EdHub: The Educators Resource Network

EdHub is an online library of professional development materials dedicated to the advancement of best practices in teaching and learning at the PK-12 and higher education levels. The EdHub library provides interactive online resources and a shared learning environment to support individual PK-12 teachers, principals, university teaching assistants, teacher prep students, and university faculty in creating a culture which values teaching and learning.
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All resources in EdHub: The Educators Resource Network

Response to Intervention, Teacher Preparation

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As RTI becomes more widespread, it is critical that all professional education programs integrate the knowledge and skill sets into the curriculum and clinical experiences. This page highlights a number of the informational resources that are available on this site for use in professional preparation programs.

Material Type: Reading, Teaching/Learning Strategy

The Psychology of Learning and Behavior

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This course introduces learners to the principles of learning and behavior by surveying relevant theoretical and empirical approaches within psychology. The overall emphasis is on the theoretical foundations of psychology as they relate to human learning and behavior. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: identify major historical timelines and perspectives associated with learning theory; explain foundational concepts associated with learning theory; integrate common principles of learning theory into larger domains of psychology; align major theorists with specific contributions to psychology of learning and behavior; analyze and describe empirical research as it relates to effectiveness of learning and behavior management techniques; identify the utilization of psychology of learning and behavior in domains outside the field of psychology. This free course may be completed online at any time. (Psychology 305)

Material Type: Full Course, Reading, Syllabus

APA: Research in Brain Function and Learning Module

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All children need to be challenged and nurtured in order to profit from your instruction. Instruction that is above or below the maturity level of a child’s brain is not only inappropriate; it can lead to behavior problems in your classroom. Inappropriate behaviors — avoidance, challenging authority and aggression towards other students — can be explained by a failure to match instruction to the brain maturity of your students. You should also know that all brain functions do not mature at the same rate. A young child with highly advanced verbal skills may develop gross and fine motor control more slowly and have trouble learning to write clearly. Another child may be advanced physically but not know how to manage his/her social skills. Others may be cognitively advanced but show emotional immaturity. For all of these reasons it is important to understand how our brains mature and the differences that may be present at each stage of “normal” development.

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy, Unit of Study

Author: Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, PhD

RTI: How to Manage Behavior Problems - Check-In/Check-Out

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Students can be motivated to improve classroom behaviors if they have both a clear roadmap of the teacher's behavioral expectations and incentives to work toward those behavioral goals. This modified version of Check-In/Check-Out (CI/CO) is a simple behavioral intervention package designed for use during a single 30- to 90-minute classroom period (Dart, Cook, Collins, Gresham & Chenier, 2012). The teacher checks in with the student to set behavioral goals at the start of the period, then checks out with the student at the close of the period to rate that student's conduct and award points or other incentives earned for attaining behavioral goal(s).

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright

RTI: Improve Classroom Management Through Flexible Rules - The Color Wheel

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The Color Wheel is one solution that enforces uniform group expectations for conduct while also responding flexibly to the differing behavioral demands of diverse learning activities. This classwide intervention divides all activities into 3 categories and links each category to a color: green for free time/ low-structure activities; yellow for large- or small-group instruction/independent work; and red for brief transitions between activities. The student learns a short list of behavioral rules for each category and, when given a color cue, can switch quickly from one set of rules to another.

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright

School-Wide Strategies for Managing Off-Task / Inattention

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tudents who have chronic difficulties paying attention in class face the risk of poor grades and even school failure. Inattention may be a symptom of an underlying condition such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. However, teachers should not overlook other possible explanations for student off-task behavior. It may be, for example, that a student who does not seem to be paying attention is actually mismatched to instruction (the work is too hard or too easy) or preoccupied by anxious thoughts. Or the student may be off-task because the teacher's lesson was poorly planned or presented in a disorganized manner. It is also important to remember that even children with ADHD are influenced by factors in their classroom setting and that these students' level of attention is at least partly determined by the learning environment. Teachers who focus on making their instruction orderly, predictable, and highly motivating find that they can generally hold the attention of most of their students most of the time.

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright

Motivation Challenge 5: Student Lacks Confidence that He or She Can Do the Work

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The student has a low sense of self-efficacy in a subject area, activity, or academic task and that lack of confidence reduces the student’s motivation to apply his or her best effort. NOTE: Self-efficacy is the student’s view of his or her own abilities specific to a particular academic area (e.g., mathematics) and should not be confused with self-esteem, which represents the student’s global view of his or her self-worth. Learn teacher behavior to help fix this student motivation problem.

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright

Motivating Students Via High-Probability Requests

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High-probability requests are one feasible classroom technique that can be effective in motivating students to engage in assigned classwork (Lee, 2006). The teacher first identifies an academic activity in which the student historically shows a low probability of completing because of non-compliance. The teacher then embeds within that low-probability activity an introductory series of simple, brief 'high-probability' requests or tasks that this same student has an established track record of completing (Belfiore, Basile, & Lee, 2008).

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright

Encouraging Student Academic Motivation

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One of the greatest frustrations mentioned by many teachers is that their students are often not motivated to learn. Teachers quickly come to recognize the warning signs of poor motivation in their classroom: students put little effort into homework and classwork assignments, slump in their seats and fail to participate in class discussion, or even become confrontational toward the teacher when asked about an overdue assignment. One common method for building motivation is to tie student academic performance and classroom participation to specific rewards or privileges. Critics of reward systems note, however, that they can be expensive and cumbersome to administer and may lead the student to engage in academics only when there is an outside 'payoff.' While there is no magic formula for motivating students, the creative teacher can sometimes encourage student investment in learning in ways that do not require use of formal reward systems.

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright

Calming the Agitated Student

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Students can sometimes have emotional outbursts in school settings. This fact will not surprise many teachers, who have had repeated experience in responding to serious classroom episodes of student agitation. Such outbursts can be attributed in part to the relatively high incidence of mental health issues among children and youth. It is estimated, for example, that at least one in five students in American schools will experience a mental health disorder by adolescence (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). But even students not identified as having behavioral or emotional disorders may occasionally have episodes of agitation triggered by situational factors such as peer bullying, frustration over poor academic performance, stressful family relationships, or perceived mistreatment by educators.

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright

Identify the Big Ideas to Guide Behavior Management

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Teachers skilled in classroom management are able to respond appropriately to just about any behavior that a student brings through the classroom door. While having a toolkit of specific behavioral strategies is important, the real secret of educators who maintain smoothly running classrooms with minimal behavioral disruptions is that they are able to view problem student behaviors through the lens of these seven 'big ideas' in behavior management.

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright

Rubber-Band Intervention

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Teachers often find it difficult to monitor the frequency of problem student behaviors. In this clever behavior-management strategy, the teacher uses keeps track of student behaviors using rubber-bands placed around the wrist.

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright

Points for Grumpy

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This response-cost strategy is appropriate for younger students who are verbally defiant and non-compliant with the teacher. (See the related Hints for Using... column for tips on how to tailor this intervention idea for older students.)

Material Type: Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jim Wright