Author:
Cristina Trecha
Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Module
Level:
Graduate / Professional
Tags:
NGSS
License:
Creative Commons Attribution
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Downloadable docs, Graphics/Photos, Interactive

Oregon Science Project Hybrid NGSS Module #1 - Phenomena & Equity

Overview

The Oregon Science Project Module #1 is designed for K-12 and nonformal educators who want to learn more about NGSS, with an emphasis on how the shift to sense-making around phenomena is at the heart of the NGSS. It is designed to provide 3-4 hours of work and asks learners to create something new to contribute to the work.

Why Teach Science?

Why Teach Science?

 

 

"A Framework for K-12 Science Education (hereafter referred to as the Framework) and the Next Generation Science Standards (hereafter referred to as the NGSS) describe aspirations for students’ learning in science that are based on key insights from research:

  • that science learning involves the integration of knowing and doing 
  • that developing conceptual understanding through engaging in the practices of science is more productive for future learning than simply memorizing lists of facts
  • that science learning is best supported when learning experiences are designed to build and revise understanding over time"

Science Teachers' Learning: Enhancing Opportunities, Creating Supportive Contexts (2015) 

Estimated time: 10 minutes 

Components: small group discussion, survey response to statements about teaching science

 

Here is a link to the results in case you want to look back in your own response again.

Why We Teach

Group Instructions (Each person submits their own survey)

Every Participant: Open "Survey #1"

Reading for Understanding - Discussing the statements:

  1. Starting with the statement at the top left and going down one by one:
    1. One person reads the statement out loud
    2. Each person shares their thoughts about why the statement is important

Reading to Rank - Ranking the statements:

  1. Each person shares which statement is the most important to them and why
  2. All members of the group can question or press for reasoning, but please approach this discussion with the knowledge that another person's rationale may actually make you change your mind.
  3. As you discuss your rankings, each participants completes their own survey with their own answers and hits submit.

Discussing the results

  1. Once you have all submitted and see the collective results of those who completed it before you: share surprises or wonderings you have about how your individual and group ranking compares to the collective responses

 

 

Individual Instructions (temporary and only for this early draft, please try to work in small regional group with at least two other OSP Learning Facilitators if possible)

Open Survey #1

  1. Rank the five different reasons listed that ague for why we should teach science K-12.

  2. One you have completed this survey you will see all of the other participants' responses who have completed it before you.

Why Teach Science in Our Community?

Why Teach Science in Our Community?

"In addition to being the center of most youth’s social world, schools often function as the center of community life and the primary institutions that maintain and transmit local community values to youth." - Devora Shamah Katherine A. MacTavish from Making Room for Place-Based Knowledge in Rural Classrooms

Approximate time: 5-10 minutes 

Components: Google Map activity

Oregon

Every Participant Open: "Our Community Map" 

  1. Create an orange marker
  2. Place yourself on the Google Map

Include the following information in the description accompanying your marker:

  1. First Name
  2. Last Name
  3. Picture of yourself (that you like - could even be of you and your students)
  4. Grade(s) you teach
  5. School
  6. District
  7. Role (i.e. teacher, PD provider, or coach)
  8. Institution
  9. One reason that a high quality science education for ALL students is important for your community

If you are new to creating a location and description on Google Maps, please open "Google Map Instructions" and watch the short how-to video.

How Science Works

How Science Works

"Before one can discuss the teaching and learning of science, consensus is needed about what science is." - Taking Science to School

Approximate time: 25-30 minutes 

Components: video, small group discussions, survey response

Group Instructions

Video

One participant shares their screen choosing the option to show their internet browser. Scroll down to the video below so that all participants can watch the video below together.  Before your start, be sure to prepare to listen for:

  1. How these scientists - and science educators - discuss how science works
  2. Ways that scientists use evidence to craft arguments
  3. How scientists reason with evidence
How Science Works

One participant opens "Science Flowchart (Dynamic)" and shares their screen so that everyone can see.

  1. The person sharing their screen slowly mouses over the different parts of the flowchart.
  2. The group discusses the different parts of the flowchart ensuring that everyone has seen all of the different spheres.
  3. Once you have done that, stop screen sharing and gather together again.

Each participant opens "Appendix F: NGSS Practices" 

  1. It may be helpful to minimize your screens so you can easily switch between the different resources on your own during your discussion.
  2. As a group, discuss where each practice could fit on the flowchart and why, or why not.
  3. Refer back to the video (or even watch it again) to help you think about this overlap.

Each participant opens "Matrix of NGSS Crosscutting Concepts" 

  1. As a group, discuss where each NGSS Crosscutting Concept could fit on the flowchart and why, or why not.
  2. Refer back to the video (or even watch it again) to help you think about this overlap or lack of overlap.

Each participant opens "Survey #2" on their own device

  1. In your group, discuss each prompt on the survey using the science flowchart to guide your discussion about how science works.
  2. Include material from the video (quotes, ideas, stories, claims, etc.) in your responses.
  3. Each participant completes and submits their own survey.

 

 

 

Individual Instructions (temporary and only for this early draft, please try to work in small regional group with at least two other OSP Learning Facilitators if possible)

Watch the video below at least once and listen for:

  1. How these scientists - and science educators - discuss how science works
  2. Ways that scientists use evidence to craft arguments
  3. How scientists reason with evidence

Open "Survey #2" and respond the prompts about the process of science as explored in this video. In your responses be sure to include:

  1. Material from the video (quotes, ideas, stories, claims, etc.)
  2. Language from the Science Flowchart
  3. Open up "NGSS Practices" to help you compare and contrast professional science and classroom science.
  4. Open up "Matrix of Crosscutting Concepts" to help you compare and contrast professional science and classroom science.
  5. Submit your survey

 

Science as Process

Science as Process

"Experiment has been widely viewed as a fundamental characteristic of science...However, if we look at science as a process of argument, experiment becomes one of the measures that provide scientists with insights and justification for their arguments."

- George Zhou

Approximate time: 20-25 minutes 

Components: reading, ssmall group discussion, survey response

Research from the history and philosphy of science identifies that science can be a process of logical reasoning about evidence, and a process of theory change that both require participation in the culture of scientific practices. In the teaching of science, the Framework and NGSS ask us to shift our focus away from memorization of vocabulary, to thinking of science as a process of application of knowledge and concepts via model-based reasoning.

As you can see from the screen shot of NGSS Appendix A below, this is identified as the first shift on the list of the seven major shifts in science education as envisioned by the Framework & the NGSS.

Appendix A

Each participant open "Appendix A: Conceptual Shifts in the NGSS"

  1. Each person opens Appendix A on their own device and quickly skims the document to identify two different conceptual shift statements on the list that they would like to explore further. (i.e. shift #2 and shift #5)
  2. One by one, each participant shares their chosen two shift statements with the group and explains why they are interested in these shifts.
  3. Each participant then silently reads the text below each of your chosen shifts statements.

Each participant opens "Survey 3" on their own device

  1. Each participant fills out the survey based upon what they shared with the group. 
  2. As a group, discuss each of the specific group prompts on the survey before each of you complete your survey.

Discussing the results

  1. Once you submit your individual responses, select the link to see all previous responses. 
  2. Read the collective responses and share surprises or wonderings you have about how your individual and group ranking compares to the collective responses.
  3. Share ideas about resources you could seek out to find out more.

 

Individual Instructions (temporary and only for this early draft, please try to work in small regional group with at least two other OSP Learning Facilitators if possible)Open Appendix A: Conceptual Shifts in the NGSS

  1. Identify two different conceptual shifts on the list that you would like to explore further
  2. Read the text below each of your chosen shifts

Open "Survey #3" and respond to the prompts about the NGSS shifts you chose to read about.

 

 

The Process of Science in the Classroom

The Process of Science in the Classroom

 "...in learning science one must come to understand both the body of knowledge and the process by which this knowledge is established, extended, refined, and revised." - Taking Science to School 

Approximate time: 30-40 minutes 

Components: video, reading, small group discussion, survey response

Group Instructions

One participant shares their screen and everyone watches the video below. The group actively listens for the role of phenomena in the Framework and NGSS inspired classroom. After the video ends, stop screen sharing and gather together as a group to engage in discussion.

Phenomena Reiser

Each member of the group silently reads the brief statements below.

Phenomena

Phenomena2

Each participant opens "Appendix E: Progressions within NGSS"

  1. Read the first page.
  2. On your own, find your grade or grade band in document and explore the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI) covered in the NGSS vision.
  3. Discuss with your what you think the difference between a phenomena and an NGSS Disciplinary Core Idea. What are some key differences?
  4. Find an example DCI from your gradeband in the life, physical, or earth/space sciences and think of a scientific phenomena that relates to that core idea. Share your idea with the group.

One participant opens the "Reasoning Triangle" and shares their screen.

  1. As a group, discuss the three parts of the tool and the role you see them playing the science classroom.
  2. Each person shares an example of when you have started an activity, exploration, or unit with a question.
  3. Each person shares an example of when you have started with a phenomenon.
  4. How do you think this tool changes your approach or thinking about phenomena, questions, and modeling?
  5. Stop screen sharing

One person in the group open Survey #4A and shares the screen so all participants can see and answer as a group and submit one survey.

  1. As a group, select if you think the statement is a phenomena or NGSS Disciplinary Core Idea.
  2. If you think it's a phenomenon, utilize the language of the Reasoning Triangle to justify your ideas. 
  3. Once you submit your group submits your response, select the link to see all previous responses. 
  4. Does your group agree or disagree with the previous responses? 
  5. Find a response that is different than your group's response and discuss what their response tells you about their understanding of the statement. What does it tell you about your understanding of the statement? Your understanding of phenomena or DCI's?
  6. If you want to revise your thinking, simply go back in and you can edit your response. Please only edit if your thinking has truly changed and you'd like to rethink it! 

Repeat for survey 4B and rotate the responsibility to share the screen during your discussion.

 

Individual Instructions (temporary and only for this early draft, please try to work in small regional group with at least two other OSP Learning Facilitators if possible)Open Appendix A: Conceptual Shifts in the NGSS

Watch the video below and listen for the role of phenomena in the Framework and NGSS inspired classroom. 

Read the brief statements below the video about phenomena.

Open Appendix E: Progressions within NGSS

  1. Read the first page
  2. Find your grade or grade band in document and explore the Disciplinary Core Ideas covered in the NGSS vision

Open and complete survey 4B (they are each just 2 questions). In each survey:

  1. Select if the statement is a phenomena or NGSS Disciplinary Core Idea
  2. If you think it's a phenomenon, utilize the Reasoning Triangle to justify your ideas
  3. Once you submit your response, you will see all previous responses and reasoning

Making Thinking Visible through Productive Discourse in the NGSS Classroom

Making Thinking Visible

"Fostering thinking requires making thinking visible. Thinking happens mostly in our heads, invisible to others and even to ourselves. Effective thinkers make their thinking visible, meaning they externalize their thoughts through speaking, writing, drawing, or some other method. They can then direct and improve those thoughts." - Ron Ritchhart and David Perkins

Approximate time:45 minutes

Components: Watch two videos (both Part 1 & 2), discussion, survey response

Each participant opens and reads to themselves: "Asking Questions - Appendix F: Science and Engineering Practices in the NGSS"

Each participant opens and reads to themselves: "Developing and Using Models - A Snippet from the NRC Framework"

As a group: decide which two-part video set you will watch (choose elementary or high school).

Watch Part 1 AND Part 2 of either the high school OR elementary video cases below.

Listen and watch for:

  1. What phenomena the students are trying to figure out
  2. How it seems that this phenomena was presented to them (i.e. hands-on experience, video, picture, scenario, reading, statement ,etc.)
  3. The sets of ideas, or models, that the students are using to make sense of the phenomena
  4. How the classroom culture provides a safe space for students to:
    1. Engage in productive discourse
    2. Make their ideas public and visible
    3. Revise their ideas
    4. Ask questions
    5. Develop and use models

ELEMENTARY VIDEOS

Elementary Video Part 1
Elementary Video Part 2

HIGH SCHOOL VIDEOS

High School Video Part 1
High School Video Part 2

One person opens "Survey #5" and leads the group in filling out one survey.

Before responding to each prompt, discuss as a group what you would like to contribute. Let the survey questions provide you with prompts for your discussion.

  1. Respond to the prompts about how the classroom examples engage students in sense-making around scientific phenomena. 
  2. Utilize the Reasoning Triangle as a thinking tool to show the dynamic relationship between exploring a phenomena through asking questions and modeling.

 

 

Individual Instructions (temporary and only for this early draft, please try to work in small regional group with at least two other OSP Learning Facilitators if possible)Open Appendix A: Conceptual Shifts in the NGSSread "Asking Questions - Appendix F: Science and Engineering Practices in the NGSS"

Read "Developing and Using Models - A Snippet from the NRC Framework"

Watch Part 1 AND Part 2 of either the high school OR elementary video cases below. Listen and watch for:

  1. What phenomena the students are trying to figure out
  2. How it seems that this phenomena was presented to them (i.e. hands-on experience, video, picture, scenario, reading, statement ,etc.)
  3. The sets of ideas, or models, that the students are using to make sense of the phenomena
  4. How the classroom culture provides a safe space for students to:
    1. Engage in productive discourse
    2. Make their ideas public and visible
    3. Revise their ideas
    4. Ask questions
    5. Develop and use models

Open Survey #5 below.

  1. Respond to the prompts about how the classroom examples engage students in sense-making around scientific phenomena. 
  2. Utilize the Reasoning Triangle as a thinking tool to show the dynamic relationship between exploring a phenomena through asking questions and modeling

 

Equity in the Framework & NGSS-Inspired Classroom

Equity in the Framework & NGSS-Inspired Classroom

"..equity is not a singular moment in time, nor is it an individual endeavor. It takes an educational system and groups of individuals in this system. This includes the school administration and community, school partners, community agencies and families as well as curriculum developers and professional development facilitators to work toward, promote, and maintain a focus on equity." - Gallard, Mensah, and Pitts from Supporting the Implementation of Equity 

Approximate time: 20-30 minutes

Components: reading, survey response

Each participant opens "Chapter 11: NRC Framework" and skims the chapter by scrolling through it online.

Every member of the group picks and chooses different parts of the chapter that they are interested in reading and find relevant for their practice or their context.

As you read:

  1. Find three things you have learned (keep reading and exploring the text until you find three things new to you)
  2. Look for two things you found very interesting and would like to discuss with your group.
  3. Come up with one question you have about equity in the NGSS classroom.

Each participant opens Survey #6.

As a small group each participant shares their responses as the group goes through each prompt. 

Once you hit submit, choose to see the previous responses and, as a group, discuss how they were similar or different than your own responses.

One person shares their screen and the group watches the video below.

3 Dimensions of the NGSS

As Oregon Science Project NGSS Learning Facilitators you are an advocate for science, especially an advocate for science in elementary. It's important that all secondary teachers get a glimpse of what NGSS can look like in the elementary classroom. Science in elementary is a large equity issue in Oregon where we are 50th in the nation for time spent teaching science K-5. 

In your group, discuss the implications for NGSS's emphasis on equity and increasing access to engaging and rich science experiences for more of Oregon's students. 

Each participant opens Survey #7 and reflects on the prompt in a small group discussion, and then submits their own response.

Once you have submitted all your responses, please choose to see collective responses and find similarities and differences between our shared thinking.