OpenStax Biology 2e

Access, develop and share resources created by the OpenStax community that align with OpenStax Biology 2e. As of March 28, 2018, resources shared here pertain to OpenStax Biology 2e and not the original edition of OpenStax Biology.
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All resources in OpenStax Biology 2e

Logic Puzzle

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This activity is intended as an exercise in deductive logic. The students perform a series of "experiments" in which they try to identify which predators eat which specific prey (Each predator eats one and only one prey). The instructions are on the site. students may also click on the blue square to make the game full screen. A worksheet is added for students to record their results. This also is an exercise in articulating the logic used in the study. (Most students have no trouble figuring out the relationships). Writing down their results and conclusions is a bit trickier. ) This has been used for community college classes. It can be used at lower levels such as high school or even middle school without the worksheet.

Material Type: Game

Author: Arthur Wohlwill

My Personal Zoo Biology Activity

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This individual or group activity involves reading about the human microbiome, followed by explorations at University of Utah's Genetic Science Learning Center website. It was developed by Ryan Chabarria, Lone Star College- Kingwood; Jennifer Kneafsey, Tulsa Community College; Catherine Parmiter, Estrella Mountain Community College; Natalie Russell, Tarrant County College; and Andrew Tag, Texas A&M University.

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: OpenStax, Rice University

Microscope and Cell

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This is a totally online lab teaching the use of the microscope and basic structure of the cell. For additional information about totally online labs go to www.accesslearningsystems.com

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Literature Reviews for Education and Nursing Graduate Students

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Literature Reviews for Education and Nursing Graduate Students is an open textbook designed for students in graduate-level nursing and education programs. Its intent is to recognize the significant role the literature review plays in the research process and to prepare students for the work that goes into writing one. Developed for new graduate students and novice researchers just entering into the work of a chosen discipline, each of the eight chapters covers a component of the literature review process. Students will learn how to form a research question, search existing literature, synthesize results and write the review. The book contains examples, checklists, supplementary materials, and additional resources. Literature Reviews for Education and Nursing Graduate Students is written by two librarians with expertise guiding students through research and writing assignments, and is openly licensed.

Material Type: Textbook

Authors: Linda Frederiksen, Sue F. Phelps

Open Textbook Library

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"Open textbooks are textbooks that have been funded, published, and licensed to be freely used, adapted, and distributed. These books have been reviewed by faculty from a variety of colleges and universities to assess their quality. These books can be downloaded for no cost, or printed at low cost."

Material Type: Textbook

Author: Open Textbook Library

HALF LIFE OF mRNA

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Introduction: Messenger RNA is transcribed as a complementary copy of DNA that will eventually be translated into an amino acid chain. mRNA travels from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for translation. Because mRNA is constantly being degraded in the cytoplasm, it is synthesized at a much higher rate than necessary for maintenance of a steady amount. Questions: Can we estimate the half-life of mRNA? Does knowledge of mRNA half-life give information about the poly A tail?

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: L. Gross, M. Beals, S. Harrell

NUCLEO-CYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT

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Introduction: The membrane of the nucleus is perforated by nuclear pores that permit the entry of water soluble molecules from the cytoplasm into the nucleoplasm. Small molecules in the cell cytoplasm needed for processes in the nucleus typically penetrate through the nuclear envelope by diffusion. Question: How is the rate of diffusion of molecules into the nucleus affected by properties of the cell?

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: L. Gross, M. Beals, S. Harrell

MAINTENANCE OF CELL SHAPE

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Introduction: Fibrous elements of the cytoskeleton, including microtubules and filaments, help maintain cell shape. For example, amoeba movement involves interactions of myosin and actin in the microfilaments in the cell cytoskeleton. Myosin is normally dispersed throughout the cell, but locally assembles and disassembles as necessary to drive movement. Question: How does the assembly of myosin contribute to cell shape?

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: L. Gross, M. Beals, S. Harrell

MECHANISMS OF CELL ATTACHMENT

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Introduction: Fibrous elements of the cytoskeleton, including microtubules and filaments, help maintain cell shape. Cell shape is determined by the interaction of these elements with the surface to which the cell is attached. Question: How do the density and cytoskeleton of a cell change when it attaches to a surface?

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: L. Gross, M. Beals, S. Harrell

NUCLEAR AND CYTOPLASMIC VISCOSITY

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Introduction: The membrane of the nucleus is perforated by nuclear pores that permit the entry of water soluble molecules from the cytoplasm into the nucleoplasm. The viscosity of the nucleus and the cytoplasm can affect the rate at which molecules flow through cellular fluid. Question: How does the viscosity of the nucleoplasm compare to the viscosity of the cytoplasm?

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: L. Gross, M. Beals, S. Harrell

PERMEABILITY OF MOLECULES

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Introduction: In the late 1800's, E. Overton discovered that substances that dissolve in lipids pass more easily into the cell than those that dissolve in water. This was some of the first evidence that cells were surrounded by a lipid membrane. The phospholipid membrane of cells can greatly modify the permeation of molecules into a cell. The membrane acts as a barrier to passive diffusion of water-soluble molecules. Howeve r, substances that dissolve in lipids pass more easily into the cell. The correlation between permeability and solubility in lipidly is appropriately named Overton's Rule. Question: How is the permeability of a molecule across the lipoprotein membrane related to the molecule's solubility in lipids and size? Supplement to 'Passive Transport': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:xy5C3n_j@10/5-2-Passive-Transport

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: L. Gross, M. Beals, S. Harrell

GIBB'S FREE ENERGY AND THE NATURE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

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Introduction: In a chemical reaction, some bonds are broken in the reactants in order to form bonds in the products. Some product molecules will participate in the reverse reaction in order to reform reactants. The initial rate of product formation depends on the initial concentrations of reactants and products. As product concentration increases, the rate of the reverse reaction increases. Eventually, the rate of forward and reverse reactions become equal. Under these circumstances, the concentrations of reactants and products are constant, and the mixture is said to be in chemical equilibrium. Since breaking bonds requires energy and forming bonds releases energy, the net energy of a chemical reaction will depend on the sum of energy absorbed and generated. Eventually, the difference in energy between the reactants and products decreases as equilibrium is achieved. Questions: How can we measure the energy of a chemical reaction? How can we predict the direction of a chemical reaction? How do properties of the reactants and products affect the net result of a chemical reaction? Supplement to 'Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:fCe9XnrW@10/6-2-Potential-Kinetic-Free-and-Activation-Energy

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: L. Gross, M. Beals, S. Harrell

METABOLISM FOR ENERGY AND THE RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT

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Introduction: Animal cells obtain energy in the form of ATP by oxidizing food molecules through the process of respiration. The hydrolysis of ATP supplies energy needed for cellular processes, such as the transport of molecules or cellular movement. Carbohydrates and fatty acids are the most important fuels for generating ATP in animal cells. Respiration in animal cells depends on oxygen. Electrons from the chemical bonds of the fuel source combine with oxygen and hydrogen ions to form water and carbon dioxide. Cells couple this reaction to the production of ATP. Question: How can we quantify metabolism? How does the energy source affect the volume of O2 consumed and volume of CO2 produced? How do they differ among animals and how are they affected by environmental conditions? Supplement to 'Energy in Living Systems': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:6gZWnxxX@10/7-1-Energy-in-Living-Systems

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: L. Gross, M. Beals, S. Harrell

EFFICIENCY OF ATP PRODUCTION

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Introduction: Endergonic reactions require energy input in order to proceed (see GIBB'S FREE ENERGY). Almost every time a cell performs an endergonic reaction, such as linking amino acids, synthesizing small molecules, or cellular movement, it derives the needed energy from the splitting of ATP. Aerobic organisms produce most of their ATP through respiration, a complex set of reactions that transfer electrons from glucose to oxygen. Glycolysis is the first step in glucose metabolism. The success of glycolysis lies in its ability to couple energy releasing reactions to the endergonic synethesis of ATP. Question: How can we determine the efficiency of ATP production? Supplement to 'Glycolysis': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:Hcj9xYN4@10/7-2-Glycolysis

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: L. Gross, M. Beals, S. Harrell