This presentation aims to increase the students’ knowledge about environmental epidemiology, by introducing different study designs used to study health effects of exposure to outdoor air pollution. All study designs are illustrated by examples, starting with the Great Smog (Killer Fog) of London in 1952, one of the landmarks in environmental epidemiology.
Introduction to Global Health
Nearly one third of the world’s population are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution from the household’s use of solid fuel. The fuel is mainly biomass burning under poor combustion conditions
in open fires or primitive stoves and with low ventilation. This costs more than 4 million lives every year and enormous suffering in particular among women and children.
What is air pollution? What is it in the air that is harmful? This lecture focuses on air pollution, where it occur, and how it spread.
In this presentation, we will describe the global levels and trends in major air pollutants and related health burden. Air pollution is an important global risk factor for disease. People who live in more polluted areas develop more often chronic and infectious disease and die prematurely as compared to people living in areas with low air pollution.
In large part of the World, people spend more than 90 percent of the time in indoor environments, where air quality is important for health. The environment outside the building, what goes on inside the building and the exchange of air pollutants affects the indoor air. Tight buildings can reduce energy consumption and entry of outdoor air pollutants, but unless ventilation is right indoor air pollutants from combustion processes, dampness, microbes, the dwellers bio effluents,
appliances, care and cleaning products, clothing, furniture, building materials, the underground and many other sources will build up indoors causing important health effects.
In this presentation, we will discuss how we can know whether one individual is more susceptible to harmful effect of air pollution than others are. Everyone is exposed, but some groups may be more susceptible to the harmful effect of air pollution than others may.
In this lecture, we will describe the mechanisms by which air pollution causes pulmonary health effects in the human population. The pulmonary health effects include exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), increased risk of lower
respiratory tracts infections and lung cancer.
In this presentation, we will describe the mechanisms by which air pollution causes health effects in other parts of the body than the lungs. In continuation of this, we will discuss the important mechanisms of extra pulmonary health effect.
There is a long way before the whole world complies with the WHO guidelines for air quality, but the enormous burden of disease from outdoor air pollution forces us to increase action to come as far as possible. In continuation of this, we will discuss what we can do about air pollution at global, international, national, city and individual levels. Most of the actions to reduce air pollution also mitigates climate change and/or promote health in other ways – so there are many win-win and
The video lesson aims to expand students’ knowledge of abortion as a global health issue. Induced abortion is one of the most contested and controversial problems in the field of global health and an issue that concerns fetus’ rights, women’s rights and human rights. This lesson focuses particularly on abortion stigma and its consequences for women’s health worldwide. The topic of abortion will be discussed within a context of dominant ideas of womanhood, motherhood, and sexuality, addressing abortion not just as a health issue, but also as an ideological battle over gender and sexuality.
Our planet is currently being challenged by dramatic changes to earth and human systems under the influence of climate change and variability. These include changes of population and environmental dynamics that impacts human health. Thus, climate change is considered the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century. Health impacts can be direct typically related to extreme weather events; indirect with linkages to climate change induced environmental alterations and damage or in relation to displacement, conflict and social disruption. This presentation provides a series of examples of changes of environmental and social determinants of health with negative or positive health impacts. These include impacts on communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases and mental health of importance in particular in vulnerable urban and rural settings as well as among sensitive community groups exposed to variations in temperature and precipitation patterns.
This presentation provides an introduction and explores the trends in the five sexual and reproductive health priority areas over the last decades:
Maternal and newborn health, family planning, unsafe abortion, sexually transmitted infections and sexual health.
The purpose of this video lesson is to give the students an introduction to the concept continuum of care within the field of sexual and reproductive health. Malaria in pregnancy will be used as an example to demonstrate why it is important to understand that health and disease and the management hereof is not linked to one time point in life or to one place in the health system. The students will learn that to understand the health of today and of tomorrow we need to understand the health of yesterday.
This presentation provides an introduction to the social determinants and drivers of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). Poor social determinants leads to a higher risk of illness and a lower chance of having suitable healthcare access, which leads to illness, which in turn leads right back to a deeper level of poor social determinants. In continuation of this, we’ll discuss how to address social determinants and how we need to be involved.
The purpose of this lesson is to expand the student´s knowledge about diabetes.
The world experience an epidemic of type 2 diabetes, especially in low and middle-income countries. Diabetes is no longer a disease of high-income countries and urban cities but impact upon rural populations and the poorest segments of the population.
Participants: Professor Venkat Narayan.
In recent decades, it has been recognized that maternal health and fetal development plays a critical role in developing diabetes and at the same time, diabetes is an important but often unrecognized contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. This presentation talks about the links between diabetes and maternal, and child health. Furthermore, it is explored why an intergenerational perspective on diabetes prevention is needed.
This presentation provides an introduction to the calculation and use of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). DALY is increasingly used as a measurement for disease burden when comparing the relative burden of specific diseases or a combination of diseases across or within populations.
This session presents an overview of the association between water, sanitation, hygiene and human health. A particular focus upon transmission and treatment of diarrhea disease among small children. Other diseases given particular priority in the presentation include Hepatitis A and E viruses and bacteria that cause cholera or typhoid fever. Likewise, the importance of water-washed diseases, especially infectious skin and eye diseases, such as scabies and trachoma are presented. The preventive actions needed to reduce the burden of the various infectious diseases associated with water, sanitation and hygiene will be introduced.
Infectious diseases have a specific, ethiological cause, e.g. a microbe such as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, most people exposed to TB does not develop the disease. What determines this may be poverty, weakening of the person by other diseases or smoking and alcohol. So-called life-style diseases are (also) determined by the way you live, and include prevalent non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases, but besides of risk factors such as smoking and drinking or over-eating, the living conditions matter equally and sometimes more. The environment, climate changes, urbanization, socio-economic factors all impact health and disease. When an individual grows older, patterns of his/her diseases changes: the same applies when a society grows ‘older’.
Previously infectious diseases previously caused the majority of ill-health and premature death globally, but in high- and middle-income countries during the 20.th century infectious diseases – with the exception of HIV – declined. Introduction of hygiene and discovery of microbes and later vaccines an antibiotics contributed to the decline, but changing living conditions with better housing, nutrition, water and sanitation were the main drivers of infectious diseases’ decline.
This session will expand the student´s knowledge about human health and quality of life in the context of global and local ecology. Examples will be provided on how environmental management and development influence human health. The session provide an overview of the disease burden attributable to the environment, and much of this burden is placed across different geographical regions of the world. Examples will be presented on the impacts of poor quality water, insufficient access to water, lack of appropriate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Other examples of environmental health factors included relate to reduced forest cover, unsustainable agricultural production systems, climate change, and poor management of natural resources that significantly influence livelihood, food security and migration patterns.
This presentation provides an introduction to the principles of demographic and epidemiological transition with specific focus on how changes in life expectancy, socio-economic factors and life conditions will change the landscape of global disease burdens.
WHO has estimated that about 100 million people are driven below the poverty line every year because of out-of-pocket payments for health services. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is a strategy to ensure that all people can use health services of sufficient quality to be effective, while the use of these services does not expose the user to financial hardship. UHC receives increasing global attention, strongly promoted by the WHO, and the strategy is a cornerstone of the global post 2015-agenda for health. In this video lesson we will discuss three central questions for achieving UHC: How to secure adequate financing for health, how to protect the poor from financial consequences of ill health, and how to encourage optimum use of resources.
This interview provides an introduction to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) regarding the global control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). The FCTC treaty is a response to the worry of member states, that tobacco is not decreasing but rather growing. Furthermore it is discussed how we can make sure people don’t start smoking or quit as early as possible.
Participants: Programme manager Kristina Mauer-Stender.
This presentation provides an overview of the major determinants and specific drivers of epidemiological transition and changes in disease burdens, including demographic factors, urbanisation, diet, economics, climate changes, disasters, health sector reforms, health care and health care technology.
Global Health Governance is how we create an organized response to health at the global level. Each country has its own health system, but health issues are become international, as people travel, and goods and services (for example tobacco sales) are becoming increasingly globalised, and challenges such as climate change have a wide reach. WHO has an important guiding role in the global health architecture, but it has limited funding and mandate to establish and implement legally binding acts.
This video on HIV in Global Health introduces the student to the origin, and major milestones in the HIV pandemic. Students will learn about scientific breakthroughs in HIV research including important trials. The video also provides insight into public health initiatives to limit the pandemic such as ART programs and different testing strategies. Finally the video sums up future challenges for ending the HIV pandemic.
The purpose of this video lesson is to expand the student's knowledge about the use and non-use of public health care facilities in low-income societies. Students will learn that a range of different factors, such as availability, accessibility, cost and quality of care play important roles when rural citizens take decisions about health care seeking. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Burkina Faso, West Africa, this lesson explains why public health care facilities in the global south sometimes are underutilized.
This presentation provides an introduction to the health implications of complex emergencies. In the light of research conducted in Guinea-Bissau and South Sudan, it is described how complex emergencies affects populations’ health and affected populations’ response to complex emergencies.
This presentation discusses how the political instability has an impact on health care services. It focuses upon a period in Uganda where the government health facilities were neglected resulting in the lack of adequate health care provision and access to medicines. Following the instability in the country, the development and management of its health care services was highly dependent on funding from external donors and significant international influence on national services, including health care programs.
Participants: Professor Susan Whyte.
This presentation provides an introduction to diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites and other disease causing agents or pathogens. Furthermore, we’ll look at the range of syndromes associated with diarrhea and uncover two significant pathogens: rotavirus and vibrio cholera. Finally, we’ll delve into methods for managing diarrheal diseases and the significance of sanitation in preventing diarrheal diseases.
This presentation provides an introduction to infectious diseases like tuberculosis, vector-borne diseases, puerperal sepsis, streptococcus septicemia, etc. and how these diseases have affected global health over the last two centuries and decades.
In this presentation the achievement regarding the 8 millennium goals (MDG), set by the United Nation’s member states to be reached by 2015 are reviewed, with emphasis on Infectious diseases, such as HIV, TB malaria and other vector-borne diseases, including Chagas’ disease and African trypanosomiasis, the latter belong to the ‘neglected tropical diseases’. What made it happen and why (not) is discussed.
In this presentation the global burden of diseases – deaths as well as disabilities – jointly named DALYs – is presented and differences and similarities between lo-, middle-, and high-income countries presently and over time are presented. The strict division between non-communicable and communicable (infectious) diseases is also challenged, and propositions on how to manage them jointly are given. The double burden of NCD+overnutrition and CD+undernutrition in societies in fast transition is presented. The present vs. the expected global burden of diseases by the year 2030 are also introduced.
The session argues for why the three main resources that humanity needs for its survival on this planet are land / soil, water resources and air. In addition, how degradation of such resources places limits health and to the quality of life for the affected human population.
Participants: Senior adviser (IWA) Robert Ros
Despite a steady decline in recent years, malaria continues to be a major cause of ill health and poverty in large parts of the world. The purpose of this video lesson is to get the student to think critically about what might have caused this change, and how infection and disease is affected by human intervention and other drivers of change. Additionally, to encourage the student to engage actively in efforts to combat major infectious disease obstacles to a more equitable world.
This lesson discusses and explains why mental health is difficult to define using international terminology. It also introduces why there is a much higher burden of disease linked with mental disorders in Europe compared to, for example, Africa. The session discussed why there is a different spending on mental health treatment in developing countries compared to western countries.
Participants: Dr. Matt Muijen.
The video introduces health challenges for the very varied group of migrants. A large part voluntarily migrated, but non-voluntary groups include refugees, IDPs, Stateless and trafficked persons. Internal migrants are both due to conflicts and disasters and general urbanisation. The different groups have very varied health issues, and also very varied protective frameworks – whether international conventions or national laws and services - and may not be able or willing to seek health care.
This presentation provides an introduction to migrant health and its importance in the global health context. We’ll look at the key concepts of migration and ethnicity and how they are related to health. Furthermore we’ll look at how barriers may arise in access to health care for migrants, and finally we’ll provide examples from a Scandinavian context on differences in health between migrants and ethnic Danes.
This presentation provides an introduction to the term Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). We’ll explore what NCD’s are, and look at some of the epidemiology (the burden of disease) and finally we’re going to look at some of the major misconceptions and misunderstandings around NCD’s