This lesson focuses on calculating the areas of rectangles. It is designed to enable adult students to successfully master basic geometry knowledge in order to achieve their High School Equivalency (HSE). Areas to be covered include types of polygons, quadrilaterals, rectangles; calculating areas of rectangle and calculating costs. Students will apply this knowledge to practical areas of their lives such as calculating the costs of purchasing carpets or painting of walls
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An interactive applet and associated web page that explain the area of a triangle. The applet shows a triangle that can be reshaped by dragging any vertex. As it changes, the area is continually recalculated using the 'half base times height' method. The triangle has a fixed square grid in its interior that can be used to visually estimate the area for later correlation with the calculated value. The calculation can be hidden while estimation is in progress. The text page has links to a similar page that uses Heron's Formula to compute the area. Applet can be enlarged to full screen size for use with a classroom projector. This resource is a component of the Math Open Reference Interactive Geometry textbook project at http://www.mathopenref.com.
A web page and interactive applet showing the ways to calculate the area of a parallelogram. The user can drag the vertices of the parallelogram and the other points change automatically to ensure it remains a parallelogram. A grid inside the shape allows students to estimate the area visually, then check against the actual computed area, which is continuously recomputed and displayed. The text on the page gives three different ways to calculate the area with a formula for each. The applet uses one of the methods to compute the area in real time, so it changes as the rhombus is reshaped with the mouse. A companion page is http://www.mathopenref.com/parallelogram.html showing the definition and properties of a parallelogram Applet can be enlarged to full screen size for use with a classroom projector. This resource is a component of the Math Open Reference Interactive Geometry textbook project at http://www.mathopenref.com.
This lesson unit is intended to help sixth grade teachers assess how well students are able to: Analyze a realistic situation mathematically; construct sight lines to decide which areas of a room are visible or hidden from a camera; find and compare areas of triangles and quadrilaterals; and calculate and compare percentages and/or fractions of areas.
An interactive applet and associated web page that show the relationship between the perimeter and area of a triangle. It shows that a triangle with a constant perimeter does NOT have a constant area. The applet has a triangle with one vertex draggable and a constant perimeter. As you drag the vertex, it is clear that the area varies, even though the perimeter is constant. Optionally, you can see the path traced by the dragged vertex and see that it forms an ellipse. A link takes you to a page where this effect is exploited to construct an ellipse with string and pins. The applet can be enlarged to full screen size for use with a classroom projector. This resource is a component of the Math Open Reference Interactive Geometry textbook project at http://www.mathopenref.com.
Lesson OverviewStudents use what they know about finding the areas of basic figures to find areas of composite figures.Key ConceptsA composite figure is a figure that can be divided into two or more basic figures.The area of a composite figure can be found by dividing it into basic figures whose areas can be calculated easily.For some figures, the area can also be found by surrounding the figure with a basic figure, creating other basic figures “between” the original figure and the surrounding figure. The area of the original figure can then be found by subtracting the basic figure.Goals and Learning ObjectivesFind the area of composite figures by decomposing and composing them into more basic figures.
Surface Area and Volume
Type of Unit: Conceptual
Students should be able to:
Identify rectangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and triangles and their bases and heights.
Identify cubes, rectangular prisms, and pyramids and their faces, edges, and vertices.
Understand that area of a 2-D figure is a measure of the figure's surface and that it is measured in square units.
Understand volume of a 3-D figure is a measure of the space the figure occupies and is measured in cubic units.
The unit begins with an exploratory lesson about the volumes of containers. Then in Lessons 2–5, students investigate areas of 2-D figures. To find the area of a parallelogram, students consider how it can be rearranged to form a rectangle. To find the area of a trapezoid, students think about how two copies of the trapezoid can be put together to form a parallelogram. To find the area of a triangle, students consider how two copies of the triangle can be put together to form a parallelogram. By sketching and analyzing several parallelograms, trapezoids, and triangles, students develop area formulas for these figures. Students then find areas of composite figures by decomposing them into familiar figures. In the last lesson on area, students estimate the area of an irregular figure by overlaying it with a grid. In Lesson 6, the focus shifts to 3-D figures. Students build rectangular prisms from unit cubes and develop a formula for finding the volume of any rectangular prism. In Lesson 7, students analyze and create nets for prisms. In Lesson 8, students compare a cube to a square pyramid with the same base and height as the cube. They consider the number of faces, edges, and vertices, as well as the surface area and volume. In Lesson 9, students use their knowledge of volume, area, and linear measurements to solve a packing problem.
Students construct "a tetrahedron and describe the linear, area and volume using non-traditional units of measure. Four tetrahedra are combined to form a similar tetrahedron whose linear dimensions are twice the original tetrahedron. The area and volume relationships between the first and second tetrahedra are explored, and generalizations for the relationships are developed." (from NCTM Illuminations)
This lesson unit is intended to help you assess how well students are able to: Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, recognizing and applying the conventional order of operations; Write and evaluate numerical expressions from diagrammatic representations and be able to identify equivalent expressions; apply the distributive and commutative properties appropriately; and use the method for finding areas of compound rectangles.
This is the first version of a task asking students to find the areas of triangles that have the same base and height, and is the most concrete.
Lesson OverviewStudents find the area of a parallelogram by rearranging it to form a rectangle. They find the area of a trapezoid by putting together two copies of it to form a parallelogram. By doing these activities and by analyzing the dimensions and areas of several examples of each figure, students develop and understand area formulas for parallelograms and trapezoids.Key ConceptsA parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The base of a parallelogram can be any of the four sides. The height is the perpendicular distance from the base to the opposite side.A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides. The bases of a trapezoid are the parallel sides. The height is the perpendicular distance between the bases.You can cut a parallelogram into two pieces and reassemble them to form a rectangle. Because the area does not change, the area of the rectangle is the same as the area of the parallelogram. This gives the parallelogram area formula A = bh.You can put two identical trapezoids together to form a parallelogram with the same height as the trapezoid and a base length equal to the sum of the base lengths of the trapezoid. The area of the parallelogram is (b1 + b2)h, so the area of the trapezoid is one-half of this area. Thus, the trapezoid area formula is A = 12(b1 + b2)h.Goals and Learning ObjectivesDevelop and explore the formula for the area of a parallelogram.Develop and explore the formula for the area of a trapezoid.
This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to visualize two-dimensional cross-sections of representations of three-dimensional objects. In particular, the lesson will help you identify and help students who have difficulties recognizing and drawing two-dimensional cross-sections at different points along a plane of a representation of a three-dimensional object.
This is the second version of a task asking students to find the areas of triangles that have the same base and height. This presentation is more abstract as students are not using physical models.
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The vertices of eight polygons are given below. For each polygon: * Plot the points in the coordinate plane connect the points in the order that they a...
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Take a square with area 1. Divide it into 9 equal-sized squares. Remove the middle one. What is the area of the figure now? Take the remaining 8 square...
In this module, students utilize their previous experiences in order to understand and develop formulas for area, volume, and surface area. Students use composition and decomposition to determine the area of triangles, quadrilaterals, and other polygons. Extending skills from Module 3 where they used coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points on a coordinate plane, students determine distance, perimeter, and area on the coordinate plane in real-world contexts. Next in the module comes real-life application of the volume formula where students extend the notion that volume is additive and find the volume of composite solid figures. They apply volume formulas and use their previous experience with solving equations to find missing volumes and missing dimensions. The final topic includes deconstructing the faces of solid figures to determine surface area. To wrap up the module, students apply the surface area formula to real-life contexts and distinguish between the need to find surface area or volume within contextual situations.
Students will have to solve the real world problem of locker smell leakage by building an air filter that will cover the vents on the top of a locker. This project goes well with a curriculum on the particle nature of gases and phase changes.