Students connect polynomial arithmetic to computations with whole numbers and integers. Students learn that the arithmetic of rational expressions is governed by the same rules as the arithmetic of rational numbers. This unit helps students see connections between solutions to polynomial equations, zeros of polynomials, and graphs of polynomial functions. Polynomial equations are solved over the set of complex numbers, leading to a beginning understanding of the fundamental theorem of algebra. Application and modeling problems connect multiple representations and include both real world and purely mathematical situations.
Module 2 builds on students previous work with units and with functions from Algebra I, and with trigonometric ratios and circles from high school Geometry. The heart of the module is the study of precise definitions of sine and cosine (as well as tangent and the co-functions) using transformational geometry from high school Geometry. This precision leads to a discussion of a mathematically natural unit of rotational measure, a radian, and students begin to build fluency with the values of the trigonometric functions in terms of radians. Students graph sinusoidal and other trigonometric functions, and use the graphs to help in modeling and discovering properties of trigonometric functions. The study of the properties culminates in the proof of the Pythagorean identity and other trigonometric identities.
In this module, students synthesize and generalize what they have learned about a variety of function families. They extend the domain of exponential functions to the entire real line (N-RN.A.1) and then extend their work with these functions to include solving exponential equations with logarithms (F-LE.A.4). They explore (with appropriate tools) the effects of transformations on graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions. They notice that the transformations on a graph of a logarithmic function relate to the logarithmic properties (F-BF.B.3). Students identify appropriate types of functions to model a situation. They adjust parameters to improve the model, and they compare models by analyzing appropriateness of fit and making judgments about the domain over which a model is a good fit. The description of modeling as, the process of choosing and using mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to make decisions, is at the heart of this module. In particular, through repeated opportunities in working through the modeling cycle (see page 61 of the CCLS), students acquire the insight that the same mathematical or statistical structure can sometimes model seemingly different situations.
Students build a formal understanding of probability, considering complex events such as unions, intersections, and complements as well as the concept of independence and conditional probability. The idea of using a smooth curve to model a data distribution is introduced along with using tables and techonolgy to find areas under a normal curve. Students make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies. Data is used from random samples to estimate a population mean or proportion. Students calculate margin of error and interpret it in context. Given data from a statistical experiment, students use simulation to create a randomization distribution and use it to determine if there is a significant difference between two treatments.
In this module, students reconnect with and deepen their understanding of statistics and probability concepts first introduced in Grades 6, 7, and 8. Students develop a set of tools for understanding and interpreting variability in data, and begin to make more informed decisions from data. They work with data distributions of various shapes, centers, and spreads. Students build on their experience with bivariate quantitative data from Grade 8. This module sets the stage for more extensive work with sampling and inference in later grades.
In earlier grades, students define, evaluate, and compare functions and use them to model relationships between quantities. In this module, students extend their study of functions to include function notation and the concepts of domain and range. They explore many examples of functions and their graphs, focusing on the contrast between linear and exponential functions. They interpret functions given graphically, numerically, symbolically, and verbally; translate between representations; and understand the limitations of various representations.
In earlier modules, students analyze the process of solving equations and developing fluency in writing, interpreting, and translating between various forms of linear equations (Module 1) and linear and exponential functions (Module 3). These experiences combined with modeling with data (Module 2), set the stage for Module 4. Here students continue to interpret expressions, create equations, rewrite equations and functions in different but equivalent forms, and graph and interpret functions, but this time using polynomial functions, and more specifically quadratic functions, as well as square root and cube root functions.
Module 1 embodies critical changes in Geometry as outlined by the Common Core. The heart of the module is the study of transformations and the role transformations play in defining congruence. The topic of transformations is introduced in a primarily experiential manner in Grade 8 and is formalized in Grade 10 with the use of precise language. The need for clear use of language is emphasized through vocabulary, the process of writing steps to perform constructions, and ultimately as part of the proof-writing process.
Just as rigid motions are used to define congruence in Module 1, so dilations are added to define similarity in Module 2. To be able to discuss similarity, students must first have a clear understanding of how dilations behave. This is done in two parts, by studying how dilations yield scale drawings and reasoning why the properties of dilations must be true. Once dilations are clearly established, similarity transformations are defined and length and angle relationships are examined, yielding triangle similarity criteria. An in-depth look at similarity within right triangles follows, and finally the module ends with a study of right triangle trigonometry.
Module 3, Extending to Three Dimensions, builds on students understanding of congruence in Module 1 and similarity in Module 2 to prove volume formulas for solids. The student materials consist of the student pages for each lesson in Module 3. The copy ready materials are a collection of the module assessments, lesson exit tickets and fluency exercises from the teacher materials.
In this module, students explore and experience the utility of analyzing algebra and geometry challenges through the framework of coordinates. The module opens with a modeling challenge, one that reoccurs throughout the lessons, to use coordinate geometry to program the motion of a robot that is bound within a certain polygonal region of the planethe room in which it sits. To set the stage for complex work in analytic geometry (computing coordinates of points of intersection of lines and line segments or the coordinates of points that divide given segments in specific length ratios, and so on), students will describe the region via systems of algebraic inequalities and work to constrain the robot motion along line segments within the region.
This module brings together the ideas of similarity and congruence and the properties of length, area, and geometric constructions studied throughout the year. It also includes the specific properties of triangles, special quadrilaterals, parallel lines and transversals, and rigid motions established and built upon throughout this mathematical story. This module's focus is on the possible geometric relationships between a pair of intersecting lines and a circle drawn on the page.
In this first module of Grade 1, students make significant progress towards fluency with addition and subtraction of numbers to 10 as they are presented with opportunities intended to advance them from counting all to counting on which leads many students then to decomposing and composing addends and total amounts.
Module 2 serves as a bridge from students' prior work with problem solving within 10 to work within 100 as students begin to solve addition and subtraction problems involving teen numbers. Students go beyond the Level 2 strategies of counting on and counting back as they learn Level 3 strategies informally called "make ten" or "take from ten."
Module 3 begins by extending students kindergarten experiences with direct length comparison to indirect comparison whereby the length of one object is used to compare the lengths of two other objects. Longer than and shorter than are taken to a new level of precision by introducing the idea of a length unit. Students then explore the usefulness of measuring with similar units. The module closes with students representing and interpreting data.
Module 4 builds upon Module 2s work with place value within 20, now focusing on the role of place value in the addition and subtraction of numbers to 40. Students study, organize, and manipulate numbers within 40. They compare quantities and begin using the symbols for greater than (>) and less than (<). Addition and subtraction of tens is another focus of this module as is the use of familiar strategies to add two-digit and single-digit numbers within 40. Near the end of the module, the focus moves to new ways to represent larger quantities and adding like place value units as students add two-digit numbers.
In Module 5, students consider partwhole relationships through a geometric lens. The module opens with students identifying the defining parts, or attributes, of two- and three-dimensional shapes, building on their kindergarten experiences of sorting, analyzing, comparing, and creating various two- and three-dimensional shapes and objects. Students combine shapes to create a new whole: a composite shape. They also relate geometric figures to equal parts and name the parts as halves and fourths. The module closes with students applying their understanding of halves to tell time to the hour and half hour.
In this final module of the Grade 1 curriculum, students bring together their learning from Module 1 through Module 5 to learn the most challenging Grade 1 standards and celebrate their progress. As the module opens, students grapple with comparative word problem types. Next, they extend their understanding of and skill with tens and ones to numbers to 100. Students also extend their learning from Module 4 to the numbers to 100 to add and subtract. At the start of the second half of Module 6, students are introduced to nickels and quarters, having already used pennies and dimes in the context of their work with numbers to 40 in Module 4. Students use their knowledge of tens and ones to explore decompositions of the values of coins. The module concludes with fun fluency festivities to celebrate a year's worth of learning.
Module 1 sets the foundation for students to master the sums and differences to 20 and to subsequently apply these skills to fluently add one-digit to two-digit numbers at least through 100 using place value understandings, properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
In this 12-day Grade 2 module, students engage in activities designed to deepen their conceptual understanding of measurement and to relate addition and subtraction to length. Their work in Module 2 is exclusively with metric units in order to support place value concepts. Customary units will be introduced in Module 7.
In this 25-day Grade 2 module, students expand their skill with and understanding of units by bundling ones, tens, and hundreds up to a thousand with straws. Unlike the length of 10 centimeters in Module 2, these bundles are discrete sets. One unit can be grabbed and counted just like a banana?1 hundred, 2 hundred, 3 hundred, etc. A number in Grade 1 generally consisted of two different units, tens and ones. Now, in Grade 2, a number generally consists of three units: hundreds, tens, and ones. The bundled units are organized by separating them largest to smallest, ordered from left to right. Over the course of the module, instruction moves from physical bundles that show the proportionality of the units to non-proportional place value disks and to numerals on the place value chart.
In Module 4, students develop place value strategies to fluently add and subtract within 100; they represent and solve one- and two-step word problems of varying types within 100; and they develop conceptual understanding of addition and subtraction of multi-digit numbers within 200. Using a concrete to pictorial to abstract approach, students use manipulatives and math drawings to develop an understanding of the composition and decomposition of units, and they relate these representations to the standard algorithm for addition and subtraction.
In Module 4, students developed addition and subtraction fluency within 100 and began developing conceptual understanding of the standard algorithm via place value strategies. In Module 5, students build upon their mastery of renaming place value units and extend their work with conceptual understanding of the addition and subtraction algorithms to numbers within 1,000, always with the option of modeling with materials or drawings. Throughout the module, students continue to focus on strengthening and deepening conceptual understanding and fluency.
Module 6 lays the conceptual foundation for multiplication and division in Grade 3 and for the idea that numbers other than 1, 10, and 100 can serve as units. Topics in this module include: Formation of Equal Groups, Arrays and Equal Groups, Rectangular Arrays as a Foundation for Multiplication and Division, and The Meaning of Even and Odd Numbers.
Module 7 presents an opportunity for students to practice addition and subtraction strategies within 100 and problem-solving skills as they learn to work with various types of units within the contexts of length, money, and data. Students represent categorical and measurement data using picture graphs, bar graphs, and line plots. They revisit measuring and estimating length from Module 2, though now using both metric and customary units.
In Module 8, the final module of the year, students extend their understanding of partwhole relationships through the lens of geometry. As students compose and decompose shapes, they begin to develop an understanding of unit fractions as equal parts of a whole.
In this 35-day Grade 3 module, students extend and deepen second grade practice with "equal shares" to understanding fractions as equal partitions of a whole. Their knowledge becomes more formal as they work with area models and the number line.
Module 2 uses place value to unify measurement, rounding skills, and the standard algorithms for addition and subtraction. The module begins with plenty of hands-on experience using a variety of tools to build practical measurement skills and conceptual understanding of metric and time units. Estimation naturally surfaces through application; this transitions students into rounding. In the modules final topics students round to assess whether or not their solutions to problems solved using the standard algorithms are reasonable.
This 25-day module builds directly on students work with multiplication and division in Module 1. Module 3 extends the study of factors from 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 to include all units from 0 to 10, as well as multiples of 10 within 100. Similar to the organization of Module 1, the introduction of new factors in Module 3 spreads across topics. This allows students to build fluency with facts involving a particular unit before moving on. The factors are sequenced to facilitate systematic instruction with increasingly sophisticated strategies and patterns.
In this 20-day module students explore area as an attribute of two-dimensional figures and relate it to their prior understandings of multiplication. Students conceptualize area as the amount of two-dimensional surface that is contained within a plane figure. They come to understand that the space can be tiled with unit squares without gaps or overlaps. They make predictions and explore which rectangles cover the most area when the side lengths differ. Students progress from using square tile manipulatives to drawing their own area models and manipulate rectangular arrays to concretely demonstrate the arithmetic properties. The module culminates with students designing a simple floor plan that conforms to given area specifications.
This 10-day module builds on Grade 2 concepts about data, graphing, and line plots. The two topics in this module focus on generating and analyzing categorical and measurement data. By the end of the module, students are working with a mixture of scaled picture graphs, bar graphs, and line plots to problem solve using both categorical and measurement data.
This 40-day final module of the year offers students intensive practice with word problems, as well as hands-on investigation experiences with geometry and perimeter. The module begins with solving one- and two-step word problems based on a variety of topics studied throughout the year, using all four operations. Next students explore geometry. Students tessellate to bridge geometry experience with the study of perimeter. Line plots, familiar from Module 6, help students draw conclusions about perimeter and area measurements. Students solve word problems involving area and perimeter using all four operations. The module concludes with a set of engaging lessons that briefly review the fundamental Grade 3 concepts of fractions, multiplication, and division.
In this 25-day module of Grade 4, students extend their work with whole numbers. They begin with large numbers using familiar units (hundreds and thousands) and develop their understanding of millions by building knowledge of the pattern of times ten in the base ten system on the place value chart (4.NBT.1). They recognize that each sequence of three digits is read as hundreds, tens, and ones followed by the naming of the corresponding base thousand unit (thousand, million, billion).
Module 2 uses length, mass and capacity in the metric system to convert between units using place value knowledge. Students recognize patterns of converting units on the place value chart, just as 1000 grams is equal 1 kilogram, 1000 ones is equal to 1 thousand. Conversions are recorded in two-column tables and number lines, and are applied in single- and multi-step word problems solved by the addition and subtraction algorithm or a special strategy. Mixed unit practice prepares students for multi-digit operations and manipulating fractional units in future modules.
In this 43-day module, students use place value understanding and visual representations to solve multiplication and division problems with multi-digit numbers. As a key area of focus for Grade 4, this module moves slowly but comprehensively to develop students ability to reason about the methods and models chosen to solve problems with multi-digit factors and dividends.
This 20-day module introduces points, lines, line segments, rays, and angles, as well as the relationships between them. Students construct, recognize, and define these geometric objects before using their new knowledge and understanding to classify figures and solve problems. With angle measure playing a key role in their work throughout the module, students learn how to create and measure angles, as well as create and solve equations to find unknown angle measures. In these problems, where the unknown angle is represented by a letter, students explore both measuring the unknown angle with a protractor and reasoning through the solving of an equation. Through decomposition and composition activities as well as an exploration of symmetry, students recognize specific attributes present in two-dimensional figures. They further develop their understanding of these attributes as they classify two-dimensional figures based on them.
In this 40-day module, students build on their Grade 3 work with unit fractions as they explore fraction equivalence and extend this understanding to mixed numbers. This leads to the comparison of fractions and mixed numbers and the representation of both in a variety of models. Benchmark fractions play an important part in students ability to generalize and reason about relative fraction and mixed number sizes. Students then have the opportunity to apply what they know to be true for whole number operations to the new concepts of fraction and mixed number operations.
This 20-day module gives students their first opportunity to explore decimal numbers via their relationship to decimal fractions, expressing a given quantity in both fraction and decimal forms. Utilizing the understanding of fractions developed throughout Module 5, students apply the same reasoning to decimal numbers, building a solid foundation for Grade 5 work with decimal operations.
In this 20-day module, students build their competencies in measurement as they relate multiplication to the conversion of measurement units. Throughout the module, students will explore multiple strategies for solving measurement problems involving unit conversion.