Students connect polynomial arithmetic to computations with whole numbers and integers. Students learn that the arithmetic of rational expressions is governed by the same rules as the arithmetic of rational numbers. This unit helps students see connections between solutions to polynomial equations, zeros of polynomials, and graphs of polynomial functions. Polynomial equations are solved over the set of complex numbers, leading to a beginning understanding of the fundamental theorem of algebra. Application and modeling problems connect multiple representations and include both real world and purely mathematical situations.
In this module, students synthesize and generalize what they have learned about a variety of function families. They extend the domain of exponential functions to the entire real line (N-RN.A.1) and then extend their work with these functions to include solving exponential equations with logarithms (F-LE.A.4). They explore (with appropriate tools) the effects of transformations on graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions. They notice that the transformations on a graph of a logarithmic function relate to the logarithmic properties (F-BF.B.3). Students identify appropriate types of functions to model a situation. They adjust parameters to improve the model, and they compare models by analyzing appropriateness of fit and making judgments about the domain over which a model is a good fit. The description of modeling as, the process of choosing and using mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to make decisions, is at the heart of this module. In particular, through repeated opportunities in working through the modeling cycle (see page 61 of the CCLS), students acquire the insight that the same mathematical or statistical structure can sometimes model seemingly different situations.
In earlier grades, students define, evaluate, and compare functions and use them to model relationships between quantities. In this module, students extend their study of functions to include function notation and the concepts of domain and range. They explore many examples of functions and their graphs, focusing on the contrast between linear and exponential functions. They interpret functions given graphically, numerically, symbolically, and verbally; translate between representations; and understand the limitations of various representations.
In earlier modules, students analyze the process of solving equations and developing fluency in writing, interpreting, and translating between various forms of linear equations (Module 1) and linear and exponential functions (Module 3). These experiences combined with modeling with data (Module 2), set the stage for Module 4. Here students continue to interpret expressions, create equations, rewrite equations and functions in different but equivalent forms, and graph and interpret functions, but this time using polynomial functions, and more specifically quadratic functions, as well as square root and cube root functions.
This lesson has students create, compare, and solve linear, quadratic, exponential, and cubic functions based on a primary source from Weather Underground about the melting of the polar ice caps. If the formatting is an issue, contact me at email@example.com for a Google drive link to the lesson plan.
Following the steps of the iterative engineering design process, student teams use what they learned in the previous lessons and activity in this unit to research and choose materials for their model heart valves and test those materials to compare their properties to known properties of real heart valve tissues. Once testing is complete, they choose final materials and design and construct prototype valve models, then test them and evaluate their data. Based on their evaluations, students consider how they might redesign their models for improvement and then change some aspect of their models and retest aiming to design optimal heart valve models as solutions to the unit's overarching design challenge. They conclude by presenting for client review, in both verbal and written portfolio/report formats, summaries and descriptions of their final products with supporting data.
As part of the engineering design process to create testable model heart valves, students learn about the forces at play in the human body to open and close aortic valves. They learn about blood flow forces, elasticity, stress, strain, valve structure and tissue properties, and Young's modulus, including laminar and oscillatory flow, stress vs. strain relationship and how to calculate Young's modulus. They complete some practice problems that use the equations learned in the lesson mathematical functions that relate to the functioning of the human heart. With this understanding, students are ready for the associated activity, during which they research and test materials and incorporate the most suitable to design, build and test their own prototype model heart valves.
Learn about graphing polynomials. The shape of the curve changes as the constants are adjusted. View the curves for the individual terms (e.g. y=bx ) to see how they add to generate the polynomial curve.
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The table below shows historical estimates for the population of London. Year18011821 18411861 18811901 1921 1939 1961 London population 1,100,000 1,60...
This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to understand what the different algebraic forms of a quadratic function reveal about the properties of its graphical representation. In particular, the lesson will help teachers identify and help students who have the following difficulties: understanding how the factored form of the function can identify a graphŐs roots; understanding how the completed square form of the function can identify a graphŐs maximum or minimum point; and understanding how the standard form of the function can identify a graphŐs intercept.
This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to: articulate verbally the relationships between variables arising in everyday contexts; translate between everyday situations and sketch graphs of relationships between variables; interpret algebraic functions in terms of the contexts in which they arise; and reflect on the domains of everyday functions and in particular whether they should be discrete or continuous.
Students simulate disease transmission by collecting data based on their proximity to other students. One option for measuring proximity is by having Bluetooth devices "discover" each other. After data is collected, students apply graph theory to analyze it, and summarize their data and findings in lab report format. Students learn real-world engineering applications of graph theory and see how numerous instances of real-world relationships can be more thoroughly understood by applying graph theory. Also, by applying graph theory the students are able to come up with possible solutions to limit the spread of disease. The activity is intended to be part of a computer science curriculum and knowledge of the Java programming language is required. To complete the activity, a computer with Java installed and appropriate editing software is needed.
This exploration can be done in class near the beginning of a unit on graphing parabolas. Students need to be familiar with intercepts, and need to know what the vertex is.
The goal of this task is to get students to focus on the shape of the graph of the equation y=ex and how this changes depending on the sign of the exponent and on whether the exponential is in the numerator or denominator. It is also intended to develop familiarity, in the case of f and k, with the functions which are used in logistic growth models, further examined in ``Logistic Growth Model, Explicit Case'' and ``Logistic Growth Model, Abstract Verson.''
This is the first unit in the Algebra II curriculum and is fundamental for the rest of the year. During this course students study many different functions and their key features. Students will compare, contrast, and make generalizations about these functions using the key features and proper notation. This unit ensures that students can identify each type of key feature properly throughout the rest of the year.Objectives: Students will express and interpret intervals using both interval and inequality notation.Students will be able to express the domain and range of graphs using both interval and inequality notation.Students will be able to find the x and y intercepts of a function from a graph or from a linear equation.Students will be able to identify extrema, increasing, decreasing and constant intervals of a graph using interval notation.Students will be able to write the end behavior for any given graph.Technology Utilized: ● Desmos - This is an online graphing tool that can be used to make basic graphs as well as premade teacher bundles with student investigations. In this unit I have taken some of the premade investigations and edited them to meet my classroom needs.● Answer Garden - This tool will be used to brainstorm key features at the beginning of the unit and to assess student’s prior knowledge.● Kahoot - This tool is used as a classroom formative assessment. Students must be all on the same question which can also elicit discussion and show misconceptions with instant feedback.● Google Forms - This tool is used for short assessments, exit tickets, and graded homework assignments. The ability for multiple types of questions and self checking quiz option make this an easy way to quickly assess students and give feedback.
MathMemos is a teacher space where adult educators share rich math problems, samples of student work, and practical suggestions for bringing the problems to life in the classroom. All math problems are:
(1) Open-ended, meaning that it might have more than one answer or there may be multiple solution pathways to solve the problem.
(2) The prompt does not clearly direct the students towards a procedural pathway in solving the problem.
(3) Students should be able to struggle productively with the problem for an extended period of time: they are student driven.
The problems include and integrate a wide range of math content and topics such as: Algebra, Geometry, Functions, Number & Quantity, and Statistics & Probability. You can also search for specific topics (fractions, systems of equations, equality) or problem solving strategies (guess & check, charts & tables, visual strategies, manipulatives).
The resources is designed so that teachers can be thoroughly connected to a problem before taking it into the classroom, by solving it themselves and looking at samples of student work that other teachers have posted online. Then, teachers are encouraged to reflect on how the problem played out in their own classroom and post their reflections.
This collection is an ongoing project with new problems being added as teachers submit new write-ups.
A PD Module is available for Professional Developers.
MathMemos was created by Tyler Holzer with a grant from the New York State Education Department Office of Adult Career and Continuing Education Services.
Students will investigate bridge design and construction by using mathematics to model parabolas and other quadratic equations.