A&P Lab Manual

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Physiology of the Respiratory System

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Respiration Respiration has 3 phases: 1. Pulmonary ventilation - movement of air into and out of the lungs 2. External respiration - exchange of gases b/n lungs and blood 3. Internal respiration - exchange of gases b/n blood and tissues Pulmonary ventilation consists of 1. Inspiration - inhalation, movement of air into lungs 2. Expiration - exhalation, emptying air from lungs into atmosphere Pulmonary Ventilation [Section 22.3.2: Pulmonary Ventilation] [Figure 22.17: Inspiration and Expiration] For pulmonary ventilation to occur, the pressure in the thoracic cavity must be different from atmospheric pressure • Inspiration is an active process, it requires the contraction of several muscles to change volumes and pressures • Expiration is passive, muscles relax, thoracic wall and lungs recoil, air moves out Lung Volumes and Capacities [Section 22.3.3: Respiratory Volumes and Capacities] [Figure 22.18: Respiratory Volumes and Capacities] A Spirometer measures respiratory volumes • Tidal Volume* is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal resting breathing • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) is the amount of air forcibly inspired above normal inhalation • Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)* is the amount of air forcibly expired after a normal exhalation • Vital Capacity* is the maximum amount of air exhaled from lungs after maximum inhalation * can be measured directly with spirometer IRV can be calculated from the VC, TV, and ERV: VC = IRV + ERV + TV à IRV = VC – ERV – TV The respiratory system always contains some air • The Residual Volume is the amount of air that cannot be forcefully exhaled from the lungs • Total Lung Capacity is ~ 6,000 ml; TLC = VC + RV • Minimal Volume is the amount of residual air that stays in the lungs even after collapse • Respiratory Rate is the number of breaths taken per minute • Minute Volume amount of air exchanged b/n lungs and environment in 1 minute: MV = TV x RR

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: Dongho Kim

Cardiovascular Physiology

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• List the components of the conduction system of the heart • Explain the different components of a normal ECG • Define the term “cardiac cycle” • Describe the events of each of the phases of the cardiac cycle • Relate the phases of the cardiac cycle with the action of the conduction system that causes the events of the cardiac cycle • Define auscultation and describe what causes the heart sounds • Correlate the parts of the ECG, the sounds heard during auscultation, and the phases of the cardiac cycle • Define the components of blood pressure • Describe how blood pressure is measured, and how the measurement technique relates to the sounds that are heard during the measurement • Explain what causes a pulse, and identify the common anatomical locations for measuring a pulse • Describe how the components of the baroreceptor reflex regulate the heart’s pace and rhythm

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: Dongho Kim

Blood Typing

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• Describe the antigen-antibody reactions of the ABO and Rh blood groups • Be able to type a sample of unknown blood to determine the ABO and Rh blood types • Explain the clinical importance of blood types on pregnancy and transfusions

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: Dongho Kim

Blood Composition

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• Explain how the properties of blood qualify it as a connective tissue • Describe the various functions of blood • Distinguish among the three major categories of formed elements • Describe the shape, structure, and contents of an erythrocyte • Know what hematocrit test determines, and what are the normal lab values • Describe the differences between agranulocytes and granulocytes • Visually differentiate each of the leukocytes on a normal blood smear • Visually identify platelets, describe their function, and explain what coagulation tests are used to determine

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: Dongho Kim

Anatomy of the Respiratory System

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• List the structures that make up the respiratory system • Distinguish between the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract • Explain the difference between the conducting zone and the respiratory zone, listing the anatomical structures that are a part of each

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: Dongho Kim

Brain

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Introduction Overview Structure of a neuron The synapse The brain Directional terms Cerebrum The cerebellum The brainstem Cranial meninges Brain ventricles Cerebrospinal fluid

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: Dongho Kim