In this first module of Grade 1, students make significant progress towards fluency with addition and subtraction of numbers to 10 as they are presented with opportunities intended to advance them from counting all to counting on which leads many students then to decomposing and composing addends and total amounts.
Elementary Mathematics Collection Resources (41)
Module 2 serves as a bridge from students' prior work with problem solving within 10 to work within 100 as students begin to solve addition and subtraction problems involving teen numbers. Students go beyond the Level 2 strategies of counting on and counting back as they learn Level 3 strategies informally called "make ten" or "take from ten."
Module 3 begins by extending students kindergarten experiences with direct length comparison to indirect comparison whereby the length of one object is used to compare the lengths of two other objects. Longer than and shorter than are taken to a new level of precision by introducing the idea of a length unit. Students then explore the usefulness of measuring with similar units. The module closes with students representing and interpreting data.
Module 4 builds upon Module 2s work with place value within 20, now focusing on the role of place value in the addition and subtraction of numbers to 40. Students study, organize, and manipulate numbers within 40. They compare quantities and begin using the symbols for greater than (>) and less than (<). Addition and subtraction of tens is another focus of this module as is the use of familiar strategies to add two-digit and single-digit numbers within 40. Near the end of the module, the focus moves to new ways to represent larger quantities and adding like place value units as students add two-digit numbers.
In Module 5, students consider partwhole relationships through a geometric lens. The module opens with students identifying the defining parts, or attributes, of two- and three-dimensional shapes, building on their kindergarten experiences of sorting, analyzing, comparing, and creating various two- and three-dimensional shapes and objects. Students combine shapes to create a new whole: a composite shape. They also relate geometric figures to equal parts and name the parts as halves and fourths. The module closes with students applying their understanding of halves to tell time to the hour and half hour.
In this final module of the Grade 1 curriculum, students bring together their learning from Module 1 through Module 5 to learn the most challenging Grade 1 standards and celebrate their progress. As the module opens, students grapple with comparative word problem types. Next, they extend their understanding of and skill with tens and ones to numbers to 100. Students also extend their learning from Module 4 to the numbers to 100 to add and subtract. At the start of the second half of Module 6, students are introduced to nickels and quarters, having already used pennies and dimes in the context of their work with numbers to 40 in Module 4. Students use their knowledge of tens and ones to explore decompositions of the values of coins. The module concludes with fun fluency festivities to celebrate a year's worth of learning.
Module 1 sets the foundation for students to master the sums and differences to 20 and to subsequently apply these skills to fluently add one-digit to two-digit numbers at least through 100 using place value understandings, properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
In this 12-day Grade 2 module, students engage in activities designed to deepen their conceptual understanding of measurement and to relate addition and subtraction to length. Their work in Module 2 is exclusively with metric units in order to support place value concepts. Customary units will be introduced in Module 7.
In this 25-day Grade 2 module, students expand their skill with and understanding of units by bundling ones, tens, and hundreds up to a thousand with straws. Unlike the length of 10 centimeters in Module 2, these bundles are discrete sets. One unit can be grabbed and counted just like a banana?1 hundred, 2 hundred, 3 hundred, etc. A number in Grade 1 generally consisted of two different units, tens and ones. Now, in Grade 2, a number generally consists of three units: hundreds, tens, and ones. The bundled units are organized by separating them largest to smallest, ordered from left to right. Over the course of the module, instruction moves from physical bundles that show the proportionality of the units to non-proportional place value disks and to numerals on the place value chart.
In Module 4, students develop place value strategies to fluently add and subtract within 100; they represent and solve one- and two-step word problems of varying types within 100; and they develop conceptual understanding of addition and subtraction of multi-digit numbers within 200. Using a concrete to pictorial to abstract approach, students use manipulatives and math drawings to develop an understanding of the composition and decomposition of units, and they relate these representations to the standard algorithm for addition and subtraction.
In Module 4, students developed addition and subtraction fluency within 100 and began developing conceptual understanding of the standard algorithm via place value strategies. In Module 5, students build upon their mastery of renaming place value units and extend their work with conceptual understanding of the addition and subtraction algorithms to numbers within 1,000, always with the option of modeling with materials or drawings. Throughout the module, students continue to focus on strengthening and deepening conceptual understanding and fluency.
Module 6 lays the conceptual foundation for multiplication and division in Grade 3 and for the idea that numbers other than 1, 10, and 100 can serve as units. Topics in this module include: Formation of Equal Groups, Arrays and Equal Groups, Rectangular Arrays as a Foundation for Multiplication and Division, and The Meaning of Even and Odd Numbers.
Module 7 presents an opportunity for students to practice addition and subtraction strategies within 100 and problem-solving skills as they learn to work with various types of units within the contexts of length, money, and data. Students represent categorical and measurement data using picture graphs, bar graphs, and line plots. They revisit measuring and estimating length from Module 2, though now using both metric and customary units.
In Module 8, the final module of the year, students extend their understanding of partwhole relationships through the lens of geometry. As students compose and decompose shapes, they begin to develop an understanding of unit fractions as equal parts of a whole.
In this 35-day Grade 3 module, students extend and deepen second grade practice with "equal shares" to understanding fractions as equal partitions of a whole. Their knowledge becomes more formal as they work with area models and the number line.
Module 2 uses place value to unify measurement, rounding skills, and the standard algorithms for addition and subtraction. The module begins with plenty of hands-on experience using a variety of tools to build practical measurement skills and conceptual understanding of metric and time units. Estimation naturally surfaces through application; this transitions students into rounding. In the modules final topics students round to assess whether or not their solutions to problems solved using the standard algorithms are reasonable.
This 25-day module builds directly on students work with multiplication and division in Module 1. Module 3 extends the study of factors from 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 to include all units from 0 to 10, as well as multiples of 10 within 100. Similar to the organization of Module 1, the introduction of new factors in Module 3 spreads across topics. This allows students to build fluency with facts involving a particular unit before moving on. The factors are sequenced to facilitate systematic instruction with increasingly sophisticated strategies and patterns.
In this 20-day module students explore area as an attribute of two-dimensional figures and relate it to their prior understandings of multiplication. Students conceptualize area as the amount of two-dimensional surface that is contained within a plane figure. They come to understand that the space can be tiled with unit squares without gaps or overlaps. They make predictions and explore which rectangles cover the most area when the side lengths differ. Students progress from using square tile manipulatives to drawing their own area models and manipulate rectangular arrays to concretely demonstrate the arithmetic properties. The module culminates with students designing a simple floor plan that conforms to given area specifications.
This 10-day module builds on Grade 2 concepts about data, graphing, and line plots. The two topics in this module focus on generating and analyzing categorical and measurement data. By the end of the module, students are working with a mixture of scaled picture graphs, bar graphs, and line plots to problem solve using both categorical and measurement data.