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AMINO ACID FREQUENCY
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Introduction: Genetic information contained in mRNA is in the form of codons, sequences of three nucleotides, which are translated into amino acids which then combine to form proteins. At certain sites in a protein's structure, amino acid composition is not critical. Yet certain amino acids occur at such sites up to six times more often than other amino acids. In the 1960's, molecular biologists sought to determine if amino acid composition was a reflection of the genetic code or if certain amino acids were naturally selected as optimal.

Question: Are frequencies of particular amino acids simply a consequence of random permutations of the genetic code or instead a product of natural selection?

Supplement to 'The Genetic Code': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:aXYynRWE@10/15-1-The-Genetic-Code

Subject:
Biology
Genetics
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
University of Tennessee Knoxville
Provider Set:
The Institute for Environmental Modeling
Author:
L. Gross
M. Beals
S. Harrell
Date Added:
05/17/2019
ANTIBODY BINDING
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CC BY
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Introduction: Antibodies are proteins that react with foreign invaders during a humoral immune response. Antigens, small substituents of foreign invaders, elicit an immune response when they bind to the antibody. Variable regions of amino acid chains comprising the antibody create binding sites. A particular antibody has specificity to bind to one or more particular antigens.

Questions: How is antigen binding to an antibody related to antigen concentration? How can we determine binding properties of antibodies?

Supplement to 'Anitbodies': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:jN1G3E9L@10/42-3-Antibodies

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Biology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
University of Tennessee Knoxville
Provider Set:
The Institute for Environmental Modeling
Author:
L. Gross
M. Beals
S. Harrell
Date Added:
05/17/2019
Active Calculus
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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Active Calculus is different from most existing calculus texts in at least the following ways: the text is free for download by students and instructors in .pdf format; in the electronic format, graphics are in full color and there are live html links to java applets; the text is open source, and interested instructors can gain access to the original source files upon request; the style of the text requires students to be active learners — there are very few worked examples in the text, with there instead being 3-4 activities per section that engage students in connecting ideas, solving problems, and developing understanding of key calculus concepts; each section begins with motivating questions, a brief introduction, and a preview activity, all of which are designed to be read and completed prior to class; the exercises are few in number and challenging in nature.

Subject:
Mathematics
Calculus
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Grand Valley State University
Author:
David Austin
Matt Boelkins
Steve Schlicker
Date Added:
02/19/2015
American Government and Politics in the Information Age
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CC BY-NC-SA
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This text is a comprehensive introduction to the vital subject of American government and politics. Governments decide who gets what, when, how (See Harold D. Lasswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When, How, [New York: McGraw-Hill, 1936]); they make policies and pass laws that are binding on all a society’s members; they decide about taxation and spending, benefits and costs, even life and death.Governments possess power—the ability to gain compliance and to get people under their jurisdiction to obey them—and they may exercise their power by using the police and military to enforce their decisions. However, power need not involve the exercise of force or compulsion; people often obey because they think it is in their interest to do so, they have no reason to disobey, or they fear punishment. Above all, people obey their government because it has authority; its power is seen by people as rightfully held, as legitimate. People can grant their government legitimacy because they have been socialized to do so; because there are processes, such as elections, that enable them to choose and change their rulers; and because they believe that their governing institutions operate justly.Politics is the process by which leaders are selected and policy decisions are made and executed. It involves people and groups, both inside and outside of government, engaged in deliberation and debate, disagreement and conflict, cooperation and consensus, and power struggles.In covering American government and politics, this text introduces the intricacies of the Constitution, the complexities of federalism, the meanings of civil liberties, and the conflicts over civil rights;explains how people are socialized to politics, acquire and express opinions, and participate in political life; describes interest groups, political parties, and elections—the intermediaries that link people to government and politics; details the branches of government and how they operate; and shows how policies are made and affect people’s lives.

Subject:
Political Science
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Minnesota
Provider Set:
University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing
Author:
David L. Paletz
Diana Owen
Timothy E. Cook
Date Added:
06/06/2011
Anatomy & Physiology 1 Course Modules to Accompany OpenStax Text
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CC BY
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These course modules are meant to accompany the OpenStax Anatomy & Physiology textbook. Included within each subunit are both Articulate Rise 360 exported raw Web and SCORM 1.2 ZIP files. These files are to be Imported into a Learning Management System. Each module contains text and images from the OpenStax book, original text, openly licensed images from various sources, formative activities, and links to videos on public websites. The modules are free to use as needed. If modification is desired, please contact the author, and I will send you the Rise 360 source file.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Material Type:
Full Course
Author:
Michael Anderson
Date Added:
07/30/2021
Anatomy & Physiology Lab HyperDocs
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CC BY
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These HyperDocs are intended to be used as standalone lab resources for an online Anatomy & Physiology 1 Lab.Within the Study Activities section at the end of each document, the red, bolded, and capitalized words are meant to be replaced at the instructor's discretion.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Michael Anderson
Date Added:
07/30/2021
Ancient Latin American objects in the archive: selections from the George and Louise Patten collection of Salem Hyde cultural artifacts at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
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Early in the Spring 2020 semester, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga students in my Ancient to Modern Latin American Visual Culture Art History course embarked upon an intensive first-hand visual analysis and research project that involved working directly with original artifacts from Ancient Latin America housed within the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Library’s Special Collections. This unique opportunity and the publication of their findings were made possible thanks to the generous support and assistance of Special Collections Director Carolyn Runyon and her dedicated staff.

By examining the wide array of Pre-Columbian objects in the George and Louise Patten Salem Hyde Papers and Cultural Artifacts Collection, these upper division students formed small research groups dedicated to specific artifact types, such as human figurines, animal figurines, tools and lithics, vessels, anthropomorphic ceramics, replicas, and sherds. They carefully recorded their original observations of their selected objects of study in written field notes, photographs, and drawings. Later, they compared their initial observations with preliminary collection data developed independently by Archaeology students of Dr. Andrew Workinger, leading to further questions and insights surrounding these extraordinary pieces predominantly from pre-contact indigenous cultures of the Central and Intermediate regions of Latin America that today comprise Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama and Colombia. Building upon their analysis, the Art History student research groups then re-examined their selected artifacts through analytical frameworks focused on Gender and the Body, Color, Pattern and Materiality, Spirituality and the Object, Form and Function, and Identity and Representation. In presenting their findings to their peers, students received feedback that allowed them to refine their analysis and develop the original individual and group catalog essays that comprise this exhibition publication. Their research sheds further light on the extraordinary value and diversity of the ancient artifacts of Latin America that uniquely form part of UTC’s Special Collections, as well as the innovative power of interdisciplinary research and collaboration.

Subject:
Art History
Ancient History
World History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Primary Source
Provider:
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Author:
Olivia Wolf
Date Added:
07/19/2021
Applied Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual
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CC BY
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This lab manual provides students with the theory, practical applications, objectives, and laboratory procedure of ten experiments. The manual also includes educational videos showing how student should run each experiment and a workbook for organizing data collected in the lab and preparing result tables and charts.

Subject:
Physical Science
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Texas at Arlington
Provider Set:
Mavs Open Press
Author:
Habib Ahmari
Shah Md Imran Kabir
Date Added:
12/11/2019
Art Appreciation Open Educational Resource
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CC BY-NC-SA
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The Art Appreciation course explores the world’s visual arts, focusing on the development of visual awareness, assessment, and appreciation by examining a variety of styles from various periods and cultures while emphasizing the development of a common visual language. The materials are meant to foster a broader understanding of the role of visual art in human culture and experience from the prehistoric through the contemporary.

This is an Open Educational Resource (OER), an openly licensed educational material designed to replace a traditional textbook. The course materials consist of 24 lessons each with a presentation, reading list, and/or sample assignment. For ease of adapting, materials are available as PDFs and Microsoft PowerPoint or Word documents.

Subject:
Art History
Visual Arts
Material Type:
Full Course
Author:
Marie Porterfield Barry
Date Added:
01/30/2020
Basic Electronics 1
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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Video and study guides for the following topics: Order of operations, algebraic manipulation, negative and fractional exponents, rounding, engineering notation, unit conversion, general industrial safety, energy, power, efficiency, capacity factor, basic electrical properties: voltage, current, resistance, fixed resistors, variable resistors, protoboards, ohmmeters, series resistors, parallel resistors, 4 band resistor color code, DC Ohm’s Law, DC power, voltmeters, ammeters, series DC circuit properties, DC Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, DC voltage divider rule, parallel DC circuit properties, DC Kirchhoff’s Current Law, DC current divider rule, series-parallel DC circuit properties, instrument loading effects, DC current sources, source conversion, resistive delta-Y conversion, complex DC circuits, DC Superposition Theorem, DC Thevenin’s Theorem, DC Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, DC Norton’s Theorem

Subject:
Electronic Technology
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
OpenOregon
Author:
Jim Pytel
Date Added:
04/06/2020
CARDIAC OUTPUT
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CC BY
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Introduction: Vertebrate circulatory systems consist of blood, which transports materials to and from cells via blood vessels, and a heart to pump the blood. One important role of the circulatory system is to provide oxygen to cells. As a general rule, small animals have a higher rate of oxygen consumption per unit body mass than large animals. Therefore, the heart of a small animal must supply oxygen at a higher rate than the heart of a large animal. Since the oxygen capacity of blood is similar between small and large animals, small animals must have hearts that pump blood at a higher rate, or in other words, have a higher cardiac output.

Question: How do changes in stroke volume and heartbeat frequency affect cardiac output?

Supplement to 'Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:sMC0JIxR@9/40-3-Mammalian-Heart-and-Blood-Vessels

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Biology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
University of Tennessee Knoxville
Provider Set:
The Institute for Environmental Modeling
Author:
L. Gross
M. Beals
S. Harrell
Date Added:
05/20/2019
CELL AGGREGATION AND SPHERE PACKING
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Introduction: Many biological processes involve the aggregation of cells into a cluster. For example, in animals, small cells called platelets cluster at the site of an injury to the skin or blood vessels. Also, during the development of an embryo, space between aggregated cells decreases and cell-to-cell contact increases. The amount of space between aggregated cells can affect the permeability of solutes into the cells from the surrounding solution. The number of cell-to-cell contacts, places where the cell membranes of different cells touch, can affect flow of solutes and communication between cells.

Questions: How does the arrangement of cells within a cluster affect the space between cells and the number of cell-to-cell contacts? How do biological examples of sphere packing compare to mathematical theory?

Supplement to 'Adaptive Immune Response': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:3bu0TQN9@10/42-2-Adaptive-Immune-Response

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Biology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
University of Tennessee Knoxville
Provider Set:
The Institute for Environmental Modeling
Author:
L. Gross
M. Beals
S. Harrell
Date Added:
05/17/2019
CELL DIVISION IN THE PRESENCE OF A GROWTH FACTOR
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Introduction: Under optimal conditions, growth of cells occurs as each cell completes the cell cycle and doubles producing two daughter cells which later themselves divide. Growth factors can provoke the growth of cells. For example, interleukins are made by white blood cells to stimulate the growth of other immune system cells. Erythropoietin is made by the kidney to promote growth of red blood cells.

Question: How do growth factors affect the rate at which cell populations grow?

Supplement to 'Control of the Cell Cycle': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:UxhDw2_6@10/10-3-Control-of-the-Cell-Cycle

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
University of Tennessee Knoxville
Provider Set:
The Institute for Environmental Modeling
Author:
L. Gross
M. Beals
S. Harrell
Date Added:
05/17/2019
CELL EXPANSION
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Introduction: Plants are capable of rapidly adapting to changes in their environment. Plants can grow to replace damaged parts, bend in the direction of light cues, or elongate rapidly under good conditions. Plant hormones often play a role in plant development by affecting patterns of growth. Gibberellins, in particular, can elicit changes in growth, elongation, and flowering.
The growth of a plant cell is primarily driven by the uptake of water into the cytoplasm and vacuole of the plant cell. The vacuole expands rapidly, pressing against the cell wall. In order for the cell to enlarge, the cell wall must yield to the stress produced by cell turgor. Therefore, we would suspect that plant hormones might affect properties of the cell in order to affect plant growth.

Question: How do osmotic potential and properties of the cell wall contribute to cell enlargement? How do plant hormones affect rates of cell enlargement?

Supplement to 'Plant Sensory Systems and Responses': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:eic7s50p@11/30-6-Plant-Sensory-Systems-and-Responses

Subject:
Biology
Botany
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
University of Tennessee Knoxville
Provider Set:
The Institute for Environmental Modeling
Author:
L. Gross
M. Beals
S. Harrell
Date Added:
05/17/2019
CHEMORECEPTION
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Introduction: Chemoreception occurs when specific receptors in the cell membrane bind with diffusing chemicals in the surrounding medium. For example, bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella often navigate in response to chemical attractants or repellents.

Question: Should a cell invest a large amount of resources and surface area in building chemoreceptors in its cell membrane in order to detect chemicals?

Supplement to 'Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:rns8-Bnk@14/9-1-Signaling-Molecules-and-Cellular-Receptors

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
University of Tennessee Knoxville
Provider Set:
The Institute for Environmental Modeling
Author:
L. Gross
M. Beals
S. Harrell
Date Added:
05/17/2019
CHI-SQUARE TEST
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CC BY
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Introduction: The chi-square test is a statistical test that can be used to determine whether observed frequencies are significantly different from expected frequencies. For example, after we calculated expected frequencies for different allozymes in the HARDY-WEINBERG module we would use a chi-square test to compare the observed and expected frequencies and determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the two. As in other statistical tests, we begin by stating a null hypothesis (H0: there is no significant difference between observed and expected frequencies) and an alternative hypothesis (H1: there is a significant difference). Based on the outcome of the chi-square test we will either reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Question: How is the chi-square test used to compare samples or populations? What does a comparison of observed and expected frequencies tell us about these samples?

Supplement to 'Laws of Inheritance': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:8Zft46As@11/12-3-Laws-of-Inheritance

Subject:
Biology
Ecology
Genetics
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
University of Tennessee Knoxville
Provider Set:
The Institute for Environmental Modeling
Author:
L. Gross
M. Beals
S. Harrell
Date Added:
05/17/2019
COHORT LIFE TABLES
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CC BY
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Introduction: Demographic processes such as births, deaths, immigration, and emigration, are those that affect the size and composition of a population. The timing of these processes also plays a critical role; a population with high juvenile mortality will have a very different structure from a population with high mortality in the post-reproductive years. Life tables are tables of data on survivorship and fecundity of individuals within a population. A standard method is to collect data on a cohort, or group of individuals all born in the same time period. Life tables constructed this way are called cohort life tables. They can then be used to determine age- or stage-specific fecundity and mortality rates, survivorship, and basic reproductive rates, which in turn can be compared from cohort to cohort enabling an analysis of their annual variation.

Question: How do life tables help us to understand the demography of a population?

Supplement to 'Population Demography': https://cnx.org/contents/jVCgr5SL@15.43:UNW2YGZ9@10/45-1-Population-Demography

Subject:
Biology
Ecology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
University of Tennessee Knoxville
Provider Set:
The Institute for Environmental Modeling
Author:
L. Gross
M. Beals
S. Harrell
Date Added:
05/20/2019