This text is a comprehensive introduction to the vital subject of American government and politics. Governments decide who gets what, when, how (See Harold D. Lasswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When, How, [New York: McGraw-Hill, 1936]); they make policies and pass laws that are binding on all a society’s members; they decide about taxation and spending, benefits and costs, even life and death.Governments possess power—the ability to gain compliance and to get people under their jurisdiction to obey them—and they may exercise their power by using the police and military to enforce their decisions. However, power need not involve the exercise of force or compulsion; people often obey because they think it is in their interest to do so, they have no reason to disobey, or they fear punishment. Above all, people obey their government because it has authority; its power is seen by people as rightfully held, as legitimate. People can grant their government legitimacy because they have been socialized to do so; because there are processes, such as elections, that enable them to choose and change their rulers; and because they believe that their governing institutions operate justly.Politics is the process by which leaders are selected and policy decisions are made and executed. It involves people and groups, both inside and outside of government, engaged in deliberation and debate, disagreement and conflict, cooperation and consensus, and power struggles.In covering American government and politics, this text introduces the intricacies of the Constitution, the complexities of federalism, the meanings of civil liberties, and the conflicts over civil rights;explains how people are socialized to politics, acquire and express opinions, and participate in political life; describes interest groups, political parties, and elections—the intermediaries that link people to government and politics; details the branches of government and how they operate; and shows how policies are made and affect people’s lives.
The course is intended for people who would like a deeper understanding of the American housing finance system. The focus will be on providing necessary background knowledge rather than on evaluating specific policy proposals. Near the end of the course, participants will be encouraged to bring up policy issues and to discuss them in light of the information presented.
Becoming Human is a fast-paced, irreverent introduction to evolutionary theory, especially human origins. The book is based on the Open2Study MOOC, 'Becoming Human,' created by Dr. Greg Downey and Open Universities Australia. The book discusses traces of evolution in our bodies, basic evolutionary theory from Darwin to the genomic revolution, sexual selection and reproduction, and how human brain development affects our evolution, including into the future. Copiously illustrated, with some interactive diagrams, videos of Dr. Downey presenting the material are also available through Open2Study.
This is the first edition of the open text book Building a Competitive Investment Climate on First Nation Lands. This textbook is for students who are First Nation and tribal government employees or students who would like to work for or with First Nation and tribal governments. The purpose of this textbook is to help interested First Nation and tribal governments build a competitive investment climate. Work began on this text book in early 2012 with a generous grant from the Donner Canadian Foundation. Financial support was also provided by the First Nations Tax Commission and the Tulo Centre.
The purpose of this course is to trace the twin paths of capitalism and democracy through American history. This course is premised on the idea that capitalism and democracy are intertwined, though they have often conflicted with one another. It provides students with a brief introduction to the history of capitalism and democracy in Europe and then to explore how they evolved in North America between 1600 and the present. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: define and identify the terms 'capitalism' and 'democracy' in a variety of different modern historical eras; identify and define the historical connections between capitalism and democracy and identify periods of tension between capitalism and democracy, explaining how they both strengthen and weaken one another; identify important events, personalities, and concepts related to American democracy and capitalism; identify and describe the emergence and development of both capitalism and democracy in the United States; identify and describe the different periods of American history as they relate to the concepts of capitalism and democracy. (History 312)
Democracy in Brief touches on topics such as rights and responsibilities of citizens, free and fair elections, the rule of law, the role of a written constitution, separation of powers, a free media, the role of parties and interest groups, military-civilian relations and democratic culture.
Why are some countries rich and others poor? This fundamental question has been on the mind of economists since Adam Smith wrote "The Wealth of Nations" in 1776. This is a full course that covers all the major issues and developments in the field of development economics. Unlike typical college courses, we will take you to the frontier of the discipline, covering recent research as well as more established material. This course is non-technical and is accessible to a beginner. If you pass the final exam, you will earn our "Development Economics" certificate on your profile.
Economics can explain many of lifes big questions. Problem is, it can sometimes provide multiple, even conflicting, answers. So which answers are the right ones? Theres only one way to find out: Econ Duel! In this fun series from Marginal Revolution University, youll have a chance to hear from leading economic thinkers as they debate the big questions discussed in the news, in our schools, and around the dinner table.
Econometrics is the study of estimation and inference for economic models using economic data. Econometric theory concerns the study and development of tools and methods for applied econometric applications. Applied econometrics concerns the application of these tools to economic data.
The phrase 'economic development' generally refers not only to economic growth, but to changes in the ways in which goods and services are produced in a country as well as improvements in inhabitants' quality of life. Theories of economic development attempt to explain the social, political, and economic processes that countries go through as they transition from being what are known as 'Less Developed Countries' (LDCs) to being 'Developed Countries' (DCs). In this course, the student will discover how various theories explain development success and failure in the real world. Upon completion of this course, students will be able to: Define economic development and its components; Describe major theories of economic development; Understand some simple economic models related to economic development and economic growth, including the Solow Growth model and its extensions; Place economic development theories in the social and political context in which they were created; Critically examine economic development theories in light of a history of poor performance in development programs. (Economics 304)
Economic theory must distinguish between publicly owned and privately owned property if it is to account for the effect of institutions on the behavior of individuals. Careful study of the theories of Marxists and the real-world experience in the Soviet economy offer important lessons and insight for economic modeling and the ongoing development of theory. In this course, Marxist/Leninist theory and Soviet reality will be studied with an open mind, and with the goal of taking lessons from the case study.
This textbook, Economics: Theory Through Applications, centers around student needs and expectations through two premises: … Students are motivated to study economics if they see that it relates to their own lives. … Students learn best from an inductive approach, in which they are first confronted with a problem, and then led through the process of solving that problem.
Many books claim to present economics in a way that is digestible for students; Russell and Andrew have truly created one from scratch. This textbook will assist you in increasing students’ economic literacy both by developing their aptitude for economic thinking and by presenting key insights about economics that every educated individual should know.
In the Information Age, media is everywhere. This course will help you make sense of it all, providing insight into the structure of media firms, the nature of their products and how they make money. Is media biased? Is consolidation of media companies bad for consumers? This course will address those questions as well as how the government affects the structure of media through policies such as net neutrality, copyright, TV regulation, and spectrum allocation. This course will provide a general background on the research from economists on media and journalism. There will be a lot of economics and not too much math.
This style guide is an introductory wikibook for beginners who want to produce political messages in various media formats. It is not a rule book; rather, it is a set of guidelines to facilitate effective political communication. Its purpose is to bridge the gap between two distinct styles to create pragmatic, clear, and useful information to establish a consistent tone, style, and format between all of the messages you or your organization produces.
It is meant as a practical guide for anyone, regardless of political affiliation, and it is organized in such a way that a person new to political communication can learn to create convincing and thought-provoking op-eds, letters to the editor, press releases, social media posts, website content, and spoken messages.
What's the future of the European Union and the Euro? The Eurozone Crisis is one of the most important issues in the world today. In this three week mini-course, we will cover both the institutions that make up the European Union and the underlying economics that are behind the crisis. We cover what is considered "consensus" knowledge by economists while also adding our own speculations in the mix.
What role does economics play in your day-to-day life? You might be surprised to find that economics is a big part of nearly everything you do! Everyday Economics explores just that how the big ideas from economics relate to everyday topics. The course is viewer-driven you tell us where the course should go.
When the first edition of Folklife and Fieldwork was published in 1979 there were only a handful of professional state folklorists. Today nearly every state has a program for documenting and presenting its own folk cultural heritage. Folklife fieldwork has gone beyond its early missions of preservation and scholarship to serve new uses, such as providing information to economists, environmentalists, and community planners. New technologies for preserving and presenting traditional cultural expression have been developed. A new generation of professionally trained folklorists have emerged from university programs, and many now work in state and local organizations to sponsor concerts, Web site presentations, exhibits, and other cultural heritage programs. But regardless of the number of folklorists available for professional projects or the sophistication of the technology, there is still a need for the participation of all citizens in the process of documenting our diverse traditional culture. First Edition Prepared 1979 by Peter Bartis; Revised 2002.
This course will focus on the emergence and evolution of industrial societies around the world. The student will begin by comparing the legacies of industry in ancient and early modern Europe and Asia and examining the agricultural and commercial advances that laid the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution. The student will then follow the history of industrialization in different parts of the world, taking a close look at the economic, social, and environmental effects of industrialization. This course ultimately examines how industrialization developed, spread across the globe, and shaped everyday life in the modern era. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: identify key ideas and events in the history of industrialization; identify connections between the development of capitalism and the development of modern industry; use analytical tools to evaluate the factors contributing to industrial change in different societies; identify the consequences of industrialization in the 19th and 20th centuries in different societies; critique historical interpretations of the causes and effects of industrialization; and analyze and interpret primary source documents describing the process of industrialization and life in industrial societies. (History 363)
Global Womens Issues and the Beijing Platform for Action. This book is based on the 12 critical areas of concern identified at the Beijing Conference: 1 The persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women 2 Inequalities and inadequacies in and unequal access to education and training 3 Inequalities and inadequacies in and unequal access to health care and related services 4 Violence against women 5 The effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women, including those living under foreign occupation 6 Inequality in economic structures and policies, in all forms of productive activities and in access to resources 7 Inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision- making at all levels 8 Insufficient mechanisms at all levels to promote the advancement of women 9 Lack of respect for and inadequate promotion and protection of the human rights of women 10 Stereotyping of women and inequality in womens access to and participation in all communication systems, especially in the media 11 Gender inequalities in the management of natural resources and in the safeguarding of the environment 12 Persistent discrimination against and violation of the rights of the girl child
This course covers the history of economic thought up until the "Marginal Revolution" in the 1870s and features a video for each chapter of Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations." The videos will answer important questions such as: Who were the first economic thinkers? What are the very origins of economic thought? What did earlier economists understand but has been lost to the modern world? Why is Adam Smith the greatest economist of all time? How did the economic issues of the 18th and 19th centuries shape the thoughts of the classical economists?
Students studying linguistics and other language sciences for the first time often have misconceptions about what they are about and what they can offer them. They may think that linguists are authorities on what is correct and what is incorrect in a given language. But linguistics is the science of language; it treats language and the ways people use it as phenomena to be studied much as a geologist treats the earth. Linguists want to figure out how language works. They are no more in the business of making value judgments about people's language than geologists are in the business of making value judgments about the behavior of the earth. But language is a cultural phenomenon and we all have deep-seated, cultural ideas about what it is and how we ought to use it, so knowing where to begin in studying it scientifically is not a trivial matter at all. Issues arise that would not if we were geologists figuring out how to study earthquakes or the structure of the earth's crust. For this reason, before we dive into the study of language, we will need to examine some of the biases that we all have concerning language and to set some ground rules for how we are going to proceed. Because there is more than one way to begin, it will also be useful to establish a basic stance to guide us. Finally, because human language is an enormously complex subject, the book will focus on a narrow range of topics and themes; there will be no pretense of covering the field in anything like a complete fashion. This first chapter is designed to deal with these preliminary issues. But first, you will need to know about the various conventions that I will be using in the book.
In all civilized nations, attempts are made to define and buttress human rights. The core of the concept is the same everywhere: Human rights are the rights that one has simply because one is human. They are universal and equal. The following pubilcation gives an overview of Human Rights across the globe.
This course is designed to extend the student's knowledge of the basic microeconomic principles that will provide the foundation for their future work in economics and give them insight into how economic models can help us think about important real world phenomena. Topics include supply and demand interaction, utility maximization, profit maximization, elasticity, perfect competition, monopoly power, imperfect competition, and game theory. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: Explain the standard theory in microeconomics at an intermediate level; Explain and use the basic tools of microeconomic theory, and apply them to help address problems in public policy; Analyze the role of markets in allocating scarce resources; Explain both competitive markets, for which basic models of supply and demand are most appropriate, and markets in which agents act strategically, for which game theory is the more appropriate tool; Synthesize the impact of government intervention in the market; Develop quantitative skills in doing economic cost and consumer analysis using calculus; Compare and contrast arguments concerning business and politics, and make good conjectures regarding the possible solutions; Analyze the economic behavior of individuals and firms, and explore how they respond to changes in the opportunities and constraints that they face and how they interact in markets; Apply basic tools that are used in many fields of economics, including household economics, labor economics, production theory, international economics, natural resource economics, public finance, and capital markets. (Economics 201)
International finance covers some of the most complex but also important topics in economics. How are exchange rates determined? When if ever are ongoing trade deficits harmful? Are fixed or floating exchange rates better? What are the roots of the euro crisis and what resolution can we expect? Does China manipulate its exchange rate and if so how does that matter? We cover all of these topics and more, with an eye toward what a person really might want to know. There is no use of mathematics in this course beyond the very basic.
International Finance Theory and Policy is built on Steve Suranovic’s belief that to understand the international economy, students need to learn how economic models are applied to real world problems. It is true what they say, that ”economists do it with models.“ That’s because economic models provide insights about the world that are simply not obtainable solely by discussion of the issues.
International Finance Theory and Policy develops a unified model of the international macroeconomy. The text provides detailed descriptions of major macroeconomic variables, covers the interest rate parity and purchasing power parity theories of exchange rate determination, takes an exhaustive look at the pros and cons of trade imbalances and presents the well-known AA-DD model to explore the effects of fiscal and monetary policy under both fixed and flexible exchange rates.
The models are developed, not by employing advanced mathematics, but rather by walking students through a detailed description of how a model’s assumptions influence its conclusions. But more importantly, each model and theory is connected to real world policy issues.
The Finance Text has the following unique features: 1). Begins with an historical overview of the international macroeconomy to provide context for the theory. 2). Concludes with a detailed discussion of the pros and cons of fixed and floating exchange rate systems. 3. Provides an extensive look at the issue of trade imbalances. Readers learn techniques to evaluate whether a country's trade deficit (or surplus) is dangerous, beneficial, or benign. 4). Explains how purchasing power parity is used to make cross country income comparisons. 5). Offers clear detailed explanations of the AA-DD model. 6). Applies the AA-DD model to understand the effects of monetary and fiscal policy on GDP, the exchange rate, and the trade balance.
International Finance: Theory and Policy by Steve Suranovic is intended for a one-semester course in International Finance.
Historically, international trade has played a critical role in enabling countries to grow, develop, and become economically powerful. Through international trade in goods and services, the economies of different countries are more closely linked to one another now than ever before. At the same time, the world economy is more turbulent now than it has been in decades. Keeping up with the shifting international environment has become a central concern in business strategy and national economic policy. This course uses the same fundamental methods of analysis deployed in other branches of economics, as the motives and behavior of individuals and firms remain the same whether they are in the context of international trade or domestic transactions. The student will learn, however, that international trade introduces an entirely new and different set of concerns as well. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: Have a good understanding of the fundamentals of global economics; Have a rounded overview of the modern international trade theory; Understand the current world trading system and the basic rules underlying this system; Study and discuss historic, current, and emerging economic models in the United States and around the world; Understand recent developments in the field of international macroeconomics and perform an independent study in this field; Acquire and demonstrate analytical and problem solving skills to discuss and analyze the global economic environment within which business operate; Acquire an analytical framework to examine contemporary international economic issues; Acquire a general overview of international trade, the foreign exchange markets, and the issues arising from the globalization of markets; Understand the concepts of foreign exchange, its importance to individuals, businesses, and the performance of national economies, and how foreign exchange markets work; Analyze policy issues related to international trade; Understand the legal system governing international economic transactions and international economic relations; Assess actual dispute settlement proceeding and discuss several dispute settlement cases that address a wide variety of issues such as antidumping, subsidy, safeguard, and environment; Answer the four trade questions: 'Why do countries trade?,' 'How does trade affect production and consumption in each country?,' 'Which country gains from trade?,' and 'Within each country, who are the gainers and losers from opening trade?' (Economics 307)
This course takes a look at the basic theories of international trade and the consequences of trade in today's global economy. You'll have the opportunity to learn more about fundamental ideas such as comparative advantage, increasing returns to scale, factor endowments, and arbitrage across borders. The consequences we discuss include the effects of offshoring, how trade has shaped the economies of China, Mexico, and Korea, when foreign direct investment is desirable, and the history of free trade and tariffs, among other topics. Trade is a topic of increasing importance and this material will give you a better grasp on the theories and empirics as they have been developed by economists.
This book presents standard intermediate microeconomics material and some material that, in the authors' view, ought to be standard but is not. Introductory economics material is integrated. Standard mathematical tools, including calculus, are used throughout. The book easily serves as an intermediate microeconomics text, and can be used for a relatively sophisticated undergraduate who has not taken a basic university course in economics.
Introduction to Paleoanthropology covers the various species and subspecies that gave rise to human beings. Paleoanthropology is a subdiscipline of physical anthropology that focuses on the fossil record of humans and non-human primates.
Sociology is the study of human social life. Human social life is complex and encompasses many facets of the human experience. Because of the complexity, the discipline of sociology subdivided over time into specialty areas. The first section of this book covers the foundations of sociology, including an introduction to the discipline, the methods of study, and some of the dominant theoretical perspectives. The remaining chapters focus on the different areas of study in sociology.
Introduction to Sociology is a featured book on Wikibooks because it contains substantial content, it is well-formatted, and the Wikibooks community has decided to feature it on the main page or in other places. Note: See "Instructor Resources" to find a list of Course Adoptions and accompanying PPTs.
Introduction to Sociology adheres to the scope and sequence of a typical introductory sociology course. In addition to comprehensive coverage of core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories, we have incorporated section reviews with engaging questions, discussions that help students apply the sociological imagination, and features that draw learners into the discipline in meaningful ways. Although this text can be modified and reorganized to suit your needs, the standard version is organized so that topics are introduced conceptually, with relevant, everyday experiences.
Learn how the core concepts, foundational scholars, and emerging theories of sociology help explain how simple, everyday human actions and interactions can change the world.
Introduction to Sociology is intended for a one-semester introductory sociology course. Conceived of and developed by active sociology instructors, this up-to-date title and can be downloaded now by clicking on the "Get this book" button below. This online, fully editable and customizable title includes sociology theory and research; real-world applications; simplify and debate features; and learning objectives for each chapter
In economics, the term 'labor' refers to workers. As a factor of production, labor earns wages for the services that it renders. As such, students of labor economics have traditionally set out to understand wage formation, the level of employment, and all elements that go into the making of a wage relationship. Over the years, the social and economic contexts in which labor markets operate have become increasingly complex; nowadays, labor economics is no longer limited to the study of wages. Modern labor economics instead seeks to understand the complex workings of the labor market by studying the dynamics between employers, employees, and their wage-, price-, and profit-making incentives. In other words, modern labor economics explores the outcomes of the labor market under the assumption that workers strive to maximize their wellbeing and firms strive to maximize profits. It also analyzes the behavior of employers and employees and studies their responses to changes in government policies and/or in the demographic composition of the labor force. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: Demonstrate an understanding of basic labor economics theory, including labor market structures and wage determination; Apply their understanding of theoretical models to analyze trends in data pertaining to topics in labor economics; Apply their understanding of theoretical models to case studies presented in the course; Construct, defend, and analyze important labor policy issues; Comprehend, assess, and criticize existing empirical work in labor economics. (Economics 303)
Macroeconomics provides an introduction to economic principles and market forces including supply and demand, unemployment, inflation, international trade and capital flows, monetary policy and banking, fiscal policy and globalization.
This textbook, Macroeconomics: Theory Through Applications, centers around student needs and expectations through two premises: … Students are motivated to study economics if they see that it relates to their own lives. … Students learn best from an inductive approach, in which they are first confronted with a problem, and then led through the process of solving that problem.
Many books claim to present economics in a way that is digestible for students; Russell and Andrew have truly created one from scratch. This textbook will assist you in increasing students’ economic literacy both by developing their aptitude for economic thinking and by presenting key insights about economics that every educated individual should know.
How? Russell and Andrew have done three things in this text to accomplish that goal:
1. Applications Ahead of Theory: They present all the theory that is standard in Principles books. But by beginning with applications, students get to learn why this theory is needed.
2. Learning through Repetition: Important tools appear over and over again, allowing students to learn from repetition and to see how one framework can be useful in many different contexts.
3. A Student’s Table of Contents vs. An Instructor’s Table of Contents: There is no further proof that Russell and Andrew have created a book aimed specifically at educating students about economics than their two tables of contents.
Is Mexico the most dynamic economy in Latin America? After some tough times in the 1980s and 90s, Mexico has emerged as one of the economic leaders of the region. Where does it stand among other emerging markets and what are its prospects for the future? In this four-week course, we will study the modern Mexican economy, some of the unique elements of development in a one-party, authoritarian regime, and some of the challenges the country faced in getting to this point.
Microeconomics provides an introduction to economic principles and market forces including supply and demand, labor and financial markets, elasticity, consumer choices, cost and industry structure, competition, monopoly, negative and positive externalities, economic inequality, financial markets, international trade, globalization and protectionism.
Microeconomics: Markets, Methods, and Models by D. Curtis and I. Irvine provides concise yet complete coverage of introductory microeconomic theory, application and policy. The text begins with an explanation and development of the standard tools of analysis in the discipline and carries on to investigate the meaning of ‘well-being’ in the context of an efficient use of the economy’s resources.
An understanding of individual optimizing behaviour is developed, and this behaviour is in turn used to link household decisions on savings with firms’ decisions on production, expansion and investment. The text then explores behaviour in a variety of different market structures. The role of the government is examined, and the key elements in the modern theory of international trade are developed.
Opportunity cost, a global economy and behavioural responses to incentives are the dominant themes. Examples are domestic and international in their subject matter and are of the modern era.
This text is intended for a one-semester course, and can be used in a two-semester sequence with the companion text, Macroeconomics: Theory, Markets, and Policy. The three introductory chapters and the International Trade chapter (Chapter 15) are common to both books.
Russell Cooper and Andrew John have written an economics text aimed directly at students from its very inception. You’re thinking, “Yeah, sure. I’ve heard that before.”This textbook, Microeconomics: Theory Through Applications, centers around student needs and expectations through two premises:• Students are motivated to study economics if they see that it relates to their own lives.• Students learn best from an inductive approach, in which they are first confronted with a problem, and then led through the process of solving that problem.Many books claim to present economics in a way that is digestible for students; Russell and Andrew have truly created one from scratch. This textbook will assist you in increasing students’ economic literacy both by developing their aptitude for economic thinking and by presenting key insights about economics that every educated individual should know.How? Russell and Andrew have done three things in this text to accomplish that goal:1. Applications Ahead of Theory: They present all the theory that is standard in Principles books. But by beginning with applications, students get to learn why this theory is needed.The authors take the kind of material that other authors put in “applications boxes” and place it at the heart of their book. Each chapter is built around a particular business or policy application, such as minimum wages, the stock exchange, and auctions.Why take this approach? Traditional courses focus too much on abstract theory relative to the interests and capabilities of the average undergraduate. Students are rarely engaged and the formal theory is never integrated into the way students think about economic issues. And traditional books are organized around theoretical constructs that mean nothing to students. The authors’ applications-first approach ensures that students will not see chapters with titles like “Cost Functions” or “Short-Run Fluctuations”. They introduce tools and ideas as and when they are needed. Each chapter is designed with two goals. First, the application upon which the chapter is built provides a “hook” that gets students’ attention. Second, the application is a suitable vehicle a vehicle for teaching the principles of economics.2. Learning through Repetition: Important tools appear over and over again, allowing students to learn from repetition and to see how one framework can be useful in many different contexts.Each piece of economic theory in this text is first introduced and explained in the context of a specific application. Most are re-used in other chapters, so students see them in action on multiple occasions. As students progress through the book, they accumulate a set of techniques and ideas. These are collected separately in a “toolkit” that provides students with an easy reference and also gives them a condensed summary of economic principles for examination preparation.3. A Student’s Table of Contents vs. An Instructor’s Table of Contents: There is no further proof that Russell and Andrew have created a book aimed specifically at educating students about economics than their two tables of contents.The Student’s Table of Contents speaks to students, piquing their interest to involve them in the economics, and a Instructor’s Table of Contents with the economics to better help you organize your teaching—and frankly, you don’t need to get excited by economics, you already are.