This course will help to define abnormal and normal behaviors and to group these abnormal phenomena into 'disorders.' It will cover the basic concepts surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of abnormal psychological phenomena. The student will investigate the characteristics, epidemiology, controversy, and treatment of individual disorders. The student will begin by defining normal versus abnormal behavior and reviewing the historical context in which abnormal psychology emerged, then discuss the major theories or paradigms associated with abnormal psychology, the classification system used to differentiate and define disorders, and the research methods often utilized in the study of abnormal psychology. Upon successful completion of this course the student will be able to: describe the historical context from which the current conceptualization of abnormal psychology has evolved; identify and describe the main theoretical perspectives/paradigms which have influenced the field of abnormal psychology; identify and differentiate the classification of psychological disorders; evaluate treatment approaches; explain the major research findings for each group of disorders and how they add to our knowledge of the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. (Psychology 401)
Psychology Textbooks and Full Courses
Psychology Textbooks and Full Courses Collection Resources (72)
This wiki is an ongoing collaboration between Dr. Caleb Lack and students at the University of Central Oklahoma and Arkansas Tech University. So far, over 300 students have spent eight semesters and thousands of hours in contributing to this wiki. The purpose of this wiki is to offer an alternative to the often quite expensive textbooks used in most undergraduate abnormal psychology courses by creating a user-driven, interactive online text. The wiki covers a larger number of topics than traditional texts, allowing professors and students to focus on their own interests.
This LibGuide was designed to accompany a community college course in Abnormal Psychology. It contains original material created by the instructor (Mind Maps and Focus Questions), as well as supporting readings gathered from other open sources and some links to freely available copyrighted material. Institutions with a subscription to the LibGuides platform may want to make a copy so they can adapt it to local needs and control the content.
Abnormal Psychology is adapted from a work produced and distributed under a Creative Commons license (CC BY) in 2014 by OpenStax. This adapted edition is produced by Delta College through the OER Support Initiative
This adaptation comprises three chapters (Chapter 2 – Psychological Research, Chapter 14 – Stress, Lifestyle, and Health, Chapter 15 – Psychological Disorders) of the original text, chapters were reformatted to make the resulting product the starting point for an Abnormal Psychology course. This adaptation has not significantly altered or updated the original 2018 text.
This course studies the relations of affect to cognition and behavior, feeling to thinking and acting, and values to beliefs and practices. These connections will be considered at the psychological level of organization and in terms of their neurobiological and sociocultural counterparts.
Most of the major categories of adaptive behavior can be seen in all animals. This course begins with the evolution of behavior, the driver of nervous system evolution, reviewed using concepts developed in ethology, sociobiology, other comparative studies, and in studies of brain evolution. The roles of various types of plasticity are considered, as well as foraging and feeding, defensive and aggressive behavior, courtship and reproduction, migration and navigation, social activities and communication, with contributions of inherited patterns and cognitive abilities. Both field and laboratory based studies are reviewed; and finally, human behavior is considered within the context of primate studies.
This course illuminates current theories about autism together with challenges faced by people on the autism spectrum. Theories in communicating, interacting socially, managing cognitive and affective overload, and achieving independent lifestyles are covered. In parallel, the course presents state-of-the-art technologies being developed for helping improve both theoretical understanding and practical outcomes. Participants are expected to meet and interact with people on the autism spectrum. Weekly reading, discussion, and a term project are required.
This course will cover the basic concepts of clinical psychology -- the study of diagnosing, treating, and understanding abnormal and maladaptive behaviors. Much of the information in this course is based on the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV-TR (DSM), which is the industry standard for both clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. Few issues in the field have hard-and-fast answers. As such, rather than providing you with step-by-step directions, this course has been designed to assist you in making educated decisions when diagnosing and treating a mental disease. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: Describe the historical context of the emergence of clinical psychology; Demonstrate an awareness of the differences between mental health professionals in the broad field of clinical psychology; Identify the subspecialty areas within clinical psychology (i.e., community psychology, health psychology, and neuropsychology); Define the main tasks of the clinical psychologist and explain how the contributions of this subspecialty fit into or relate to the broader field of psychology; Define the criteria for what is considered 'abnormal' versus 'normal' and explain how these definitions fit into the notion that psychopathology exists on a continuum; Compare/contrast the different types of psychotherapy treatments; Discuss the ethical considerations related to the practice of psychotherapy; List the main diagnostic features of a variety of mental disorders (i.e., mood disorders, schizophrenia, etc.); Identify the potential factors that may contribute to the instigation and persistence of mental illness for individuals across the lifespan (i.e., children, adults, and older adults). (Psychology 205)
This course will introduce you to cognitive psychology. Memory, along with attention, perception, language, and decision making, are among the most prominent topics within this broad and diverse field. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: Identify underlying theoretical considerations in the field of cognitive psychology; Describe the historical context in which cognitive psychology emerged as a field; Define cognitive psychology as is was historically defined and is now defined; Identify the main academic fields and other subdisciplines of psychology to which cognitive psychology is tied; Describe the main findings in the primary areas of scientific research within cognitive psychology; Compare and contrast the theories associated within the primary areas of scientific research in cognitive psychology (e.g., models of memory, attention, etc.). (Psychology 206)
Cognitive Psychology is a psychological science which is interested in various mind and brain related subfields such as cognition, the mental processes that underlie behavior, reasoning and decision making.
How do individuals and families interface with larger systems, and how do therapists intervene collaboratively? How do larger systems structure the lives of individuals and families? Relationally-trained practitioners are attempting to answer these questions through collaborative and interdisciplinary, team-focused projects in mental health, education, the law, and business, among other fields. Similarly, scholars and researchers are developing specific culturally responsive models: outreach family therapy, collaborative health care, multi-systemic school interventions, social-justice-oriented and spiritual approaches, organizational coaching, and consulting, among others. This course explores these developments and aims at developing a clinical and consulting knowledge that contributes to families, organizations, and communities within a collaborative and social-justice-oriented vision.
Everyone has their own view of the nature of consciousness based on their education and background. The intention of this book is to expand this view by providing an insight into the various ideas and beliefs on the subject as well as a review of current work in neuroscience. The neuroscientist should find the philosophical discussion interesting because this provides first-person insights into the nature of consciousness and also provides some subtle arguments about why consciousness is not a simple problem. The student of philosophy will find a useful introduction to the subject and information about neuroscience and physics that is difficult to acquire elsewhere.
Cultural Psychology reviews the cultural, community, and ecological factors that play a role in how people perceive their environment. The goal of this course is to investigate the ways in which culture can affect aspects of that individual's psychology. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: identify current trends in contemporary cultural psychology and compare and contrast these concepts with historical and empirical psychological theory; compare and contrast variations in cognitive processes and expectations amongst cultures; describe the difference between measuring and quantifying intelligence within different cultural groups, including culturally normed assessment tools; explain the study of intercultural relations and communication; demonstrate an awareness of theories of cultural differences in affective expression, including both culture-specific and universal concepts; list factors of motivation and cultural implications; identify the stages of human development, including racial and ethnicity-specific developmental theories with a focus on comparing and contrasting individualistic and collectivistic themes; list the criteria for various psychological disorders, including cultural adaptations and culture-bound syndromes. This free course may be completed online at any time. (Psychology 403)
This textbook presents core concepts common to introductory courses. The 15 units cover the traditional areas of intro-to-psychology; ranging from biological aspects of psychology to psychological disorders to social psychology. This book can be modified: feel free to add or remove modules to better suit your specific needs.
This book includes a comprehensive instructor's manual, PowerPoint presentations, a test bank, reading anticipation guides, and adaptive student quizzes.
- Material Type:
- Diener Education Fund
- Provider Set:
- Cara Laney
- David M. Buss
- David Watson
- Edward Diener
- Elizabeth F. Loftus
- Emily Hooker
- George Loewenstein
- Henry L. Roediger III
- Jeanne Tsai
- Kathleen B. McDermott
- Mark E. Bouton
- Max H. Bazerman
- Richard E. Lucas
- Robert Siegler
- Robert V. Levine
- Ross Thompson
- Sarah Pressman
- Sudeep Bhatia
- Susan T. Fiske
- Yoshihisa Kashima
- Date Added:
Educational psychologists work to understand how to structure educational systems in order to meet the mental and emotional needs of students. They study how people learn, identify and suggest efficient teaching methods, and evaluate the effectiveness of various educational policies and practices. Educational psychologists often point out the inherently social nature of our current educational system, study the ways that learning environments affect education, and study the ways that societal, local, and family issues affect learning and classroom practice. Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to: explain why knowledge of psychology is important to effective teaching; discuss, compare, and contrast cognitive and behavioral psychology; discuss, compare, and contrast constructivist and behaviorist models of teaching and learning, as well as their applications in classroom management; identify important cognitive stages of development, the typical age range of each stage, and the ways that teachers can use that knowledge; identify important aspects of personal, emotional, and moral development, and ways that teachers can use that knowledge; identify diversity in terms of differences in learning styles, intelligence, cultures, and gender, as well as specific abilities and disabilities, that a modern classroom might need to accommodate; discuss theories of motivation and defend those you would use in your classroom; discuss classroom management strategies that smooth the learning process and prevent or deal with misbehavior, and defend those strategies you would use in your classroom; identify communication skills that enhance learning, management, and coordination with students' families; identify strategies for enhancing students' ability to use complex cognitive skills; identify the major parts of a lesson or unit plan; identify and discuss types of teacher-made assessments; discuss the uses of and issues surrounding standardized testing; identify and discuss factors that influence job satisfaction in a teaching career. (Psychology 303)
This books lays the foundation for prospective teachers to learn about various teaching methodologies and covers material typically found in many teacher training programs. Chapters in the text can be assigned either from beginning to end, as with a conventional printed book, or they can be selected in some other sequence to meet the needs of particular students or classes. In general the first half of the book focuses on broader questions and principles taken from psychology per se, and the second half focuses on somewhat more practical issues of teaching. But the division between “theory” and “practice” is only approximate; all parts of the book draw on research, theory, and practical wisdom wherever appropriate. Chapter 2 is about learning theory, and Chapter 3 is about development; but as we point out, these topics overlap with each other as well as with the concerns of daily teaching. Chapter 4 is about several forms of student diversity (what might be called individual differences in another context), and Chapter 5 is about one form of diversity that has become prominent in schools recently—students with disabilities. Chapter 6 is about motivation, a topic that is heavily studied by psychological researchers, but that also poses perennial challenges to classroom teachers.
This course examines and teaches ways in which education can be subtly but effectively worked into both new and time-honored genres of entertainment to foster positive behavior change and life improvement in both developing countries and local environments. The course develops students' ability to understand the ingredients of successful entertainment (emotions, empathy, efficacy and empowerment) and how these ingredients can be employed to enhance social and personal health and life skills. Examines methodology and develops skills needed to create a successful Entertainment-Education (E-E) project in entertainment (story, drama, etc.) formats with effective behavior change messages.
Current research on the evolution and development of cognition and affect, including intuitive physics, biology, and psychology, language, emotions sexuality, social relations.
Seminar on the creativity in art, science, and technology. Discussion of how these pursuits are jointly dependent on affective as well as cognitive elements in human nature. Feeling and imagination studied in relation to principles of idealization, consummation, and the aesthetic values that give meaning to science and technology as well as literature and the other arts. Readings in philosophy, psychology, and literature.
This course will introduce the student to the psychology behind gender and sexuality. In this course, the student will take a look at how our understanding of one's own gender and sex can affect different aspects of our functioning, while also identifying the factors in our lives that can impact oneĺÎĺĺÎĺs gender and sex. This course will begin by introducing and defining the concepts of gender and sexuality, then looking at the similarities and differences between sexes in terms of biological and neurological functioning and development, as well as gender and sexual identity. Also, the student will discuss why and how the sexes are psychologically and cognitively different. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: define and explain specific terms that relate to gender and sexuality; define and explain influences that impact homosexual and heterosexual gender identities; define and explain sexual stereotypes; explain the biologically based characteristics, including differences and similarities, between genders; explain the differences between gender identities, including theoretical approaches; explain the sociobiological and psychoanalytic approaches to sexuality and gender identity; define and explain the social learning and cognitive developmental approaches to gender and sexuality; explain the commonalities and differences between the cognitive abilities of genders; explain the commonalities and differences between gender and aggression. (Psychology 406)
This course will introduce the student to organizational psychology, or the application of psychological research and theory to human interaction in the workplace. Industrial/Organization Psychology takes research findings and theories that were originally used to explain general human behavior and applies them to human behavior in the workplace. The course begins by taking a look at how the student evaluates jobs and employees before exploring how the student evaluates and motivate employees, noting what encourages versus discourages employee job commitment. The student will then study leadership and group influences in the workplace, including working conditions, humans factors, performance management, and work teams. Leadership interaction and the leadership theories are also covered. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: perform a thorough and systematic competency model (job analysis); develop and validate a job specific selection design; design, develop, and evaluate a job specific training program; define a performance appraisal process and form; identify research methods for conducting experiments; explain organizational recruitment, selection, and retainment; evaluate the work performance of employees; describe the motivating factors of employees; identify teamwork problems and issues; compare and contrast models of motivation and leadership; explain organizational issues including: teams, attitudes, and occupational health; define work-life balance and its impact on organizations and employees. (Psychology 304)
This course is an introduction to cognitive development focusing on children's understanding of objects, agents, and causality. It develops a critical understanding of experimental design. The course discusses how developmental research might address philosophical questions about the origins of knowledge, appearance and reality, and the problem of other minds. It provides instruction and practice in written communication as needed for cognitive science research (including critical reviews of journal papers, a literature review and an original research proposal), as well as instruction and practice in oral communication in the form of a poster presentation of a journal paper.
Instruction in Functional Assessment introduces learners to functional assessment (FA), which includes a variety of assessment approaches (indirect, observational, and experimental) for identifying the cause of an individual’s challenging behavior for the purpose of designing effective treatments. FA is mandated by federal law and is a recognized empirically based approach to treatment of individuals with challenging behaviors (e.g., disruptive, self-injurious, and aggressive behaviors). Instruction in FA is essential for students who will one day enter professions as educators, psychologists, social workers, counselors, or mental health professionals.The purpose of this textbook is to provide instruction in FA skills for pre-professionals in the fields of education and psychology. This supplemental resource provides the context, background, and knowledge to facilitate students’ acquisition of the methods, decision-making, and skills involved in conducting FA. Each chapter begins with focus questions designed to promote reflective thinking and ends with discussion questions. To promote application of FA in diverse situations and teach important lessons, case studies of individuals with challenging behaviors, interactive activities, and opportunities for practice are embedded in the chapters. Moreover, the text includes the ingredients to facilitate students’ role play and rehearsal of appropriate FA skills while working in cooperative groups and using performance-based training.
This open course for Introduction to Human Development is an adaptation of PsychologyWiki materials and was created under a Round Nine Textbook Transformation Grant.
In our transformation of PSYC 2103 Human Development we decided to divide the content into three units.
Unit 1: Overview, History and Biological Beginnings
Unit 2: Early Childhood to Adolescence
Unit 3: Young Adulthood to Death
Each unit includes:
Things to consider: questions students should be thinking about while engaging with the content
Readings from a variety of open text books
Supplemental readings and videos
If you have questions or would like access to the question/test bank please contact either
Elizabeth Dose, email@example.com
Katie Bridges, firstname.lastname@example.org
This course is an introduction to the fundamental principles of psychology. It begins with a short overview of the discipline's development and principal methodologies. The subsequent units are arranged around broad areas of research, including emotion, development, memory, and psychopathology. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: Identify the steps of the scientific method and explain how this method applies to psychological research methodology and statistical analyses; Demonstrate an understanding of the general history of the field; Explain the nature versus nurture argument and the current status of thinking regarding gene-environment interaction; Identify the basic components and mechanisms of the major biological systems often studied in psychology; Demonstrate an understanding of the basic findings within a variety of areas of psychology, including sensation and perception, memory and learning, development, social psychology, and psychopathology. (Psychology 101)
When you teach Introduction to Psychology, do you find it difficult — much harder than teaching classes in statistics or research methods? Do you easily give a lecture on the sympathetic nervous system, a lecture on Piaget, and a lecture on social cognition, but struggle with linking these topics together for the student? Do you feel like you are presenting a laundry list of research findings rather than an integrated set of principles and knowledge? Have you wondered how to ensure your course is relevant to your students? Introduction to Psychology utilizes the dual theme of behavior and empiricism to make psychology relevant to intro students. The author wrote this book to help students organize their thinking about psychology at a conceptual level. Five or ten years from now, he does not expect his students to remember the details of most of what he teaches them. However, he does hope that they will remember that psychology matters because it helps us understand behavior and that our knowledge of psychology is based on empirical study.
This is a derivative of INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY by a publisher who has requested that they and the original author not receive attribution, which was originally released and is used under CC BY-NC-SA. This work, unless otherwise expressly stated, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Comprehensive coverage of core concepts grounded in both classic studies and current and emerging research, including coverage of the DSM-5 in discussions of psychological disorders. Incorporates discussions that reflect the diversity within the discipline, as well as the diversity of cultures and communities across the globe.
This book is designed to help students organize their thinking about psychology at a conceptual level. The focus on behaviour and empiricism has produced a text that is better organized, has fewer chapters, and is somewhat shorter than many of the leading books. The beginning of each section includes learning objectives; throughout the body of each section are key terms in bold followed by their definitions in italics; key takeaways, and exercises and critical thinking activities end each section.
Introductory psychology course developed through the Ohio Department of Higher Education OER Innovation Grant. The course is part of the Ohio Transfer Module and is also named OSS015. For more information about credit transfer between Ohio colleges and universities please visit: www.ohiohighered.org/transfer.
Vincent Granito Lorain County Community College
Nicole Brandt Columbus State Community College
Lynne Gabriel Lakeland Community College
Jackie Sample Central Ohio Technical College
Rachel Dilley Columbus State Community College
Melissa Beers Ohio State University
Brian Gerber Stark State College
This course is a survey of the scientific study of human nature, including how the mind works, and how the brain supports the mind. Topics include the mental and neural bases of perception, emotion, learning, memory, cognition, child development, personality, psychopathology, and social interaction. Students will consider how such knowledge relates to debates about nature and nurture, free will, consciousness, human differences, self, and society.
This textbook is designed for Chemeketa Community College's PSY 201. NOBA provides ancillary materials, and a common course cartridge is also available by request with more quiz questions for this content. Print copies are available from http://www.lulu.com/shop/noba-project/introduction-to-psychology-mind-body/paperback/product-22882311.html.
This textbook is designed for Chemeketa Community College's PSY 202. NOBA provides ancillary materials, and a common course cartridge is also available by request with more quiz questions for this content. Print copies are available from http://www.lulu.com/shop/noba-project/introduction-to-psychology-mind-society/paperback/product-22882321.html.
When you teach Introduction to Psychology, do you find it difficult – much harder than teaching classes in statistics or research methods? Do you easily give a lecture on the sympathetic nervous system, a lecture on Piaget, and a lecture on social cognition, but struggle with linking these topics together for the student? Do you feel like you are presenting a laundry list of research findings rather than an integrated set of principles and knowledge? Have you wondered how to ensure your course is relevant to your students? If so, then you have something in common with Charles Stangor.Charles Stangor's Introduction to Psychology utilizes the dual theme of behavior and empiricism to make psychology relevant to intro students.Charles wrote this book to help students organize their thinking about psychology at a conceptual level. Five or ten years from now, he does not expect his students to remember the details of most of what he teaches them. However, he does hope that they will remember that psychology matters because it helps us understand behavior and that our knowledge of psychology is based on empirical study.This book is designed to facilitate these learning outcomes, and he has used three techniques to help focus students on behavior:Chapter Openers: Each chapter opens showcasing an interesting real world example of people who dealing with behavioral questions and who can use psychology to help them answer them. The opener is designed to draw the student into the chapter and create an interesting in learning about the topic.Psychology in Everyday Life: Each chapter contains one or two features designed to link the principles from the chapter to real-world applications in business, environment, health, law, learning, and other relevant domains. For instance, the application in Chapter 7 on Development, “What makes good parents” applies the concepts of parenting styles in a mini-handbook about parenting, and the application in Chapter 3 is about the difficulties that left-handed people face performing everyday tasks in a right-handed world.Research Foci: Introduction to Psychology emphasizes empiricism throughout, but without making it a distraction from the main story line. Each chapter presents two close-ups on research -- well articulated and specific examples of research within the content area, each including a summary of the hypotheses, methods, results, and interpretations. This feature provides a continuous thread that reminds students of the importance of empirical research. The research foci also emphasize the fact that findings are not always predictable ahead of time (dispelling the myth of hindsight bias), and also help students understand how research really works.Charles Stangor's focus on behavior and empiricism has produced, Introduction to Psychology, a text that is better organized, has fewer chapters, and is somewhat shorter than many of the leading books.
This course is designed to provide an engaging introduction to the essential topics in psychology, including perception, emotion, learning, child development, personality, psychopathology and social interaction. Students will explore how such knowledge relates to debates about nature versus nurture, free will, and consciousness. Students are also exposed to the historical development of the biological, evolutionary, cognitive and psychoanalytic theoretical perspectives, with a focus on the importance of scientific methods and the principles of research design, throughout this course.
Learning Statistics with R covers the contents of an introductory statistics class, as typically taught to undergraduate psychology students, focusing on the use of the R statistical software. The book discusses how to get started in R as well as giving an introduction to data manipulation and writing scripts. From a statistical perspective, the book discusses descriptive statistics and graphing first, followed by chapters on probability theory, sampling and estimation, and null hypothesis testing. After introducing the theory, the book covers the analysis of contingency tables, t-tests, ANOVAs and regression. Bayesian statistics are covered at the end of the book.
Welcome to the study of human growth and development, commonly referred to as the womb to tomb course because it is the story of our journeys from conception to death. Human development is the study of how we change over time. Although this course is offered in psychology, this is a very interdisciplinary course. Psychologists, nutritionists, sociologists, anthropologists, educators, and health care professionals all contribute to our knowledge of life span.
Developmental psychology concerns itself with the changes (psychological and otherwise) that occur as a result of our physical and mental maturation. This course proceeds from prenatal development through adolescent and adult development. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: Discuss the interaction between and the roles of nature and nurture in lifespan development.; Describe the basic development of the human nervous system; Explain the developmental processes associated with the five senses; Describe the important developmental milestones and age expectations associated with motor skills, social skills, cognitive ability, sensory awareness, and the use of language; Discuss the important theories of cognitive development, including those of Piaget, Vygotsky, the information-processing approach, and the intelligence perspective; Discuss and contrast the nativist, behavioral-cognitive, functionalist, and learning stage theories of language development; Describe the developmental process of language, from cooing and babbling to mature language; Explain the important theoretical issues in the study of the development of personality; Discuss the most influential theories of personality development, including those of Freud, Erikson, Klein and Mahler, Bowlby, and Ainsworth; Explain Kohlberg's theory of moral development, including the perspectives of its critics; Describe the physical and cognitive changes associated with adolescent development; Explain the significance of the differences in maturation rates between individuals; Discuss the major issues of development in adulthood, including marriage and divorce, parenting, and mid-/later-life physical and cognitive changes. (Psychology 302a)
Developmental Psychology, also known as Human Development or Lifespan Development, is the scientific study of ways in which people change, as well as stay the same, from conception to death. You will no doubt discover in the course of studying that the field examines change across a broad range of topics. These include physical and other psychophysiological processes, cognition, language, and psychosocial development, including the impact of family and peers.
In this course, the student will explore neuropsychology, or the study of the structure and function of the brain as it relates to psychological processes. This course will begin with a brief history of neuropsychology. The student will then study the nervous system and the structure of the brain, identifying its different lobes and cortices, before concluding with a discussion of how the brain provides us with higher functioning abilities (i.e., learning, remembering, and communicating). Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: explain the development course of the science of neuropsychology; describe the basic organization of the nervous system; explain the mechanisms of communication within the nervous system; explain the mechanisms of communication between the nervous system and other parts of the body; describe historical and modern research techniques for investigating nervous system structure and function; describe the basic operation of each of the five (5) primary sensory systems; describe the basic operation of the motor system; discuss the importance and role of asymmetry in cerebral structure and function; describe the basic functions of each of the four (4) lobes of the cerebral cortex; discuss the neuropsychology of higher behavioral functions, such as language, emotion, learning, and consciousness. (Psychology 402)