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The Adventure of Physics - Vol. III: Light, Charges, and Brains
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and empty space move leads to many adven- tures. This volume presents the best of them in the domains of relativity and cosmology. In the study of motion – physics – special and general relativity form two important building blocks.

Special relativity is the exploration of the energy speed limit c. General relativity is the exploration of the force limit c4/4G. The text shows that in both domains, all equations follow from these two limit values. This simple, intuitive and unusual way of learning relativity should reward the curiosity of every reader – whether student or professional.

The present volume is the second of a six-volume overview of physics that arose from a threefold aim that I have pursued since 1990: to present motion in a way that is simple, up to date and captivating.

In order to be simple, the text focuses on concepts, while keeping mathematics to the necessary minimum. Understanding the concepts of physics is given precedence over using formulae in calculations. The whole text is within the reach of an undergraduate.

In order to be up to date, the text is enriched by the many gems – both theoretical and empirical – that are scattered throughout the scientific literature.

In order to be captivating, the text tries to startle the reader as much as possible. Read- ing a book on general physics should be like going to a magic show. We watch, we are astonished, we do not believe our eyes, we think, and finally we understand the trick. When we look at nature, we often have the same experience. Indeed, every page presents at least one surprise or provocation for the reader to think about. Numerous interesting challenges are proposed.

The motto of the text, die Menschen stärken, die Sachen klären, a famous statement by Hartmut von Hentig on pedagogy, translates as: ‘To fortify people, to clarify things.’ Clar- ifying things – and adhering only to the truth – requires courage, as changing the habits of thought produces fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we grow in strength. And we experience intense and beautiful emotions. All great adventures in life allow this, and exploring motion is one of them. Enjoy it!

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. II: Relativity
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and empty space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best of them in the domains of relativity and cosmology. In the study of motion – physics – special and general relativity form two important building blocks.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. IV: The Quantum of Change
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Have you ever asked: Why do people, animals, things, images and space move? The answer leads to many adventures; this volume presents those due to the discovery that there is a smallest change value in nature. This smallest change value, the quantum of action, leads to what is called quantum physics. In the structure of modern physics, quantum physics covers three points; this volume covers the introduction to the point in the lower right: the foundations of quantum theory.

The present introduction to quantum physics arose from a threefold aim I have pur- sued since 1990: to present the basics of motion in a way that is simple, up to date and captivating.

In order to be simple, the text focuses on concepts, while keeping mathematics to the necessary minimum. Understanding the concepts of physics is given precedence over using formulae in calculations. The whole text is within the reach of an undergraduate.

In order to be up to date, the text is enriched by the many gems – both theoretical and empirical – that are scattered throughout the scientific literature.

In order to be captivating, the text tries to startle the reader as much as possible. Read- ing a book on general physics should be like going to a magic show. We watch, we are astonished, we do not believe our eyes, we think, and finally we understand the trick. When we look at nature, we often have the same experience. Indeed, every page presents at least one surprise or provocation for the reader to think about. Numerous interesting challenges are proposed.

The motto of the text, die Menschen stärken, die Sachen klären, a famous statement by Hartmut von Hentig on pedagogy, translates as: ‘To fortify people, to clarify things.’ Clar- ifying things – and adhering only to the truth – requires courage, as changing the habits of thought produces fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we grow in strength. And we experience intense and beautiful emotions. All great adventures in life allow this, and exploring motion is one of them. Enjoy it!

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. VI: The Strand Model - A Speculation on Unification
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This book is written for anybody who is intensely curious about nature and motion. Have you ever asked: Why do people, animals, things, images and empty space move? The answer leads to many adventures, and this book presents one of the best of them: the search for a precise, unified and final description of all motion.

The wish to describe all motion is a large endeavour. Fortunately, this large endeavour can be structured in the simple diagram shown in Figure 1. The final and unified description of motion, the topic of this book, corresponds to the highest point in the diagram. Searching for this final and unified description is an old quest. In the following, I briefly summarize its history and then present an intriguing, though speculative solution to the riddle.

The search for the final, unified description of motion is a story of many surprises. For example, twentieth-century research has shown that there is a smallest distance in nature. Research has also shown that matter cannot be distinguished from empty space at those small distances. A last surprise dates from this century: particles and space are best described as made of strands, instead of little spheres or points. The present text explains how to reach these unexpected conclusions. In particular, quantum field theory, the standard model of particle physics, general relativity and cosmology are shown to follow from strands. The three gauge interactions, the three particle generations and the three dimensions of space turn out to be due to strands. In fact, all the open questions of twentieth-century physics about the foundations of motion, all the millennium issues, can be solved with the help of strands.

The strand model, as presented in this text, is an unexpected result from a threefold aim that I have pursued since 1990, in the five previous volumes of this series: to present the basics of motion in a way that is up to date, captivating and simple. In retrospect, the aim for maximum simplicity has been central in deducing this speculation. While the previous volumes introduced, in an entertaining way, the established parts of physics, this volume presents, in the same entertaining and playful way, a speculation about unification. Nothing in this volume is established knowledge – yet. The text is the original presentation of the topic.

The search for a final theory is one of the great adventures of life: it leads to the limits of thought. The search overthrows our thinking habits about nature. A change in thinking habits can produce fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we gain strength and serenity. Changing thinking habits thus requires courage, but it also produces intense and beautiful emotions. Enjoy them!

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. V: Motion Inside Matter - Pleasure, Technology, and Stars
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how bodies, images and empty space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best adventures about the motion inside people, inside animals, and inside any other type of matter – from the largest stars to the smallest nuclei.

Motion inside bodies – dead or alive – is described by quantum theory. Quantum theory describes all motion with the quantum of action h, the smallest change observed in nature. Building on this basic idea, the text first shows how to describe life, death and pleasure. Then, the text explains the observations of chemistry, materials science, astrophysics and particle physics. In the structure of physics, these topics correspond to the three ‘quantum’ points in Figure 1. The story of motion inside living and non-living matter, from the coldest gases to the hottest stars, is told here in a way that is simple, up to date and captivating.

In order to be simple, the text focuses on concepts, while keeping mathematics to the necessary minimum. Understanding the concepts of physics is given precedence over using formulae in calculations. The whole text is within the reach of an undergraduate.

In order to be up to date, the text is enriched by the many gems – both theoretical and empirical – that are scattered throughout the scientific literature.

In order to be captivating, the text tries to startle the reader as much as possible. Read- ing a book on physics should be like going to a magic show. We watch, we are astonished, we do not believe our eyes, we think, and finally we understand the trick. When we look at nature, we often have the same experience. Indeed, every page presents at least one sur- prise that makes the reader think. Also numerous interesting challenges are proposed.

The motto of the text, die Menschen stärken, die Sachen klären, a famous statement by Hartmut von Hentig on pedagogy, translates as: ‘To fortify people, to clarify things.’ Clar- ifying things – and adhering only to the truth – requires courage, as changing the habits of thought produces fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we grow in strength. And we experience intense and beautiful emotions. All great adventures in life allow this, and exploring motion is one of them. Enjoy it!

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
Applications of Maxwell's Equations
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This book was developed at Simon Fraser University for an upper-level physics course. Along with a careful exposition of electricity and magnetism, it devotes a chapter to ferromagnets. According to the course description, the topics covered were “electromagnetics, magnetostatics, waves, transmission lines, wave guides,antennas, and radiating systems.”

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Simon Fraser University
Author:
Bretislav Heinrich
Jon Fraser
Date Added:
03/31/2020
Astronomy
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Astronomy is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of one- or two-semester introductory astronomy courses. The book begins with relevant scientific fundamentals and progresses through an exploration of the solar system, stars, galaxies, and cosmology. The Astronomy textbook builds student understanding through the use of relevant analogies, clear and non-technical explanations, and rich illustrations. Mathematics is included in a flexible manner to meet the needs of individual instructors.

Subject:
Astronomy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Author:
Andrew Fraknoi
David Morrison
Sidney C. Wolff
Date Added:
11/19/2019
Astronomy for Educators
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Astronomy for Educators provides new and accomplished K-12 instructors with concepts and projects for low-cost, high-impact STEM classroom instruction that is built around the National Academies National Research Council's K-12 Framework for Science Education.

Subject:
Astronomy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Daniel E. Barth
Date Added:
01/30/2019
Body Physics: Motion to Metabolism
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Body Physics was designed to meet the objectives of a one-term high school or freshman level course in physical science, typically designed to provide non-science majors and undeclared students with exposure to the most basic principles in physics while fulfilling a science-with-lab core requirement. The content level is aimed at students taking their first college science course, whether or not they are planning to major in science. However, with minor supplementation by other resources, such as OpenStax College Physics, this textbook could easily be used as the primary resource in 200-level introductory courses. Chapters that may be more appropriate for physics courses than for general science courses are noted with an asterisk symbol (*). Of course, this textbook could be used to supplement other primary resources in any physics course covering mechanics and thermodynamics.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
OpenOregon
Author:
Lawrence Davis
Date Added:
11/29/2018
Calculus-Based Physics I
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Calculus-Based Physics is an introductory physics textbook designed for use in the two-semester introductory physics course typically taken by science and engineering students.

Subject:
Calculus
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Saint Anselm College
Author:
Jeffrey Schnick
Date Added:
02/16/2011
Calculus-Based Physics II
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A free, two-volume, on-line, editable, introductory calculus based physics textbook in PDF™ and Microsoft Word™ format. Also provides ancillary materials including video solutions to physics problems and Blackboard™ quizzes with extensive feedback.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Saint Anselm College
Author:
Jeffrey Schnick
Date Added:
11/19/2005
College Physics
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This introductory, algebra-based, two-semester college physics book is grounded with real-world examples, illustrations, and explanations to help students grasp key, fundamental physics concepts. This online, fully editable and customizable title includes learning objectives, concept questions, links to labs and simulations, and ample practice opportunities to solve traditional physics application problems.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Author:
Kim Dirks
Manjula Sharma
Paul Peter Urone
Roger Hinrichs
Date Added:
01/23/2012
College Physics for AP Courses
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College Physics for AP Courses is designed to engage students in their exploration of physics and help them to relate what they learn in the classroom to their lives and to apply these concepts to the Advanced Placement test. Physics underlies much of what is happening today in other sciences and in technology, therefore the book includes interesting facts and ideas that go beyond the scope of the AP course to further student understanding. The AP Connection in each chapter directs students to the material they should focus on for the AP® exam, and what content — although interesting — is not necessarily part of the AP curriculum.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Author:
David Anderson
Douglas Ingram
Gregg Wolfe
Irna Lyublinskaya
John Stoke
Julie Kretchman
Liza Pujji
Nathan Czuba
Sudhi Oberoi
Date Added:
04/29/2015
Conceptual Physics
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For a semester-length course, all seven chapters can be covered. For a shorter course, the book is designed so that chapters 1, 2, and 5 are the only ones that are required for continuity; any of the others can be included or omitted at the instructor’s discretion, with the only constraint being that chapter 6 requires chapter 4.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Light and Matter
Provider Set:
Light and Matter Books
Author:
Benjamin Crowell, Fullerton College
Date Added:
01/01/2006
Discover Physics
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Discover Physics is a conceptual physics textbook intended for students in a nonmathematical one-semester general-education course.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Light and Matter
Author:
Ben
Crowell
Date Added:
02/16/2011
Electromagnetics, Volume 1
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Electromagnetics Volume 1 by Steven W. Ellingson is a 225-page, peer-reviewed open educational resource intended for electrical engineering students in the third year of a bachelor of science degree program. It is intended as a primary textbook for a one-semester first course in undergraduate engineering electromagnetics. The book employs the “transmission lines first” approach in which transmission lines are introduced using a lumped-element equivalent circuit model for a differential length of transmission line, leading to one-dimensional wage equations for voltage and current.

Suggested citation: Ellingson, Steven W. (2018) Electromagnetics, Vol. 1. Blacksburg, VA: VT Publishing. https://doi.org/10.21061/electromagnetics-vol-1 CC BY-SA 4.0

Three formats of this book are available:
Print (ISBN 978-0-9979201-8-5)
PDF (ISBN 978-0-9979201-9-2)
LaTeX source files

If you are a professor reviewing, adopting, or adapting this textbook please help us understand a little more about your use by filling out this form: http://bit.ly/vtpublishing-updates

Additional Resources
Problem sets and the corresponding solution manual are also available.
Community portal for the Electromagnetics series https://www.oercommons.org/groups/electromagnetics-user-group/3455/
Faculty listserv for the Electromagnetics series https://groups.google.com/a/vt.edu/d/forum/electromagnetics-g
Submit feedback and suggestions http://bit.ly/electromagnetics-suggestion

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1: Preliminary Concepts
Chapter 2: Electric and Magnetic Fields
Chapter 3: Transmission Lines
Chapter 4: Vector Analysis
Chapter 5: Electrostatics
Chapter 6: Steady Current and Conductivity
Chapter 7: Magnetostatics
Chapter 8: Time-Varying Fields
Chapter 9: Plane Waves in Lossless Media
Appendixes
A. Constitutive Parameters of Some Common Materials
B. Mathematical Formulas
C. Physical Constants

About the Author: Steven W. Ellingson (ellingson@vt.edu) is an Associate Professor at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia in the United States. He received PhD and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Ohio State University and a BS in Electrical & Computer Engineering from Clarkson University. He was employed by the US Army, Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Raytheon, and the Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory before joining the faculty of Virginia Tech, where he teaches courses in electromagnetics, radio frequency systems, wireless communications, and signal processing. His research includes topics in wireless communications, radio science, and radio frequency instrumentation. Professor Ellingson serves as a consultant to industry and government and is the author of Radio Systems Engineering (Cambridge University Press, 2016).

This textbook is part of the Open Electromagnetics Project led by Steven W. Ellingson at Virginia Tech. The goal of the project is to create no-cost openly-licensed content for courses in undergraduate engineering electromagnetics. The project is motivated by two things: lowering learning material costs for students and giving faculty the freedom to adopt, modify, and improve their educational resources.

Accessibility features of this book: Screen reader friendly, navigation, and Alt-text for all images and figures.

Publication of this book was made possible in part by the Open Education Faculty Initiative Grant program at the University Libraries at Virginia Tech. http://guides.lib.vt.edu/oer/grants

Subject:
Engineering
Physics
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Textbook
Provider:
Virginia Tech
Provider Set:
VTech Works
Author:
Steven W. Ellingson
Date Added:
08/23/2018
Electromagnetics, Volume 2
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Electromagnetics, volume 2 by Steven W. Ellingson is a 216-page peer-reviewed open textbook designed especially for electrical engineering students in the third year of a bachelor of science degree program. It is intended as the primary textbook for the second semester of a two-semester undergraduate engineering electromagnetics sequence. The book addresses magnetic force and the Biot-Savart law; general and lossy media; parallel plate and rectangular waveguides; parallel wire, microstrip, and coaxial transmission lines; AC current flow and skin depth; reflection and transmission at planar boundaries; fields in parallel plate, parallel wire, and microstrip transmission lines; optical fiber; and radiation and antennas.

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1: Preliminary Concepts
Chapter 2: Magnetostatics Redux
Chapter 3: Wave Propagation in General Media
Chapter 4: Current Flow in Imperfect Conductors
Chapter 5: Wave Reflection and Transmission
Chapter 6: Waveguides
Chapter 7: Transmission Lines Redux
Chapter 8: Optical Fiber
Chapter 9: Radiation
Chapter 10: Antennas
Appendix A: Constitutive Parameters of Some Common Materials
Appendix B: Mathematical Formulas
Appendix C: Physical Constants

Additional Resources
Problem sets and the corresponding solution manuals
Slides of figures used in and created for the book
LaTeX sourcefiles.
Screen-reader friendly version
Errata for Volume 2
Collaborator portal for the Electromagnetics series https://www.oercommons.org/groups/electromagnetics-user-group/3455
Faculty listserv for the Electromagnetics series
Submit feedback and suggestions

The Open Electromagnetics Project https://www.faculty.ece.vt.edu/swe/oem
Led by Steven W. Ellingson at Virginia Tech, the goal of the Open Electromagnetics Project is to create no-cost openly-licensed content for courses in engineering electromagnetics. The project is motivated by two things: lowering learning material costs for students and giving faculty the freedom to adopt, modify, and improve their educational resources.

Books in this Series
Electromagnetics, Volume 1 https://doi.org/10.21061/electromagnetics-vol-1
Electromagnetics, Volume 2 https://doi.org/10.21061/electromagnetics-vol-2

To express your interest in a book or this series, please visit http://bit.ly/vtpublishing-updates

Subject:
Engineering
Physics
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Textbook
Provider:
Virginia Tech
Provider Set:
VTech Works
Author:
Steven W. Ellingson
Date Added:
12/16/2019
Fundamentals of Mathematics
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Fundamentals of Mathematics is a work text that covers the traditional topics studied in a modern prealgebra course, as well as topics of estimation, elementary analytic geometry, and introductory algebra. It is intended for students who (1) have had a previous course in prealgebra, (2) wish to meet the prerequisite of a higher level course such as elementary algebra, and (3) need to review fundamental mathematical concepts and techniques. NOTE: This collection is a work in progress, and the content has not yet been marked up in CNXML. You can download PDF copies of individual chapters in from their respective modules.

Subject:
Physics
Women's Studies
Material Type:
Full Course
Reading
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax CNX
Author:
Denny Burzynski
Date Added:
02/16/2011
General Relativity
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This is a textbook on general relativity for upper-division undergraduates majoring in physics, at roughly the same level as Rindler's Essential Relativity or Hartle's Gravity. The book is meant to be especially well adapted for self-study, and answers are given in the back of the book for almost all the problems. The ratio of conceptual to mathematical problems is higher than in most books. The focus is on "index-gymnastics" techniques, to the exclusion of index-free notation. Knowledge of first-year calculus and lower-division mechanics and electromagnetism is assumed. Special relativity is introduced from scratch, but it will be very helpful to have a thorough previous knowledge of SR, at the level of a book such as Taylor and Wheeler's Spacetime Physics or my own text Special Relativity.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Light and Matter
Provider Set:
Light and Matter Books
Author:
Benjamin Crowell, Fullerton College
Date Added:
09/03/2015
Introduction to Electricity, Magnetism, and Circuits
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This textbook emphasizes connections between theory and application, making physics concepts interesting and accessible to students while maintaining the mathematical rigour inherent in the subject. Frequent, strong examples focus on how to approach a problem, how to work with the equations, and how to check and generalize the result.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Saskatchewan
Author:
Daryl Janzen
Date Added:
03/26/2019