OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology

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The Skeletal System: Crash Course A&P

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Crash Course AP Science: Today Hank explains the skeletal system and why astronauts Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko are out in space studying it. He talks about the anatomy of the skeletal system, including the flat, short, and irregular bones, and their individual arrangements of compact and spongy bone. He'll also cover the microanatomy of bones, particularly the osteons and their inner lamella. And finally he will introduce the process of bone remodeling, which is carried out by crews of osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts.

Material Type: Lecture

Author: Denise Krefting

Can It Support You? No Bones about It!

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After completing the associated lesson and its first associated activity, students are familiar with the 20 major bones in the human body knowing their locations and relative densities. When those bones break, lose their densities or are destroyed, we look to biomedical engineers to provide replacements. In this activity, student pairs are challenged to choose materials and create prototypes that could replace specific bones. They follow the steps of the engineering design process, researching, brainstorming, prototyping and testing to find bone replacement solutions. Specifically, they focus on identifying substances that when combined into a creative design might provide the same density (and thus strength and support) as their natural counterparts. After iterations to improve their designs, they present their bone alternative solutions to the rest of the class. They refer to the measured and calculated densities for fabricated human bones calculated in the previous activity, and conduct Internet research to learn the densities of given fabrication materials (or measure/calculate those densities if not found online).

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: Jeanne Hubelbank, Kristen Billiar, Michelle Gallagher, Terri Camesano

Cold Sensors

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Why can you feel cold even when you're sitting in a warm room? Scientists may have discovered the answer. This Science Update explores the neurological components of the senses warmth and cold.

Material Type: Activity/Lab, Lecture

Hearing: How Do Our Ears Work?

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Students learn about the anatomy of the ear and how the ears work as a sound sensor. Ear anatomy parts and structures are explained in detail, as well as how sound is transmitted mechanically and then electrically through them to the brain. Students use LEGO® robots with sound sensors to measure sound intensities, learning how the NXT brick (computer) converts the intensity of sound measured by the sensor input into a number that transmits to a screen. They build on their experiences from the previous activities and establish a rich understanding of the sound sensor and its relationship to the TaskBot's computer.

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Authors: Charlie Franklin, Marianne Catanho, Sachin Nair, Satish Nair