In this presentation, we talk about adaptation and evolution of bacteria. Furthermore, we will discuss how you can work with or against evolution, regarding the treatment of bacteria and biofilms.
In this presentation, we will discuss how bacterial pathogen adapt to the human host environment during long-term chronic infections. In continuation of this, we will discuss how the opportunistic pathogen - Pseudomonas aeruginosa - evolves during adaptation to the airways of cystic fibrosis patients.
This presentation introduces bacteria and biofilms. Where do we find bacteria? Is it possible to live without bacteria? Should we be scared of bacteria?
The aim of this presentation is to expand the student knowledge about biofilm properties. In continuation of this, we will present different models for testing and study a biofilm, hereby: the crystal violet assay, filter biofilm, the semi solid model, and the flow-cell system
this presentation focuses on host response to biofilm infection. In continuation of this, we will go through the different types of host response to infections, which consists of at least three components: the non-inflammatory defense, the immune response and the inflammatory response.
In this presentation we will focus’ on host response to chronic infections. In continuation of this, we will talk about the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the respiratory burst and reactive oxygen species (ROS).
this presentation focuses on the problems of treating chronic infections. Furthermore, we will discuss why the host defense seems to be not working probably. In continuation of this, we will discuss whether the problem with chronic infections will increase over the years.
In this presentation, we will introduce the mechanisms involved in the tolerance of biofilms to antibiotics. In continuation of this, we will talk about specific tolerance mechanism, oxidative stress and the development of mutational resistance.
This presentation introduces chronic wounds and the non-healing properties of these. In continuation of this, we will provide a brief introduction to bacterial biofilms in chronic wounds, furthermore we will introduce some of the controversies and challenges we face working with this subject.
The aim of this presentation is to expand the students’ knowledge about the chronic lung infection, Cystic Fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis is probably the most studied biofilm infection and much of our biofilm knowledge derive from this disease.
In this presentation, we will talk about diagnosis of bacteria and chronic infections in clinical practices. We will discuss why we need to diagnose bacteria in infections and what the biggest challenges are in diagnosing bacterial and chronic infections. Finally, we will discuss what the future will bring, regarding bacteria and diagnosis.
In this presentation, we will introduce the student to diagnosis of chronic infections. Diagnosing chronic infections is just as complicated as treating these infections. In continuation of this, we will talk about the three main issues when diagnosing chronic infections and share some experiences we have within this area.
In this presentation, we will introduce you to evolution in biofilms and chronic infections. The general principles of evolution are independent of the specific environment, however some conditions related to time and space are faced by bacteria in chronic infections - and this affects evolution
In this presentation, we will tell you about social evolution in microbes and in continuation of this discuss why social evolution in microbes is important in biofilms.
In this presentation, we will discuss how bacteria are causing disease. Furthermore, we will introduce the student to the term pathogenesis, and in continuation of this present the four main steps, that causes pathogenesis.
The aim of this presentation is to expand the student knowledge about biofilms on central venous catheters (CVC). In continuation of this, we will discuss how to avoid infections regarding CVCs.
In this presentation, we will introduce Oral Biofilms, such as the dental biofilm, also known as dental plaque. The dental biofilm is associated with some of the most well known oral diseases like caries and periodontal disease but it also has beneficial effects.
This presentation will introduce otitis media and chronic ear infections. In continuation of this, we will talk about how middle ear disease affects the populations and why we have to speculate about biofilms in otitis media.
The aim of this presentation is to provide a brief overview of issues related to the treatment of chronic deep infections around joint replacements. In continuation of this, we will discuss what the symptoms are, how to establish the diagnosis and choose what kind of treatment to use, in different phases of the infection.
In this presentation, we will talk about bacteria, and the two life forms planktonic and biofilm growing bacteria. In continuation of this we will explain the difference between planktonic and biofilm growing bacteria.
The aim of this presentation is to expand the student knowledge about skin microbiology. The main skin microbes are bacteria, viruses and fungi, which normally are friendly without causing harms. However, the skin flora is constantly challenges by our every-day life activities.
The focus of this presentation is to expand the students’ knowledge about the Human Gut Microbiome. The gut is - similar to the skin - exposed externally and is therefore a non-sterile environment.
In this presentation, we will tell you about dermal gel fillers and infections related to these. Dermal gel fillers have become increasingly popular during the past 15-20 years, because they can restore some of the youthful appearance in an ageing face. The fillers differ in longevity and composition, some contain micro particles and others do not.
The aim of this presentation is to expand the students’ knowledge about treatment of chronic infections in relation to orthopedic surgery. In the field of orthopedic surgery, several chronic infections exist and sometimes they combine.
In this presentation, we will discuss how to treat chronic infections. In continuation of this, we will discuss some of the issues that one might consider when treating biofilm-associated infections.
Here you can find weblectures with basic information about HIV/TB in a global perspective. The first lecture is about the epidemiology and recent developments of HIV globally. The second part gives more detail on testing and treating HIV, with methods and obstacles. The third web lecture discuss pediactirc HIV and how to prevent mother-to-child transmission. In the fourth lecture you will find an introduction to tuberculosis, both with a historical perspective and with the current situation in the world.The web lectures can be used seperately or as a package.
Vaccines do much more than protect against the disease they are designed for. Watch this talk from TEDxAarhus 2018 by medical doctor and professor in global health Christine Stabell Benn and learn how hundreds of thousands of lives could be saved every year just by using the existing vaccines smarter. Christine Stabell Benn is a medical doctor and professor in global health. By studying real-life effects of vaccines in Africa, she has found that vaccines do much more than protect against the target disease; they have so-called non-specific effects. In most cases, they come with an added bonus of increased resistance against other infections than the target disease. If we take that into account, we can save hundreds of thousands of lives every year just by using the existing vaccines smarter. Christine argues that we should not only study vaccines' effects on the target infection, but also ask the often ignored question: what is the impact of vaccines on overall health?
At the time of the video, 60 cases of AIDs had been documented at KCMC, arriving at an ever increasing rate since the first case in 1984. While the issue is tragic, the video provides a fascinating insight into the situation “at the front-lines.” The idea of an epidemic is just beginning to be considered. Understanding of the situation is in its early phases: how long is the incubation? How exactly is it spread? How can we treat it? Will there be a vaccine? Who is at risk?
Unlike in Europe and the West, AIDs in Africa is a heterosexual illness. Victims are adults of both sexes in their sexual prime. Howlett says that most of the cases he has seen have come from urban centres. People are beginning to understand that the full impact of the disease is invisible, because of the long incubation time from infection to full-blown disease. The tragedy of transmission to new-borns is just beginning to be observed.
The only defence against dying of AIDS, is to use condoms. Blood screening is starting to be implemented in major centres.
This video’s intended audience was humanitarian volunteers in Europe, intending to come to Africa. Howlett tells them that they need to be clear about their responsibilities to themselves and their families. That they need to understand potential, long-term impacts of any decisions they make. It is not the same situation, he says, as it was for volunteers 5-10 years ago.
As a medically trained humanitarian, Howlett first travelled to Africa in 1980. From 1984, he began as a Ministry-appointed specialist physician at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC), in Moshi, in northern Tanzania. He has remained closely associated with KCMC ever since. Learn more about Howlett’s experiences.
In the first video, from 1987, he describes the beginning of the epidemic with the first officially documented case of HIV-AIDS that was diagnosed at KCMC in March 1984. In the third video from 2018, he cites UNAIDS statistics from 2016, to underline the scope of the epidemic. In Tanzania, a country of 55 million people, 1.4 million are HIV-infected. The UNAIDS statistics further indicate that in 2016, it is estimated that there are 55 000 new HIV-infections and 33 000 AIDs-related deaths annually.
Just 2 years later, Howlett is interviewed again. It is interesting to note how much understanding of the epidemic has grown in the 2 years since his first interview. Research and reporting is increasing. Howlett says that Tanzania has reported 2 500 cases thus far to WHO.
Focus is being placed on Public Education measures. It is beginning to be understood, to use metaphors, that AIDs cases represent just the tip of the iceberg for a disease that has an incubation time as long as 7-8 years, or longer. The epidemic is spreading from the main concentration of cases in urban centres, where there are high levels of promiscuity. Such areas with prostitution, travellers, mobile populations create “whirlpools” of infection and may have rates of infection in these high risk population groups more than 70%. The infection spreads from these urban nodes to rural areas, spreading in “ripples”, as travellers return home to their families.
A highly specific blood test has been developed to ensure safer blood supplies, although, Howlett explains, this is not a major transmission route in Africa.
Howlett says that the difference between the AIDs epidemic in Europe and Africa is largely cultural. In the West, he says, there is less promiscuity. In Africa, promiscuity is more tolerated, especially in “travelling” communities of truck-drivers and businessmen. Specific communities of sexual workers have become established in all urban centres. In a cycle of poverty, it may be the only choice available to many women. These women, Howlett explains, act as repositories, and the visiting men are the vectors spreading the disease along transportation routes and to their homes, in rural settings.
Howlett and his wife, Juliet, have become increasingly engaged in Public Education – holding talks in Public Meetings, developing education materials, reaching out to social leaders … However, he says that providing information is not enough to change behaviour – people have to understand the information and its implications for their lives and the lives of their family members.. Be responsible. Tests are available – get tested. Be celibate if you are HIV positive, or, at least, use a condom. All are equal before AIDs, he says. Nearly 100% of patients with AIDs die.
This session presents an overview of the association between water, sanitation, hygiene and human health. A particular focus upon transmission and treatment of diarrhea disease among small children. Other diseases given particular priority in the presentation include Hepatitis A and E viruses and bacteria that cause cholera or typhoid fever. Likewise, the importance of water-washed diseases, especially infectious skin and eye diseases, such as scabies and trachoma are presented. The preventive actions needed to reduce the burden of the various infectious diseases associated with water, sanitation and hygiene will be introduced.
Infectious diseases have a specific, ethiological cause, e.g. a microbe such as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, most people exposed to TB does not develop the disease. What determines this may be poverty, weakening of the person by other diseases or smoking and alcohol. So-called life-style diseases are (also) determined by the way you live, and include prevalent non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases, but besides of risk factors such as smoking and drinking or over-eating, the living conditions matter equally and sometimes more. The environment, climate changes, urbanization, socio-economic factors all impact health and disease. When an individual grows older, patterns of his/her diseases changes: the same applies when a society grows ‘older’.
Previously infectious diseases previously caused the majority of ill-health and premature death globally, but in high- and middle-income countries during the 20.th century infectious diseases – with the exception of HIV – declined. Introduction of hygiene and discovery of microbes and later vaccines an antibiotics contributed to the decline, but changing living conditions with better housing, nutrition, water and sanitation were the main drivers of infectious diseases’ decline.
This presentation provides an introduction to the principles of demographic and epidemiological transition with specific focus on how changes in life expectancy, socio-economic factors and life conditions will change the landscape of global disease burdens.
This presentation provides an overview of the major determinants and specific drivers of epidemiological transition and changes in disease burdens, including demographic factors, urbanisation, diet, economics, climate changes, disasters, health sector reforms, health care and health care technology.
HIV is one of our newest diseases, discovered in the early 1980s. From being a disease with no cure, it is now a disease that people who have access to drugs live with chronically.
Get transcript for video here: https://www.oercommons.org/courseware/module/58789/overview
This video on HIV in Global Health introduces the student to the origin, and major milestones in the HIV pandemic. Students will learn about scientific breakthroughs in HIV research including important trials. The video also provides insight into public health initiatives to limit the pandemic such as ART programs and different testing strategies. Finally the video sums up future challenges for ending the HIV pandemic.
This presentation provides an introduction to diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites and other disease causing agents or pathogens. Furthermore, we’ll look at the range of syndromes associated with diarrhea and uncover two significant pathogens: rotavirus and vibrio cholera. Finally, we’ll delve into methods for managing diarrheal diseases and the significance of sanitation in preventing diarrheal diseases.
This presentation provides an introduction to infectious diseases like tuberculosis, vector-borne diseases, puerperal sepsis, streptococcus septicemia, etc. and how these diseases have affected global health over the last two centuries and decades.
In this presentation the achievement regarding the 8 millennium goals (MDG), set by the United Nation’s member states to be reached by 2015 are reviewed, with emphasis on Infectious diseases, such as HIV, TB malaria and other vector-borne diseases, including Chagas’ disease and African trypanosomiasis, the latter belong to the ‘neglected tropical diseases’. What made it happen and why (not) is discussed.