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The Adventure of Physics - Vol. I: Fall, Flow, and Heat
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best of them in the domain of everyday life.

Carefully observing everyday motion allows us to deduce six essential statements: everyday motion is continuous, conserved, relative, reversible, mirror-invariant – and lazy. Yes, nature is indeed lazy: in every motion, it minimizes change. This text explores how these six results are deduced and how they fit with all those observations that seem to contradict them. In the structure of modern physics, shown in Figure 1, the results on everyday motion form the major part of the starting point at the bottom. The present volume is the first of a six-volume overview of physics. It resulted from a threefold aim I have pursued since 1990: to present motion in a way that is simple, up to date and captivating.

In order to be simple, the text focuses on concepts, while keeping mathematics to the necessary minimum. Understanding the concepts of physics is given precedence over using formulae in calculations. The whole text is within the reach of an undergraduate.

In order to be up to date, the text is enriched by the many gems – both theoretical and empirical – that are scattered throughout the scientific literature.

In order to be captivating, the text tries to startle the reader as much as possible. Reading a book on general physics should be like going to a magic show. We watch, we are astonished, we do not believe our eyes, we think, and finally we understand the trick. When we look at nature, we often have the same experience. Indeed, every page presents at least one surprise or provocation for the reader to think about. Numerous interesting challenges are proposed.

The motto of the text, die Menschen stärken, die Sachen klären, a famous statement by Hartmut von Hentig on pedagogy, translates as: ‘To fortify people, to clarify things.’ Clarifying things – and adhering only to the truth – requires courage, as changing the habits of thought produces fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we grow in strength. And we experience intense and beautiful emotions. All great adventures in life allow this, and exploring motion is one of them. Enjoy it!

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. III: Light, Charges, and Brains
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and empty space move leads to many adven- tures. This volume presents the best of them in the domains of relativity and cosmology. In the study of motion – physics – special and general relativity form two important building blocks.

Special relativity is the exploration of the energy speed limit c. General relativity is the exploration of the force limit c4/4G. The text shows that in both domains, all equations follow from these two limit values. This simple, intuitive and unusual way of learning relativity should reward the curiosity of every reader – whether student or professional.

The present volume is the second of a six-volume overview of physics that arose from a threefold aim that I have pursued since 1990: to present motion in a way that is simple, up to date and captivating.

In order to be simple, the text focuses on concepts, while keeping mathematics to the necessary minimum. Understanding the concepts of physics is given precedence over using formulae in calculations. The whole text is within the reach of an undergraduate.

In order to be up to date, the text is enriched by the many gems – both theoretical and empirical – that are scattered throughout the scientific literature.

In order to be captivating, the text tries to startle the reader as much as possible. Read- ing a book on general physics should be like going to a magic show. We watch, we are astonished, we do not believe our eyes, we think, and finally we understand the trick. When we look at nature, we often have the same experience. Indeed, every page presents at least one surprise or provocation for the reader to think about. Numerous interesting challenges are proposed.

The motto of the text, die Menschen stärken, die Sachen klären, a famous statement by Hartmut von Hentig on pedagogy, translates as: ‘To fortify people, to clarify things.’ Clar- ifying things – and adhering only to the truth – requires courage, as changing the habits of thought produces fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we grow in strength. And we experience intense and beautiful emotions. All great adventures in life allow this, and exploring motion is one of them. Enjoy it!

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. II: Relativity
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and empty space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best of them in the domains of relativity and cosmology. In the study of motion – physics – special and general relativity form two important building blocks.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. IV: The Quantum of Change
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Have you ever asked: Why do people, animals, things, images and space move? The answer leads to many adventures; this volume presents those due to the discovery that there is a smallest change value in nature. This smallest change value, the quantum of action, leads to what is called quantum physics. In the structure of modern physics, quantum physics covers three points; this volume covers the introduction to the point in the lower right: the foundations of quantum theory.

The present introduction to quantum physics arose from a threefold aim I have pur- sued since 1990: to present the basics of motion in a way that is simple, up to date and captivating.

In order to be simple, the text focuses on concepts, while keeping mathematics to the necessary minimum. Understanding the concepts of physics is given precedence over using formulae in calculations. The whole text is within the reach of an undergraduate.

In order to be up to date, the text is enriched by the many gems – both theoretical and empirical – that are scattered throughout the scientific literature.

In order to be captivating, the text tries to startle the reader as much as possible. Read- ing a book on general physics should be like going to a magic show. We watch, we are astonished, we do not believe our eyes, we think, and finally we understand the trick. When we look at nature, we often have the same experience. Indeed, every page presents at least one surprise or provocation for the reader to think about. Numerous interesting challenges are proposed.

The motto of the text, die Menschen stärken, die Sachen klären, a famous statement by Hartmut von Hentig on pedagogy, translates as: ‘To fortify people, to clarify things.’ Clar- ifying things – and adhering only to the truth – requires courage, as changing the habits of thought produces fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we grow in strength. And we experience intense and beautiful emotions. All great adventures in life allow this, and exploring motion is one of them. Enjoy it!

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. VI: The Strand Model - A Speculation on Unification
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This book is written for anybody who is intensely curious about nature and motion. Have you ever asked: Why do people, animals, things, images and empty space move? The answer leads to many adventures, and this book presents one of the best of them: the search for a precise, unified and final description of all motion.

The wish to describe all motion is a large endeavour. Fortunately, this large endeavour can be structured in the simple diagram shown in Figure 1. The final and unified description of motion, the topic of this book, corresponds to the highest point in the diagram. Searching for this final and unified description is an old quest. In the following, I briefly summarize its history and then present an intriguing, though speculative solution to the riddle.

The search for the final, unified description of motion is a story of many surprises. For example, twentieth-century research has shown that there is a smallest distance in nature. Research has also shown that matter cannot be distinguished from empty space at those small distances. A last surprise dates from this century: particles and space are best described as made of strands, instead of little spheres or points. The present text explains how to reach these unexpected conclusions. In particular, quantum field theory, the standard model of particle physics, general relativity and cosmology are shown to follow from strands. The three gauge interactions, the three particle generations and the three dimensions of space turn out to be due to strands. In fact, all the open questions of twentieth-century physics about the foundations of motion, all the millennium issues, can be solved with the help of strands.

The strand model, as presented in this text, is an unexpected result from a threefold aim that I have pursued since 1990, in the five previous volumes of this series: to present the basics of motion in a way that is up to date, captivating and simple. In retrospect, the aim for maximum simplicity has been central in deducing this speculation. While the previous volumes introduced, in an entertaining way, the established parts of physics, this volume presents, in the same entertaining and playful way, a speculation about unification. Nothing in this volume is established knowledge – yet. The text is the original presentation of the topic.

The search for a final theory is one of the great adventures of life: it leads to the limits of thought. The search overthrows our thinking habits about nature. A change in thinking habits can produce fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we gain strength and serenity. Changing thinking habits thus requires courage, but it also produces intense and beautiful emotions. Enjoy them!

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
The Adventure of Physics - Vol. V: Motion Inside Matter - Pleasure, Technology, and Stars
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This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how bodies, images and empty space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best adventures about the motion inside people, inside animals, and inside any other type of matter – from the largest stars to the smallest nuclei.

Motion inside bodies – dead or alive – is described by quantum theory. Quantum theory describes all motion with the quantum of action h, the smallest change observed in nature. Building on this basic idea, the text first shows how to describe life, death and pleasure. Then, the text explains the observations of chemistry, materials science, astrophysics and particle physics. In the structure of physics, these topics correspond to the three ‘quantum’ points in Figure 1. The story of motion inside living and non-living matter, from the coldest gases to the hottest stars, is told here in a way that is simple, up to date and captivating.

In order to be simple, the text focuses on concepts, while keeping mathematics to the necessary minimum. Understanding the concepts of physics is given precedence over using formulae in calculations. The whole text is within the reach of an undergraduate.

In order to be up to date, the text is enriched by the many gems – both theoretical and empirical – that are scattered throughout the scientific literature.

In order to be captivating, the text tries to startle the reader as much as possible. Read- ing a book on physics should be like going to a magic show. We watch, we are astonished, we do not believe our eyes, we think, and finally we understand the trick. When we look at nature, we often have the same experience. Indeed, every page presents at least one sur- prise that makes the reader think. Also numerous interesting challenges are proposed.

The motto of the text, die Menschen stärken, die Sachen klären, a famous statement by Hartmut von Hentig on pedagogy, translates as: ‘To fortify people, to clarify things.’ Clar- ifying things – and adhering only to the truth – requires courage, as changing the habits of thought produces fear, often hidden by anger. But by overcoming our fears we grow in strength. And we experience intense and beautiful emotions. All great adventures in life allow this, and exploring motion is one of them. Enjoy it!

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Motion Mountain
Author:
Christoph Schiller
Date Added:
02/20/2015
Applications of Maxwell's Equations
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This book was developed at Simon Fraser University for an upper-level physics course. Along with a careful exposition of electricity and magnetism, it devotes a chapter to ferromagnets. According to the course description, the topics covered were “electromagnetics, magnetostatics, waves, transmission lines, wave guides,antennas, and radiating systems.”

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Simon Fraser University
Author:
Bretislav Heinrich
Jon Fraser
Date Added:
11/18/2021
Astronomy
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CC BY
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Astronomy is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of one- or two-semester introductory astronomy courses. The book begins with relevant scientific fundamentals and progresses through an exploration of the solar system, stars, galaxies, and cosmology. The Astronomy textbook builds student understanding through the use of relevant analogies, clear and non-technical explanations, and rich illustrations. Mathematics is included in a flexible manner to meet the needs of individual instructors.

Subject:
Astronomy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Author:
Andrew Fraknoi
David Morrison
Sidney C. Wolff
Date Added:
11/19/2019
Astronomy for Educators
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Astronomy for Educators provides new and accomplished K-12 instructors with concepts and projects for low-cost, high-impact STEM classroom instruction that is built around the National Academies National Research Council's K-12 Framework for Science Education.

Subject:
Astronomy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Daniel E. Barth
Date Added:
01/30/2019
BCIT Physics 0312 Textbook
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College Physics is organized such that topics are introduced conceptually with a steady progression to precise definitions and analytical applications. The analytical aspect (problem solving) is tied back to the conceptual before moving on to another topic. Each introductory chapter, for example, opens with an engaging photograph relevant to the subject of the chapter and interesting applications that are easy for most students to visualize.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
British Columbia/Yukon Open Authoring Platform
Author:
Charles Hooge
Date Added:
06/01/2020
Calculus-Based Physics I
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Calculus-Based Physics is an introductory physics textbook designed for use in the two-semester introductory physics course typically taken by science and engineering students.

Subject:
Calculus
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Saint Anselm College
Author:
Jeffrey Schnick
Date Added:
02/16/2011
Calculus-Based Physics II
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A free, two-volume, on-line, editable, introductory calculus based physics textbook in PDF™ and Microsoft Word™ format. Also provides ancillary materials including video solutions to physics problems and Blackboard™ quizzes with extensive feedback.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Saint Anselm College
Author:
Jeffrey Schnick
Date Added:
11/19/2005
College Physics
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CC BY
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This introductory, algebra-based, two-semester college physics book is grounded with real-world examples, illustrations, and explanations to help students grasp key, fundamental physics concepts. This online, fully editable and customizable title includes learning objectives, concept questions, links to labs and simulations, and ample practice opportunities to solve traditional physics application problems.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Author:
Kim Dirks
Manjula Sharma
Paul Peter Urone
Roger Hinrichs
Date Added:
01/23/2012
College Physics for AP Courses
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CC BY
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5.0 stars

College Physics for AP Courses is designed to engage students in their exploration of physics and help them to relate what they learn in the classroom to their lives and to apply these concepts to the Advanced Placement test. Physics underlies much of what is happening today in other sciences and in technology, therefore the book includes interesting facts and ideas that go beyond the scope of the AP course to further student understanding. The AP Connection in each chapter directs students to the material they should focus on for the AP® exam, and what content — although interesting — is not necessarily part of the AP curriculum.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Author:
David Anderson
Douglas Ingram
Gregg Wolfe
Irna Lyublinskaya
John Stoke
Julie Kretchman
Liza Pujji
Nathan Czuba
Sudhi Oberoi
Date Added:
04/29/2015
Conceptual Physics
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For a semester-length course, all seven chapters can be covered. For a shorter course, the book is designed so that chapters 1, 2, and 5 are the only ones that are required for continuity; any of the others can be included or omitted at the instructor’s discretion, with the only constraint being that chapter 6 requires chapter 4.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Light and Matter
Provider Set:
Light and Matter Books
Author:
Benjamin Crowell, Fullerton College
Date Added:
01/01/2006
Discover Physics
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Discover Physics is a conceptual physics textbook intended for students in a nonmathematical one-semester general-education course.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Light and Matter
Author:
Benjamin Crowell
Date Added:
02/16/2011
Douglas College Physics 1107
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CC BY
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Douglas College custom textbook for first year college physics. Physics 1107 based on Open Stax College Physics. Algebra based, designed primarily for biology and earth science majors.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
British Columbia/Yukon Open Authoring Platform
Author:
Astronomy at Douglas College
Department of Physics
OpenStax
Date Added:
08/16/2021
Douglas College Physics 1108 Custom Textbook Winter 2021 current
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CC BY
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Douglas College custom textbook for first year college physics. Physics 1108 based on Open Stax College Physics. Algebra based, designed primarily for biology majors transferring to Simon Fraser University.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
British Columbia/Yukon Open Authoring Platform
Author:
Department of Physics
Jennifer Kirkey
OpenStax
Date Added:
11/17/2020
Douglas College Physics 1207
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CC BY
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This is a custom textbook for Physics 1207 Introductory General Physics II at Douglas College. This is the second semester of a non-calculus based course intended primarily for life science majors. It focuses on electricity, magnetism, optics and modern physics. This textbook is based on Open Stax College Physics.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
British Columbia/Yukon Open Authoring Platform
Author:
Douglas College Physics Department
OpenStax
Date Added:
07/19/2021
Electromagnetics, Volume 1
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Electromagnetics Volume 1 by Steven W. Ellingson is a 225-page, peer-reviewed open educational resource intended for electrical engineering students in the third year of a bachelor of science degree program. It is intended as a primary textbook for a one-semester first course in undergraduate engineering electromagnetics. The book employs the “transmission lines first” approach in which transmission lines are introduced using a lumped-element equivalent circuit model for a differential length of transmission line, leading to one-dimensional wage equations for voltage and current.

Suggested citation: Ellingson, Steven W. (2018) Electromagnetics, Vol. 1. Blacksburg, VA: VT Publishing. https://doi.org/10.21061/electromagnetics-vol-1 CC BY-SA 4.0

Three formats of this book are available:
Print (ISBN 978-0-9979201-8-5)
PDF (ISBN 978-0-9979201-9-2)
LaTeX source files

If you are a professor reviewing, adopting, or adapting this textbook please help us understand a little more about your use by filling out this form: http://bit.ly/vtpublishing-updates

Additional Resources
Problem sets and the corresponding solution manual are also available.
Community portal for the Electromagnetics series https://www.oercommons.org/groups/electromagnetics-user-group/3455/
Faculty listserv for the Electromagnetics series https://groups.google.com/a/vt.edu/d/forum/electromagnetics-g
Submit feedback and suggestions http://bit.ly/electromagnetics-suggestion

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1: Preliminary Concepts
Chapter 2: Electric and Magnetic Fields
Chapter 3: Transmission Lines
Chapter 4: Vector Analysis
Chapter 5: Electrostatics
Chapter 6: Steady Current and Conductivity
Chapter 7: Magnetostatics
Chapter 8: Time-Varying Fields
Chapter 9: Plane Waves in Lossless Media
Appendixes
A. Constitutive Parameters of Some Common Materials
B. Mathematical Formulas
C. Physical Constants

About the Author: Steven W. Ellingson (ellingson@vt.edu) is an Associate Professor at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia in the United States. He received PhD and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Ohio State University and a BS in Electrical & Computer Engineering from Clarkson University. He was employed by the US Army, Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Raytheon, and the Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory before joining the faculty of Virginia Tech, where he teaches courses in electromagnetics, radio frequency systems, wireless communications, and signal processing. His research includes topics in wireless communications, radio science, and radio frequency instrumentation. Professor Ellingson serves as a consultant to industry and government and is the author of Radio Systems Engineering (Cambridge University Press, 2016).

This textbook is part of the Open Electromagnetics Project led by Steven W. Ellingson at Virginia Tech. The goal of the project is to create no-cost openly-licensed content for courses in undergraduate engineering electromagnetics. The project is motivated by two things: lowering learning material costs for students and giving faculty the freedom to adopt, modify, and improve their educational resources.

Accessibility features of this book: Screen reader friendly, navigation, and Alt-text for all images and figures.

Publication of this book was made possible in part by the Open Education Faculty Initiative Grant program at the University Libraries at Virginia Tech. http://guides.lib.vt.edu/oer/grants

Subject:
Engineering
Physics
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Textbook
Provider:
Virginia Tech
Provider Set:
VTech Works
Author:
Steven W. Ellingson
Date Added:
08/23/2018
Electromagnetics, Volume 2
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Electromagnetics, volume 2 by Steven W. Ellingson is a 216-page peer-reviewed open textbook designed especially for electrical engineering students in the third year of a bachelor of science degree program. It is intended as the primary textbook for the second semester of a two-semester undergraduate engineering electromagnetics sequence. The book addresses magnetic force and the Biot-Savart law; general and lossy media; parallel plate and rectangular waveguides; parallel wire, microstrip, and coaxial transmission lines; AC current flow and skin depth; reflection and transmission at planar boundaries; fields in parallel plate, parallel wire, and microstrip transmission lines; optical fiber; and radiation and antennas.

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1: Preliminary Concepts
Chapter 2: Magnetostatics Redux
Chapter 3: Wave Propagation in General Media
Chapter 4: Current Flow in Imperfect Conductors
Chapter 5: Wave Reflection and Transmission
Chapter 6: Waveguides
Chapter 7: Transmission Lines Redux
Chapter 8: Optical Fiber
Chapter 9: Radiation
Chapter 10: Antennas
Appendix A: Constitutive Parameters of Some Common Materials
Appendix B: Mathematical Formulas
Appendix C: Physical Constants

Additional Resources
Problem sets and the corresponding solution manuals
Slides of figures used in and created for the book
LaTeX sourcefiles.
Screen-reader friendly version
Errata for Volume 2
Collaborator portal for the Electromagnetics series https://www.oercommons.org/groups/electromagnetics-user-group/3455
Faculty listserv for the Electromagnetics series
Submit feedback and suggestions

The Open Electromagnetics Project https://www.faculty.ece.vt.edu/swe/oem
Led by Steven W. Ellingson at Virginia Tech, the goal of the Open Electromagnetics Project is to create no-cost openly-licensed content for courses in engineering electromagnetics. The project is motivated by two things: lowering learning material costs for students and giving faculty the freedom to adopt, modify, and improve their educational resources.

Books in this Series
Electromagnetics, Volume 1 https://doi.org/10.21061/electromagnetics-vol-1
Electromagnetics, Volume 2 https://doi.org/10.21061/electromagnetics-vol-2

To express your interest in a book or this series, please visit http://bit.ly/vtpublishing-updates

Subject:
Engineering
Physics
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Textbook
Provider:
Virginia Tech
Provider Set:
VTech Works
Author:
Steven W. Ellingson
Date Added:
12/16/2019
Exploring the Physical World: Introductory Chemistry and Physics
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This a physical science text intended for non-science majors that covers introductory chemistry and physics topics. The work is adapted from Chemistry: Atoms First 2e https://openstax.org/details/books/chemistry-atoms-first-2e and College Physics https://openstax.org/details/books/college-physics

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
VIVA Open Publishing
Author:
Marin Higgins
N. Gergel-Hackett
Zachary Zintak
Date Added:
04/12/2021
Fundamentals of Mathematics
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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0.0 stars

Fundamentals of Mathematics is a work text that covers the traditional topics studied in a modern prealgebra course, as well as topics of estimation, elementary analytic geometry, and introductory algebra. It is intended for students who (1) have had a previous course in prealgebra, (2) wish to meet the prerequisite of a higher level course such as elementary algebra, and (3) need to review fundamental mathematical concepts and techniques. NOTE: This collection is a work in progress, and the content has not yet been marked up in CNXML. You can download PDF copies of individual chapters in from their respective modules.

Subject:
Physics
Women's Studies
Material Type:
Full Course
Reading
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax CNX
Author:
Denny Burzynski
Date Added:
02/16/2011
General Relativity
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This is a textbook on general relativity for upper-division undergraduates majoring in physics, at roughly the same level as Rindler's Essential Relativity or Hartle's Gravity. The book is meant to be especially well adapted for self-study, and answers are given in the back of the book for almost all the problems. The ratio of conceptual to mathematical problems is higher than in most books. The focus is on "index-gymnastics" techniques, to the exclusion of index-free notation. Knowledge of first-year calculus and lower-division mechanics and electromagnetism is assumed. Special relativity is introduced from scratch, but it will be very helpful to have a thorough previous knowledge of SR, at the level of a book such as Taylor and Wheeler's Spacetime Physics or my own text Special Relativity.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Light and Matter
Provider Set:
Light and Matter Books
Author:
Benjamin Crowell, Fullerton College
Date Added:
09/03/2015
Introduction to Electricity, Magnetism, and Circuits
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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0.0 stars

This textbook emphasizes connections between theory and application, making physics concepts interesting and accessible to students while maintaining the mathematical rigour inherent in the subject. Frequent, strong examples focus on how to approach a problem, how to work with the equations, and how to check and generalize the result.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Saskatchewan
Author:
Daryl Janzen
Date Added:
03/26/2019
Life and the Universe: What if …?
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating
5.0 stars

This book is a journey through the world of physics and cosmology, and an exploration of our role in this universe. We will address questions such as: What if the force of gravity were a little stronger? What if there were more of fewer atoms in our universe? What if Newton and not Einstein had been right? Would we still be here? Can the universe exist without us to observe it? Can chance explain the world around us, as well as us?

The purpose of this book is to phrase these questions and pursue the consequences of potential answers through rigorous scientific reasoning; in the process we will learn how the very small and the very large are interconnected, and even how we can affect events that happened six billion years ago.

Licensed CC-BY-4.0 with attribution instructions on page 2 of the document.

Table of Contents

Introduction 7
The fundamental forces 10
The force of gravity 18
What if … the force of gravity were different? 23
The electric and magnetic forces 26
The electric force 27
What if … the electric force were different? 39
The magnetic force 48
What if … the magnetic force were different? 58
The strong and weak forces 59
What if … ? 65
How do forces work? 74
The history of the universe 85
What if … ? 94
The history of our species 106
Odds 124
The building blocks of the universe 128
What if … ? 140
Dark energy 150
What if … dark matter were more interesting? 159
When you do not look…. 162
Manifestations of the wave nature of matter 169
The delayed choice experiment: Affecting the past 186
What if … ? 191
The story so far 195
Unification and our role 199
Fine-tuning? 214
The Multiverse and aliens 226
The laws of physics 234
The Anthropic Principle and Puddle Theory 237
Post mortem 249
Further reading and chapter notes 251

Subject:
Astronomy
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Lanika Ruzhitskaya
Wouter Montfrooij
Date Added:
01/01/2018
Light And Matter
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CC BY-SA
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0.0 stars

This is an introductory text intended for a one-year introductory course of the type typically taken by biology majors, or for AP Physics 1 and 2. Algebra and trig are used, and there are optional calculus-based sections. My text for physical science and engineering majors is Simple Nature.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Light and Matter
Provider Set:
Light and Matter Books
Author:
Benjamin Crowell, Fullerton College
Date Added:
09/03/2015
Mathematics for Biomedical Physics
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CC BY
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Mathematics for Biomedical Physics is an open textbook, published by the Wayne State University Library System, geared to introduce several mathematical topics at the rudimentary level so that students can appreciate the applications of mathematics to the interdisciplinary field of biomedical physics. Most of the topics are presented in their simplest but rigorous form so that students can easily understand the advanced form of these topics when the need arises. Several end-of-chapter problems and chapter examples relate the applications of mathematics to biomedical physics. After mastering the topics of this book, students would be ready to embark on quantitative thinking in various topics of biology and medicine.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Mathematics
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Wayne State University
Author:
Jogindra M Wadehra
Date Added:
08/09/2022
Mechanics
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CC BY-SA
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0.0 stars

This is a calculus-based book meant for the first semester of the type of freshman survey course taken by engineering and physical science majors. A treatment of relativity is interspersed with the Newtonian mechanics, in optional sections. The book is designed so that it can be used as a drop-in replacement for the corresponding part of Simple Nature, for instructors who prefer a traditional order of topics. Simple Nature does energy before force, while Mechanics does force before energy. Simple Nature has its treatment of relativity all in a single chapter, rather than in parallel with the development of Newtonian mechanics.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Light and Matter
Provider Set:
Light and Matter Books
Author:
Benjamin Crowell, Fullerton College
Date Added:
09/03/2015
Mechanics Map Open Mechanics Textbook
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-SA
Rating
5.0 stars

Open textbook in statics and dynamics for engineering undergraduates. Covers particles and rigid bodies (extended bodies), structures (trusses), simple machines, kinematics, and kinetics, as well as introductory vibrations. Includes text, videos, images, and worked examples (written and video).

Subject:
Engineering
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Adaptive Map Digital Textbook Project
Author:
Agnes d'Entremont
Douglas Miller
Jacob Moore
Joan Kowalski
Majod Chatsaz
Date Added:
03/11/2019
Mechanics and Relativity
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CC BY-NC-SA
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In Mechanics and Relativity, the reader is taken on a tour through time and space. Starting from the basic axioms formulated by Newton and Einstein, the theory of motion at both the everyday and the highly relativistic level is developed without the need of prior knowledge. The relevant mathematics is provided in an appendix. The text contains various worked examples and a large number of original problems to help the reader develop an intuition for the physics. Applications covered in the book span a wide range of physical phenomena, including rocket motion, spinning tennis rackets and high-energy particle collisions.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Delft University of Technology
Author:
Timon Idema
Date Added:
11/01/2018
Physics 120
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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The PHYSICS 120 textbook combines select chapters from University Physics volumes 1 and 3. The content from Volume 1 covers mechanics, sound, oscillations, and waves. Content from Volume 3 covers optics and modern physics. This textbook emphasizes connections between theory and application, making physics concepts interesting and accessible to students while maintaining the mathematical rigor inherent in the subject. Frequent, strong examples focus on how to approach a problem, how to work with the equations, and how to check and generalize the result.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
British Columbia/Yukon Open Authoring Platform
Author:
Jeff Sanny
Samuel J. Ling
William Moebs
Date Added:
08/28/2021
Physics 132: What is an Electron? What is Light?
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CC BY
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A second semester introductory physics course for life sciences students that looks to deepen students' understanding of biology and chemistry through physics all through the lens of understanding two of the most fundamental particles in the Universe: electrons and photons. The book begins with exploring the quantum mechanical nature of these objects to expand on what students have learned in chemistry and then proceeds to geometric optics (using the human eye as a theme), electrostatics (using membrane potentials), circuits (using the neuron), and finally synthesizing everything in a unit exploring the meaning of "light is an electromagnetic wave."

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Author:
Brokk Toggerson
Edward J. Neth
E.F. Redish
Emily Hansen
John Eggebrecht
Julianne Zedalis
Klaus Theopold
Paul Flowers
Paul Peter Urone
Richard Langley
Roger Hinrichs
William R. Robinson
Date Added:
02/28/2021
Physics 221-223
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CC BY-SA
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The Physics 205/206 and 210/211 sequences are intended for biology majors. If you're an engineering major, you should be in Physics 221. If you just need a gen ed class, you should be in Physics 130. Physics 205/206 satisfies your physics requirement if you're a biology major transferring to a Cal State. The prerequisites for 205 are Math 141 (precalculus) and Math 142 (trig). Physics 210/211 satisfies your physics requirement if you're a biology major transferring to a UC (or a Cal State). The prerequisites for 210 are Math 141 (precalculus) and Math 142 (trig), and the corequisite is Math 150A (calculus).

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Light and Matter
Provider Set:
Light and Matter Courses
Author:
Benjamin Crowell, Fullerton College
Date Added:
09/03/2015
Physics for beginners with wiki-pages for ancillary supplements.
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CC BY-NC-SA
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The need for an OER textbook on conceptual physics led to the discovery of a short book Matthew Raspanti posted on the internet back in 2008. He agreed to a CC-BY-NC-SA licence that permits the text to reside on Wikiversity as a pdf file. It is available as a single 162 page document, as well as 20 much shorter documents to facilitate online navigation.

Each of these 20 sections links out of a WIKI page that will permit the submission and sharing of ancillary materials under a CC-BY-SA license. These wiki-pages can be organized to host an arbitrary number of submissions by students, as well as by instructors.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Homework/Assignment
Textbook
Provider:
Wikiversity
Author:
Guy Vandegrift
Matthew Raspanti
Date Added:
10/10/2019
Principles of Physics II Study Guides and Homework Materials
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CC BY
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This set of study guides and homework materials was created for Principles of Physics II under a Round Six ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Assessment
Homework/Assignment
Provider:
University System of Georgia
Provider Set:
Galileo Open Learning Materials
Author:
Dereth Drake
Francis Flaherty
Michael Holt
Date Added:
03/20/2018
Principles of Physics I Study and Homework Materials
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This set of study guides and homework materials was created for Principles of Physics I under a Round Six ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Homework/Assignment
Provider:
University System of Georgia
Provider Set:
Galileo Open Learning Materials
Author:
Dereth Drake
Francis Flaherty
Michael Holt
Date Added:
03/20/2018
Relativity Lite: A Pictorial Translation of Einstein’s Theories of Motion and Gravity
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CC BY-NC
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Relativity Lite is designed for the General Astronomy sequence (PH 361-2U, SCI 315-6U) whose primary book glosses over Special Relativity and General Relativity while trying to explain the Cosmology that is based on those subjects. Relativity Lite translates the mathematical equations conventional relativity texts rely upon into pictures that are readily understood and contain within them the mathematical essentials. This book provides the comprehensive coverage needed to understand, in sufficient depth, these three linked areas of our reality.

Readers seeking this knowledge on their own, and those in other courses for nonscientists, may also find it helpful.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Portland State University
Author:
Jack C. Straton
Date Added:
09/05/2020
Relativity for Poets
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CC BY-SA
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This is a set of lecture notes for my course Relativity for Poets at Fullerton College. It's a nonmathematical presentation of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity, including a brief treatment of cosmology.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Light and Matter
Provider Set:
Light and Matter Books
Author:
Benjamin Crowell, Fullerton College
Date Added:
09/03/2015