Author:
MSDE Admin, Bruce Riegel, Amy Tubman, Melinda Wilson, Kathleen Hogan, Gwen Lewis, Marcella Brown, Jessica J. Reinhard, Kathleen Gregory, Heidi Strite, Margaret Lee
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Level:
Lower Primary
Grade:
2
Tags:
Early, Early Learning, MSDE, MSDE GT, PTD, Preservation, Preservation Problem Solvers, Primary Talent Development, Problem, Science, Second Grade, Solvers, Talent Development, msde, msde-gt
License:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Downloadable docs

Education Standards (12)

Second Grade: Preservation Problem Solvers

Lesson Overview

The purpose of Preservation Problem Solvers is to encourage students to use leadership and resourceful behaviors to think like a scientist. This module extends the Essential Strategies of AttributesQuestioning, and Creative Problem Solving introduced in Kindergarten and First Grade, is for all students. The classroom teacher should work with a specialist or special educator to find or develop alternate activities or resources for visually impaired students, where appropriate.

Section 1: Focus Lesson: Leadership

STANDARDS:

  • L.2.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  • SL.2.1  Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • SL.2.4  Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • SL.2.6 Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.
  • W.2.8  Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • C3-D2.Civ.6: p. 32 Describe how communities work together to accomplish common tasks, establish responsibilities, and fulfill the roles of authority.
  • PD2.6.Civ.B.3 Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions while responding attentively to others when addressing ideas and making decisions as a group.
  • MD 1.A.1.b. Identify leadership positions and organizations in the community and explain how they can be helpful in maintaining safety and order.
  • Alternative Standard: C3- D2.Civ.1.K-2. p. 32 Describe the roles and responsibilities of people in authority.

ENGAGEMENT:
Divide the students into groups of 35 and present them with the following problem: Using the materials given to your group, create the tallest tower you can.
You can offer the students either:

  • minimarshmallows and spaghetti
  • toothpicks and playdough
  • a sheet of 8 1⁄2 by 11 paper and a 5 cm piece of masking tape
  • 5 sheets of newspaper, 2 pairs of scissors, 1 roll of masking or scotch tape

EXPLORATION:
Provide the students with time to work together and build their towers. During this activity, the teacher will circulate through the groups taking notes on student responses based on the Readiness, Emergent, Progressing, Independent (REPI) Developmental Continuum to complete RS1 Leadership Observation Sheet or another record-keeping method to capture the behavior.  Some students may not demonstrate leadership behaviors during this lesson.

Additionally, the goal of this lesson is not to identify resourceful behaviors but record observations as anecdotal notes. As an alternative recordkeeping method, use the Focus Lesson 1 Leadership Anecdotal Notes Sheet.  Attach this sheet to a clipboard to document leadership behaviors. Cut out and attached the squares to the PTD 2nd Grade Portfolio Summary as an artifact.

EXPLANATION:
Debrief the activity with the class. Use the following questions to help guide the discussion.

  • How did your group begin to build the tower?
  • What was the biggest obstacle the group faced? How did the group deal with that problem?
  • What contributions did different group members provide?
  • What would you change to make the challenge better the next time?

EXTENSION:
Display RS 2 Attributes of a Leader as a poster. Beforehand cover each of the six boxes with a sticky note. Explain that the purpose of the challenge was not just to build the tallest tower but also to begin to recognize and define leadership. Ask questions that will guide the students toward identifying the attributes of a leader. As they offer examples, uncover any of the attributes on the resource sheet that correspond. Help the students uncover all six attributes.  

Focused leadership questions may include:

  • Did anyone in your group stand out as a leader(s)?  If so, what did they do that showed leadership?
  • Can you offer some general descriptions of what it means to be a leader? 
  • How do leaders listen?  How do leaders speak?
  • What actions do leaders show?
  • What would you have liked the leader to do that he or she did not?

If, for example, a student says, “A leader is nice,” ask what the leader did to show that he or she was nice, which should help elicit the idea that a leader listens to group members’ contributions.

 

Uncover all the boxes and read them to the group.  Ask, “What leadership was missing in your group that might have helped the group better meet the challenge?”

 

Summarize the discussion using the questions and RS 2 Attributes of a Leader.  Lead students to generate the following definition of a leader: A leader motivates others and organizes them to achieve a goal.  Share the RS 3 Leadership Behavior Poster.

EVALUATION:
Students will complete Looking for a Leader (RS4) to demonstrate their understanding of the attributes of an effective leader. Do not include this documentation in the student’s PTD portfolio, as this activity assesses the lesson objective, but not leadership behaviors. Display this activity in the classroom or send it home with the student.

 

**Teachers can also code the RS4 artifact for leadership and other standards using the PPS Focus Lesson 1 Leadership Alternative REPI in the resources.  Additionally, you can code the RS4 artifact for Communicative behavior and included it in the student’s primary portfolio. See Resources for the Communicative Anecdotal Note Sheet. **

 

Document leadership behaviors as you walk around the room.  Use this Rubric as a guide to document on the anecdotal notes sheet of choice and attach to the PTD 2nd Grade Portfolio Summary.

REPI Developmental Continuum for Leadership Behaviors (if observed)

Scenario: When working with a group to build a tall tower, the student…

 

Leadership Descriptor

Leadership Example

Readiness

interacts with the group on assigned tasks

listens but does not participate, helps build the tower.

Emergent

initiates ideas and listens to others’ ideas and concerns

listens, participates minimally, and may contribute at least one idea, makes suggestions to the group. For example, we should use the marshmallows to stick the spaghetti together.

Progressing

influences others to participate in a task or adopt a plan

shares ideas and considers the ideas of others, participates consistently, gives reasons for implementation. For example, we should use the marshmallows to stick the spaghetti together because marshmallows are sticky and will hold it together

Independent

organizes a group to implement a plan of action

listens, shares ideas, considers and includes ideas of others, organizes, or directs others to achieve the goal. May recognize, encourage, or praise the ideas of others, delegates responsibilities. For example, Why don’t you break these pieces of spaghetti, while I put marshmallows on the end of each stick?

.

Section 2: Lesson 1: Creative Problem Solving - Humpty Dumpty

STANDARDS:

  • L.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate an understanding of key details in a text.
  • RL.2.4 Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • RL.2.7 Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate an understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
  • SL.2.1  Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • SL 2.2 Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.2.3 Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
  • W.2.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.8  Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • PD2.6.Civ.B.4 Compare their own point of view with others' perspectives
  • C-3 D2.Civ.10.K-2. Compare their own point of view with others’ perspectives.

ENGAGEMENT:

Acknowledge and establish prior knowledge by asking the whole group:

  • Who is familiar with the “Humpty Dumpty” nursery rhyme (show of hands)?
  • What parts of the rhyme do you remember?
  • What images come to mind when you think of the rhyme?

Display a copy of the nursery rhyme Humpty Dumpty. Read the nursery rhyme with the students. State that Humpty Dumpty has a MESS on his hands and all problems stem from a mess. Ask students, “Humpty Dumpty had a mess on his hands. How do you think he should solve his problem?” Discuss.

Explain that we are going to use the five steps of the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) Model to help Humpty out of the mess. Remind students that in Grade 1, they learned a process for solving problems called the Creative Problem Solving Process (CPS), which is the process they used to design a wolfproof house for the Fourth Little Pig. Share and name each step (RS5-e CPS Posters).

During this lesson have RS1 Leadership Observation Class Record or the Anecdotal Notes Sheet for Leadership Behaviors handy for notetaking. This lesson is also an opportunity for noting resourceful behaviors, particularly Steps 3 and 5.

EXPLORATION:
Step 1: Fact-Finding (whole group) Review the rhyme. Display RS6a 5W's Humpty Dumpty Teacher Model Sheet to model identifying and recording the important information in Step 1 of CPS. Tell the class that we will use CPS to help identify and solve the problems of Humpty Dumpty together. Students will use CPS independently with some other nursery rhyme characters soon.

 

Ask students to identify the 5W’s and 1H.  The teacher will record the basic, factual responses to the 5W’s and 1H questioning stems. Display, model, and record their responses for future reference to develop leadership behaviors, place students in small groups of 3-5 students.  Ask students to think-pair-share in the group and come up with one response per group, documenting leadership behaviors on the RS1 Leadership Observation Record or using the Anecdotal Notes Sheet for Leadership Behaviors.

Sample possible responses include:

  • WHO? - Humpty Dumpty, all King’s horses, all King’s men
  • WHAT? – HD is broken and can’t be fixed
  • WHEN? – don’t know
  • WHERE? – a wall 
  • WHY? – HD fell off the wall.
  • HOW? – He had a great fall.

Step 2: Problem-finding (individual/whole group) Give each student 3-4 sticky notes and have them participate in a “3-minute write” identifying a different Humpty Dumpty problem on a sticky note. Teacher display and model using RS6b Problem Finding Humpty Dumpty Teacher Model Sheet. If you would like to document leadership behaviors, ask students to think-pair-share in the group and come up with one response (sticky-note) per group, documenting leadership behaviors on the RS1 Leadership Observation Record or using the Anecdotal Notes Sheet for Leadership Behaviors.

 

Possible problems: 1) the wall is too high, 2) the ground is too hard, 3) he has a round bottom, 4) he is afraid of heights, 5) the wall is not wide enough, 6) there is no place to hold one, 7) all the king’s horses/men scared him, 8) his shell is too fragile, 9) he has “raw” insides, 10) there is no seat on the wall, or 11) Humpty Dumpty is broken. Trying to fix Humpty Dumpty took all the King’s horses and all the King’s men too long. Trying to fix Humpty Dumpty took all the King’s horses and all the King’s men away from their jobs. Humpty Dumpty made a mess when he fell and broke his shell...

 

Select one student or group to post their 3-4 sticky note problems on chart paper. Ask students if they have any different problems.  If so, post these sticky notes, as well.  After posting all original problems, review each one asking students who wrote the same problem to raise their hand while collecting a tally count for each problem to help arrive at the most identified problem. If there is a tie between two or three problems, conduct a class vote to arrive at one problem. As an alternative, you could have students come up and arrange all class sticky notes on the chart after identifying the "original" problems. Rephrase and rewrite the most identified problem into a PROBLEM STATEMENT using the stem, “In what ways might we… (Example: In what ways might soften the ground to keep HD from breaking when he falls?).  This problem will guide the next steps in applying the CPS Model.

 

Step 3: Idea-finding (whole-group/individual) Display RS6c Idea Finding Humpty Dumpty Teacher Model Sheet. Tell students that they are now going to brainstorm ideas for a solution to the problem. Refer to and read the rules for RS7 Brainstorming Poster (from Grade one). Restate how important each rule is when generating ideas to solve a problem. Distribute RS6e Idea Finding Humpty Dumpty Student Sheet to each student, instructing him or her to write/draw as many ideas as they can think of in another “3-minute write” to solve the problem identified in the Problem Statement.  Before students get started, remind them to accept all answers when brainstorming.  The best way to have good ideas is to have many ideas. Brainstorming is not the time for judgment.  Document resourceful behaviors on RS6e. Optional: You may also note persistent behaviors.

 

After three minutes, have students stop and draw a line under their last idea.  Refer to the “piggyback” bullet on the Brainstorming poster. Model “piggybacking” by asking a student to share one of their ideas and, as the teacher, provide a “piggyback” follow-up idea. Point out the connection between the two ideas and how one built upon another.  Explain that this is the definition of the term “piggy-back.”Example:

Student’s idea, “I would put a pillow on the ground.”

Teacher’s piggybacked idea, “Oh! I would put a mattress under him.”

 

Provide practice by asking different students to share an idea (whole class or in their group) and inviting classmates to offer a verbal “piggyback” response. Repeat, as needed. Students will then select one item from their written list and write a “piggyback” idea below the line that they drew.

 

Each student will then circle his or her BEST idea.  As they share, display, and write the ideas on a class chart (RS6) using checkmarks for repeated or similar ideas. Finally, use discussion, elimination, or a show of hands to arrive at THREE best ideas. If you would like to document leadership behaviors, ask students to think-pair-share in the group and come up with one response per group while documenting leadership behaviors on the RS1 Leadership Observation Record or the Anecdotal Notes Sheet for Leadership Behaviors.

NOTE:  If using as a Social Studies grade-able, have students complete the last section of RS6e, explaining WHY they think their idea is the “best.”

EXPLANATION:
Step 4: Solution-Finding (whole group) Display the Criterion Matrix RS6d Solution Finding Humpty Dumpty Teacher Model Sheet. List the THREE best ideas from the previous step in the left column. Read the judging criteria.  Define criteria as “a rule we use to decide or judge.” Discuss judging criteria, such as:

  • cost-efficient (doesn’t cost a lot of money)
  • effective (will help the Humpty Dumpty or the King’s men and horses)
  • easy to implement (will not take a lot of time and effort).

Model writing the top three solutions on RS6d on the side of the grid under “Ideas.”  As a class, discuss each idea and give “thumbs (arrow) up” or “thumbs (arrow) down” judgments. You may opt to use a smiley face, or YES/NO/Cannot tell. Using the smiley face/points to evaluate each idea according to your criteria. Analyze the results to determine the best solution for solving Humpty Dumpty’s problem.

**If dividing the lesson into two segments, stop here. **

EXTENSION:
Students will work in groups to use the CPS process with a different nursery rhyme. Before dividing the students into groups for the next task, ask the students who would like to be a leader today. Divide students into groups based on the number of volunteers. You can ask the class to nominate students they think would be effective, or divide the class into groups and look for leaders to emerge, should more leaders be required. Students will work through Steps 14 of RS8 Jack and Jill as a group. Document resourceful and leadership behaviors.  Idea: If the teacher has modeled the CPS steps in a lesson, ask students to complete a portion of Jack and Jill during independent reading time, i.e., if the teacher modeled the fact-finding process for Humpty Dumpty, students could read the Jack and Jill poem and document the 5W's and 1H during independent reading, which would give the teacher an accurate representation of what the student can do independently.  The teacher can then collect that page of Jack and Jill, document the student REPI, and attach the artifact to the PTD Second Grade Portfolio Summary.

EVALUATION:
Step 5: Acceptance-Finding is individualized Explain to students that the Acceptance-Finding step involves putting the best solution into ACTION.  Distribute RS6f Acceptance-Finding Humpty Dumpty Student Sheet.  Apply the REPI Developmental Continuum for the demonstration of resourceful behaviors. 

Artifact Option 1, 2, and 3:  RS6e & f, and RS8: Idea-Finding Humpty Dumpty Student Sheet. REPI code for resourceful behaviors and collect.  Attach it to the PTD Second Grade Portfolio Summary. Use the REPI Rubric below to guide documentation of Resourceful, Persistent, and Leadership Behaviors, as needed.

REPI Developmental Continuum for Resourceful Behaviors

Scenario: When brainstorming ideas to solve the Problem Statement…

 

Resourceful Descriptor

Resourceful Example

Readiness

recognizes and uses available materials to complete a task

Not yet able to generate an idea

Emergent

adapts materials to new uses and situations

says “hello” to a single idea

Progressing

initiates adaptations and adjustments to be more effective

stretches to generate several ideas

Independent

anticipates outcomes, experiments and improvises to solve problems efficiently and effectively

identifies several ideas and adds a “piggyback” idea

REPI Developmental Continuum for Persistent Behaviors

Scenario: When brainstorming (RS8) ideas to solve the Problem Statement…

 

Persistent Descriptor

Persistent Example

Readiness

stays on task for a reasonable period of time

copies an idea that has been previously modeled

Emergent

looks for more than one way to accomplish a task

writes one idea when brainstorming

Progressing

analyzes the situation and continues to search for additional information

writes several ideas when brainstorming

Independent

analyzes, tests, and verifies conclusions

Offers or writes one or more “piggyback” ideas

REPI Developmental Continuum for Leadership Behaviors (if observed) 

Scenario: When asked to develop an action plan, the student...

 

 

Leadership Descriptor

Leadership Example (Group task)

 

Readiness

interacts with the group on assigned tasks

listens and participates

 

Emergent

initiates ideas and listens to others’ ideas and concerns

listens, participates, and contributes at least one idea

 

Progressing

influences others to participate in a task or adopt a plan

shares ideas and considers the ideas of others

 

Independent

organizes a group to implement a plan of action

listens, participates, shares ideas considers other’s ideas and organizes the group

 

REPI Developmental Continuum for Resourceful Behaviors 

Scenario: When asked to develop an action plan, the student... 

 

 

Resourceful Descriptor

Resourceful Example (Acceptance Finding)

 

Readiness

recognizes and uses available materials to complete a task

the action plan is not developed. Humpty Dumpty or Jack and Jill should call 911

 

Emergent

adapts materials to new uses and situations

the solution addresses the problem effectively (according to criteria)

 

Progressing

initiates adaptations and adjustments to be more effective

the solution addresses the problem effectively (according to criteria) and offers ways to overcome possible obstacles

 

Independent

anticipates outcomes, experiments, and improvises to solve problems efficiently and effectively

the solution to the problem is efficient, effective (according to criteria,) and offers ways to overcome possible obstacles. Success is easily determined and is likely.

 

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Section 3: Lesson 2: Mess Finding

STANDARDS:
 

  • L.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate an understanding of key details in a text.
  • RL.2.4 Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • RL.2.7 Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate an understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
  • SL.2.1  Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • SL 2.2 Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.2.3 Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
  • W.2.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.8  Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • PD2.6.Civ.B.4 Compare their own point of view with others' perspectives
  • C-3 D2.Civ.10.K-2. Compare their own point of view with others’ perspectives.

ENGAGEMENT:
Use the provided Green Squad application link in the resources to introduce students to the Green Squad and build anticipation for today’s lesson. As you show students each of the settings on the site (outside, classroom, cafeteria, etc.) ask them to predict what environmental problems there might be in the Green Squad School. Do not roll the mouse over environmental problems or click on problem areas before they walk around your school so that students can discover messes on their own. Substitute the Time for Kids article, (April 22, 2008) “Going Green, One School at a Time,” if the Green Squad application is unavailable. Have students identify examples of leadership and resourcefulness in the article, other possible solutions the school community could have used, and ways their school could Go Green.

EXPLORATION:
Tell the students, “The Green Squad members are Preservation Problem Solver.” Define preservation as “the act of protecting or maintaining something of value.” (Teacher Note: the terms preservation and conservation are mostly synonymous.) Have students recall that our natural resources (water, air, soil, minerals, animals, and plants) are things from our environment that we use to meet our needs. Our actions can extend or limit our natural resources, so use limited resources wisely.

 

Tell students, “Today we will identify resources within our community that we are wasting. We will then work together using the Creative Problem Solving process to solve a real environmental problem.” Take students for a walk around the school to look for “messes.” Record these in the “Mess” column on RS9 “Mess Finding Tour.” Students should feel free to list various messes and possible results in each box. There are no lines so that students will not feel limited in the number of examples. Remember to take the Leadership Observation Class Record with you as you may observe leadership qualities in students during the walk.

EXPLANATION:
Debrief the walk around the school as a class by recording responses on a class chart. Help students to discuss the messes they found and some possible results of these messes. For example, in a classroom, a running computer might be a mess. Wasted energy is the likely result. Outside the school, a ditch or gully by a tree might be a mess. Possible outcomes of this mess are that kids could fall and get hurt playing in that area or the tree could die because the soil has eroded from the roots.

EXTENSION:
Revisit Green Squad to compare the messes students found around the school to those described in the computer program. A mouse-over of a mess will cause the EnvirOMeter to light up signaling a potential problem. Clicking on the mess will bring up an explanation of what might happen because of this mess. You can use this application to provide additional information about the messes in their school community.

EVALUATION:
Students should individually select the mess they would like to explore further. They can either circle or highlight one of the messes on their chart, or write in a mess discussed with the class that they would like to investigate further. Students groups come from to the messes they selected on their RS9 sheets.

.

Section 4: Lesson 3: Fact-Finding

STANDARDS:
 

  • L.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate an understanding of key details in a text.
  • RL.2.4 Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • RL.2.7 Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate an understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
  • SL.2.1  Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • SL 2.2 Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.2.3 Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
  • W.2.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.8  Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • PD2.6.Civ.B.4 Compare their own point of view with others' perspectives
  • C-3 D2.Civ.10.K-2. Compare their own point of view with others’ perspectives.

ENGAGEMENT:
Have students recall their “MessFinding” walk around (Lesson 2). Tell students that environmental issue (“mess”) you noticed was that the bathroom lights are on continually, 24/7. Ask students, “Why is keeping the lights on in the school bathrooms 24/7 a concern?” Students will likely say that this wastes energy.

EXPLORATION:
Using a web or computer program, such as Kidspiration, model for students how to generate questions for factfinding. Place the environmental issue in the middle. Think aloud, “What do I need to know about this issue? Model creating factfinding questions, and then ask students to add to the list:

  • What are the reasons why the lights are on continually?
  • What kinds of lights/bulbs are in the school? Are they energy efficient?
  • Why do people not turn them off?
  • What is the cost per hour to keep the lights on?

EXPLANATION:
Have students recall that factfinding is a crucial first step in Creative Problem-Solving. Today they will work in groups to develop questions and find facts about one of the environmental concerns they observed. Distribute the Mess Finding Tour to students. The Mess Finding Tour resource sheet includes the assigned issue covered in the lesson.

 

Help students break into assigned groups and find an area of the room in which to work. Distribute the Role Cards from RS10 Group Roles to each group. Read the responsibilities of each role, and ask students to work with their groups to choose roles. Set a time limit for choosing (12 minutes) and say that if this takes longer, assign roles. Circulate among the groups to note examples of leadership and resourceful behaviors.

 

Ask group members to play their roles in creating factfinding questions about their group’s environmental problem as you did on your model. While students are working:

  • Circulate among the groups with RS1 Leadership Observation Class Record and RS11 Resourceful Observation Class Record to note examples of leadership and resourceful behaviors.
  • Help students to manage their time by giving reminders of the time remaining.

Stop here if this is a two-session lesson. Complete the next half of the lesson in the computer lab, on a classroom computer, or by using an alternate activity, if no computer is available.

EXTENSION:
Explain to students that the questions they developed will help them focus on the kinds of information they need to gather about their environmental issues. Meet with the whole class to discuss resources available for students. Share the location of RS12 Fact Sheets and RS13 Websites in folders, on a bulletin board, or in a box. Consider placing “hot links” on computers from RS13 to expedite locating information. Provide other resources such as books or pamphlets on the topics. Assign locations in the room for each group. Assist with this process as needed, which may provide opportunities for noting resourceful and leadership behaviors.

EVALUATION:
Have students return to their environmental issue groups and assume their group roles; however, explain that all students should try to be contributors as they share the most important facts they have learned. The reporter will record the results of the group’s factfinding on a web. As an option in the computer lab, have the reporter use a wordprocessing program to type the facts and print a copy for each student in the group.

.

Section 5: Lesson 4: Idea Finding and Solution-Finding

STANDARDS:
 

  • L.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate an understanding of key details in a text.
  • RL.2.4 Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • RL.2.7 Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate an understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
  • SL.2.1  Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • SL 2.2 Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.2.3 Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
  • W.2.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.8  Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • PD2.6.Civ.B.4 Compare their own point of view with others' perspectives

ENGAGEMENT:
Say to students, “Now that we know some facts about our environmental issues, we can define the problems.” Refer to Step 3 ProblemFinding on the CPS poster, RS5. Model problemfinding using the bathroom lights issue from Lesson 3. Say, “In my factfinding, I discovered that there are several problems with our bathroom lights. I need to identify the essential (most necessary, important) problem.” Post or display these problems for students to view:

  • The bathroom fluorescent bulbs are not the most energyefficient type.
  • The lights are on when no one is in the bathroom.
  • The mercury in fluorescent lights can leak out when discarding the bulbs.

Ask students to choose an essential problem to solve and have them give reasons why. When reaching consensus, complete the IWWMW problemfinding question frame: In what ways might we ensure that the lights are off when no one is in the bathroom. Remind students that the next step in the Creative Problem-Solving process is SolutionFinding, or brainstorming all the varied and unusual ways to solve the problem.

EXPLORATION:
Have students move into their issue groups. Provide each group with poster paper and marker. Remind them of the rules for brainstorming from the module Tremendous Trees by displaying RS7 Brainstorming.

 

Have students work in groups to determine the essential problem for their issues, complete the ProblemFinding IWWMW question frame, and write it on a mini dry erase board or on a Google doc. The next step is to brainstorm solutions by brainstorming them on the mini dry erase board or Google doc. Circulate to provide support and to capture observations of leadership and resourceful behaviors. Monitor class time remembering that brainstorming is an untimed activity. Select one group that has an exemplary mini dry-erase board or Google doc response to show and read the solutions. Allow each group a minute to revise their work as needed. As time allows, invite other group leaders to share their ideas.

EXPLANATION:
Ask the group members to return to their seats. Remind students they will be working on completing the rest of the CPS process individually and that each member of the group might choose different solutions. As a class, generate criteria that might affect whether a solution is a useful one. Write the list on chart paper, a computer display, or poster, so that students may refer to it when choosing their criteria. For example:

  • Not too expensive
  • Doesn’t take a lot of time
  • Is possible to get the materials needed
  • Is safe
  • Is reasonable
  • Will work over time
  • Only involves people I can contact

EVALUATION:
Circulate to support students as they work independently to complete Resource Sheet 14 Solution Finding Matrix. This sheet is not useful as documentation of resourceful or leadership behaviors. Use observations from the Exploration section of the lesson.

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Section 6: Transfer Task

STANDARDS:
 

  • L.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate an understanding of key details in a text.
  • RL.2.4 Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • RL.2.7 Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate an understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
  • SL.2.1  Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • SL 2.2 Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • SL.2.3 Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
  • W.2.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • W.2.8  Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • PD2.6.Civ.B.4 Compare their own point of view with others' perspectives
  • C-3 D2.Civ.10.K-2. Compare their own point of view with others’ perspectives.

PROCEDURE:
Step 1. Introduce the Kids Speak Out forum. A forum is a meeting to discuss matters of mutual interest and to express personal opinions. Explain that, as Preservation Problem Solvers, participating in a forum is a reallife way to inform others of environmental problems and persuade them to take action by presenting an effective plan. The forum is an opportunity for them to present their action plan using Resource Sheet RS16 Kids Speak Out Action Plan.
Step 2. Explain the procedures for the forum. Each student will present the plan to a small group, and the group will vote on the best plan based on the criteria. The whole class votes on the best plan. Present the criteria for “Our Best Plan” at the bottom of RS15 Tips for Speaking. Explain that the best plan will demonstrate both resourceful and leadership behaviors. Allow students to work independently to complete/improve their plans.
Step 3. Refer students to the top portion of RS15 to review the Tips for Speaking. Allow time for students to practice their presentations and/or record them.

This is an appropriate place to end the first segment.

Step 4. Organize students into small groups where each student represents a different environmental problem. Provide center work for students while calling one group for Part 1 of the Kids Speak Out forum.

  • Have each student orally present the action plan (from RS16) to solve the environmental problem.
  • Instruct students to listen to each action plan in order to decide if that is the best one to implement based on the criteria for “Our Best Plan.”
  • After all students in the group present, have the group vote on the best action plan to presented to the whole class in Part 2 of the forum. Ask students to give reasons for their choices based on the criteria.
  • Repeat this procedure with the remaining groups in the class until you have the finalists for Part 2 of the Kids Speak Out forum.

Step 5.  Have the small group finalists present to the whole class at the Kids Speak Out forum. Have the class vote on the best plan for implementation based on the criteria giving reasons for their choices.
Step 6. Present students with your choice of options for the Kids Take Action followup. If students are completing Options 1, 2, or 3, include additional documentation of leadership and resourceful behaviors in the PTD portfolio.

Forum Follow‐up: Kids Take Action
Option 1: The class votes to choose one student’s plan. The class works together to list the steps needed to implement this plan. The entire class implements and evaluates the plan.
Option 2: Students return to their CPS groups and work together to complete one CPS action plan and determine whether it is successful.
Option 3: The class stops after completing the Kids Speak Out forum; however, one or more students are committed to seeing their plans through and work either independently, with a mentor, or in a small group to implement and evaluate a plan independently. Student CPS plans are not fully implemented.
Option 4 (Default): Options 1 and 2 are not selected by the teacher. After presenting Option 3 to the class, no student is committed to working.

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