flash applet allows users to make intricate virtual snowflake designs which can be saved to the gallery and downloaded. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Chemistry
Ecology
Forestry and Agriculture
Geoscience
Life Science
Physics
Social Sciences
Education
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Instructional Material
Interactive
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Maryland Public Television
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Mathlanding: Elementary Mathematics Pathway
Materials at Equilibrium (SMA 5111), Fall 2003
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Materials at Equilibrium (SMA 5111), Fall 2003

Laws of thermodynamics: general formulation and applications to mechanical, electromagnetic and electrochemical ... (more)

Laws of thermodynamics: general formulation and applications to mechanical, electromagnetic and electrochemical systems, solutions, and phase diagrams. Computation of phase diagrams. Statistical thermodynamics and relation between microscopic and macroscopic properties, including ensembles, gases, crystal lattices, phase transitions. Applications to phase stability and properties of mixtures. Computational modeling. Interfaces. (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Assessments
Full Course
Homework and Assignments
Syllabi
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Ceder, Gerbrand
Middle School Chemistry
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Middle School Chemistry

This resource developed by the American Chemical Society features free multimedia lessons ... (more)

This resource developed by the American Chemical Society features free multimedia lessons and activities to support middle school chemistry instruction. Lessons are organized into six chapters: Matter, Changes of State, Density, The Periodic Table and Bonding, the Water Molecule and Dissolving, and Chemical Change. Each chapter includes a lesson plan, student activity sheet with answer key, videos and interactive animations, related reading for students, hands-on experiments, and discussion questions. (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Chemistry
Geoscience
Physics
Material Type:
Data
Instructional Material
Interactive
Lecture Notes
Lesson Plans
Unit of Study
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Jim Kessler
Patti Galvan
Middle School Chemistry: Changes of State
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Middle School Chemistry: Changes of State

This set of multimedia lessons, developed by the American Chemical Society, introduces ... (more)

This set of multimedia lessons, developed by the American Chemical Society, introduces state change by examining four processes: evaporation, condensation, freezing, and melting. Each process is supported by Flash simulations, related videos, background information for teachers, assessments with answer keys, student reading material, and standards-based lessons. Sample multimedia include Conducting Energy, States of Matter, Water Cycle, Liquid Nitrogen, Specific Heat, and more. <i><b>Editor's Note:</b> The authors designed this curriculum to help students understand basic chemistry within a framework of molecular interactions. The molecular models and related animations provide a foundation for understanding states of matter, atomic models and bonding, charge interactions, and chemical change.</i> (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Chemistry
Geoscience
Physics
Material Type:
Data
Instructional Material
Interactive
Lecture Notes
Lesson Plans
Unit of Study
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Jim Kessler
Patti Galvan
Middle School Chemistry: The Water Molecule and Dissolving
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Middle School Chemistry: The Water Molecule and Dissolving

This set of multimedia lessons, developed by the American Chemical Society, examines ... (more)

This set of multimedia lessons, developed by the American Chemical Society, examines the process of dissolving materials in water. Videos, interactive simulations, hands-on labs, and demonstrations are all integrated into a 9-part unit of instruction that includes assessments and background information. Students will explore why water dissolves salt and sugar, conduct solubility tests, investigate how temperature affects dissolving, and more. <i><b>Editor's Note:</b> The authors designed this curriculum to help students understand basic chemistry within a framework of molecular interactions. The molecular models and related animations provide a foundation for understanding states of matter, atomic models and bonding, charge interactions, and chemical change.</i> (less)

Subject:
Mathematics
Chemistry
Physics
Material Type:
Data
Instructional Material
Interactive
Lecture Notes
Lesson Plans
Simulations
Unit of Study
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Jim Kessler
Patti Galvan
NVT-Molecular Dynamics Model
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NVT-Molecular Dynamics Model

The NVT-Molecular Dynamics Model performs molecular dynamics simulations at constant temperature of ... (more)

The NVT-Molecular Dynamics Model performs molecular dynamics simulations at constant temperature of 32, 108, 256 or 500 molecules interacting through the Lennard-Jones potential, in a wide range of densities and temperatures covering liquid, vapor and solid states. Thermodynamic properties, radial and speed distribution functions, velocity autocorrelation functions (vcf's) and their Fourier spectra, and mean square displacements (msd's) are calculated and displayed. Self-diffusion coefficients are worked out from the vcf's and msd's. Self space-time correlation functions (sstcf's) are estimated and compared with the Gaussian approximation. The 3D molecular motions can also be visualized. The motion equations are integrated by two methods, at user's choice: the damped-force with leap-frog Verlet's algorithm, and the "ad-hoc" rescaling with the velocity Verlet algorithm. The model allows to assess the role of the potential cut-off distance, the number of steps in equilibration runs, the time-step and the gap between time origins for vcf's, msd's and sstcf's. The NVT-Molecular Dynamics Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. (less)

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Data
Instructional Material
Provider:
ComPADRE Digital Library
Provider Set:
ComPADRE: Resources for Physics and Astronomy Education
Author:
Fernando Silva Fernandes
Filomena Freitas
Wolfgang Christian
Networks, Fall 2009
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Networks, Fall 2009

" Networks are ubiquitous in our modern society. The World Wide Web ... (more)

" Networks are ubiquitous in our modern society. The World Wide Web that links us to and enables information flows with the rest of the world is the most visible example. It is, however, only one of many networks within which we are situated. Our social life is organized around networks of friends and colleagues. These networks determine our information, influence our opinions, and shape our political attitudes. They also link us, often through important but weak ties, to everybody else in the United States and in the world. Economic and financial markets also look much more like networks than anonymous marketplaces. Firms interact with the same suppliers and customers and use Web-like supply chains. Financial linkages, both among banks and between consumers, companies and banks, also form a network over which funds flow and risks are shared. Systemic risk in financial markets often results from the counterparty risks created within this financial network. Food chains, interacting biological systems and the spread and containment of epidemics are some of the other natural and social phenomena that exhibit a marked networked structure. This course will introduce the tools for the study of networks. It will show how certain common principles permeate the functioning of these diverse networks and how the same issues related to robustness, fragility, and interlinkages arise in several different types of networks." (less)

Subject:
Science and Technology
Social Sciences
Material Type:
Activities and Labs
Assessments
Full Course
Homework and Assignments
Lecture Notes
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Acemoglu, Daron
Ozdaglar, Asu
2002 llaF ,gnivloS melborP gnireenignE dna sretupmoC ot noitcudortnI

2002 llaF ,gnivloS melborP gnireenignE dna sretupmoC ot noitcudortnI

.desu si egaugnal gnimmargorp avaJ ehT .gninnalp dna ,tnemeganam ,ecneics ,gnireenigne ni ... (more)

.desu si egaugnal gnimmargorp avaJ ehT .gninnalp dna ,tnemeganam ,ecneics ,gnireenigne ni smelborp gnivlos rof seuqinhcet gnipoleved no si sisahpmE .scipot decnavda detceles dna scihparg retupmoc ,gnihcraes dna gnitros ,serutcurts atad ,sdohtem laciremun ,secafretni resu lacihparg ,stpecnoc gnimmargorp revoc smelborp gnimmargorp ylkeeW .esruoc eht fo sucof eht si tnempoleved dna ngised erawtfos detneiro-tcejbO .snoitacilppa cifitneics dna gnireenigne rof sdohtem lanoitatupmoc dna tnempoleved erawtfos latnemadnuf stneserp esruoc sihT (less)