Author:
Tiffany Neill, WILLIAM PENUEL, Sarah Evans, Katie Van Horne, Philip Bell, Shelley Stromholt, Sam Shaw
Subject:
Applied Science, Engineering, Education, Life Science, Physical Science
Material Type:
Module
Level:
Graduate / Professional
Tags:
Assessment, K-12 Science Standards, Science Education
License:
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Interactive
ACESSE Resource B - How to Assess Three-Dimensional Learning in Your Classroom

ACESSE Resource B - How to Assess Three-Dimensional Learning in Your Classroom

Module Overview

The NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education and the resulting Next Generation Science Standards focus on an integrated three-dimensional view of science learning in which students develop understanding of core ideas of science and crosscutting concepts in the context of engaging in science and engineering practices.

How is assessing three-dimensional science learning different than how we have thought of science learning in the past? How can we design assessment tasks that elicit student’s current understanding of specific aspects of the disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, and crosscutting concepts in order to shape future instruction? In this workshop, participants will learn how to interpret and design cognitive formative assessment to fit a three-dimensional view of learning.

This resource originates from a series of PD sessions on 3D formative assessment developed and provided by Katie Van Horne, Shelley Stromholt, Bill Penuel, and Philip Bell. It has been improved through a collaboration in the ACESSE project with science education experts from 13 states. Please cite this resource as follows:

Stromholt, S., Van Horne, K., Bell, P., Penuel, W. R., Neill, T. & Shaw, S. (2017). How to Assess Three-Dimensional Learning in Your Classroom: Building Assessment Tasks that Work. [OER Professional Development Session from the ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/SessionB

Section 1: Introduction

The NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education and the resulting Next Generation Science Standards focus on an integrated three-dimensional view of science learning in which students develop understanding of core ideas of science and crosscutting concepts in the context of engaging in science and engineering practices.

How is assessing three-dimensional science learning different than how we have thought of science learning in the past? How can we design assessment tasks that elicit student’s current understanding of specific aspects of the disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, and crosscutting concepts in order to shape future instruction? In this workshop, participants will learn how to interpret and design cognitive formative assessment to fit a three-dimensional view of learning.

______________________________

BACKGROUND: To download this resource as a PowerPoint file, please see the Resource Library on the right side of this screen. There you will also find a link to a Facilitator’s Guide for this resource (http://tinyurl.com/ACESSE-ResourceB-Guide).

This resource originates from a series of PD sessions on 3D formative assessment developed and provided by Katie Van Horne, Shelley Stromholt, Bill Penuel, and Philip Bell. It has been improved through a collaboration in the ACESSE project with science education experts from 13 states. Please cite this resource as follows:

Stromholt, S., Van Horne, K., Bell, P., Penuel, W. R., Neill, T. & Shaw, S. (2017). How to Assess Three-Dimensional Learning in Your Classroom: Building Assessment Tasks that Work. [OER Professional Development Session from the ACESSE Project] Retrieved from http://stemteachingtools.org/pd/SessionB

[estimated time: 1 min]

Section 2: Overview of the Session

There are very few examples of assessments completely aligned to the 3D model of learning in the NRC Framework and NGSS, so people will need to adapt the ones that exist or create new ones. Performance expectations also underspecify the nature of evidence needed to draw inferences about student learning. This workshop highlights the role of formative assessment in the classroom and aims to help participants identify assessment components that focus on individual practices, core ideas, or crosscutting concepts, and understand how, taken together, the components can support inferences about students’ three-dimensional science learning as described in a given performance expectation or bundle.

There are five activities in this session… ((Read Slide))

[estimated time: 2 min]

Section 3: Background Resources

There are some background resources that fit well with this PD session…

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 4: Prequisite and Deeper Dive Options

The ACESSE project has an hour-long introduction to formative assessment in science education PD session, shown on the left, that ideally functions as a prerequisite for this session. It provides a shared definition for formative assessment, highlights different kinds of formative assessment, and describes important components and implementation ideas.

As shown on the right, the STEM Teaching Tools site provides an online short course on 3D assessment that goes into significantly more detail about the kind of work we are doing today—and it links off to a set of helpful professional learning resources related to 3D assessment and instruction.

[estimated time: 1 min]

Section 5: Overview of the 3D Assessment Challenge

So, let’s dive in…

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 6: Challenges of Developing 3D Assessments

((Read Slide))

The 3D learning model in the NRC Framework comes from a synthesis of the research literature that studied how best to support equitable student learning in science (e.g., through powerful instruction), but educational assessments haven’t historically been developed for a 3D model of learning. New approaches are being developed and studied—like those that we will be exploring today.

[estimated time: 30 sec]

Section 7: Multi-Component Tasks

The National Academy of Science published a consensus report outlining the assessment issues and strategies associated with the 3D learning model in the NRC Framework.

One assessment model they highlight is the use of multi-component tasks—that is, a set of questions students answer related to a common scenario or situation.

((Read Slide))

[estimated time: 1 min]

Section 8: Sample Classroom Assessment

Just to give you a concrete sense of what this can look like, here’s a sample multi-component formative assessment. It was developed by the UW Institute for Science and Math Education and teachers and staff from Seattle Public Schools as part of a multi-year collaboration focused on implementing the Framework / NGSS vision through curriculum adaptation and assessment design. This image shows the first few items from the first draft of a longer (five-page) assessment focused on NGSS MS-PS1-4, MS-PS3-5, and Common Core State Standards ELA-LITERACY.RST.6-8.7.

((BACKGROUND: People can learn more about the UW-Seattle partnership here: http://researchandpractice.org/rpp_anatomy/ ))

[estimated time: 2 min]

Section 9: Sample Classroom Assessment - Refined for ELLs

This is a refined version of the same assessment after teachers improved it to better support English Language Learners (ELLs) in responding to the items by streamlining language and adding word banks to the modeling items. Here you see a few different student responses. We will be learning about and applying assessment design strategies for ELL students later in the session.

[estimated time: 30 sec]

Section 10: Designing Multi-Component Tasks

How can we understand the multi-component design of this task? The approach we recommend builds on the work of a collaborative associated with the Council of Chief State School Officers’ that has been exploring how to design summative assessments of 3D learning that are “multi-component”.

((Reading the Diagram from right-to-left)) In this model, a cluster of items assess specific 2D and 3D learning goals as part of an item cluster for a given performance expectation. That was the sequence of related items—focused on engaging students in different science and engineering practices—as they expressed their conceptual understanding of science.

Since we are focused on designing formative assessments of different sizes, we are looking at assessing a specific 3D learning performance related to a bundle of science, literacy & math standards that corresponds to a major learning goal for a curriculum sequence. In the example, the assessment was gathering evidence on specific components of two science standards and one ELA standard.

We also focus on scenario-based approaches to assessment tasks (and not just general stimulus items in a broader sense). In the example, the scenario was about the “fogged mirror” phenomena that happened during a hot shower.

So, overall, we are focused on developing a coherent cluster of items that gauge 2D and 3D learning goals associated with a bundle of standards by asking students to make sense of phenomena highlighted in a scenario that is described.

((Stop and process the slide with the room.))

[estimated time: 3 min]

Section 11: Equity & Diversity

This is the table of contents of Chapter 11 in the NRC Framework. All of these dimensions are relevant to formative assessment.

[estimated time: 30 sec]

Section 12: Equity & Diversity - Highlighting Assessment

These highlighted elements are the ones most directly related to today’s session. Formative assessment is a crucial strategy for equalizing opportunities to learn. Importantly, the Framework also highlights research-based ideas about inclusive science instruction that should be routinely used to engage learners in science learning. It also highlights the importance of valuing multiple modes of student expression (words, drawings, even gestures). In assessment, giving students multiple ways to express what they know helps make assessments fairer. We will see examples of all of these strategies today.

[estimated time: 30 sec]

Section 13: Activity: Analysis of Assessment Tasks + Debrief

How can we tell if science assessments are three dimensional? We will analyze a set of assessments to see if we can distinguish 3D assessments from other kinds of assessment tasks.

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 14: Assessment Tasks Analysis

((NOTE: These slides are designed to focus groups on a fifth-grade life sciences performance expectation. This PD module can be changed to focus on a range of different assessment items. See below if you want to change to a different one.))

Here’s a Performance Expectation for 5th grade Life Sciences…

((Read the PE and highlight the detail present in the foundation boxes across the three-dimensions.))

You will be looking to see if and how each assessment focuses on specific elements of each dimension of the performance expectation.

Hand out hard copies of 5-LS2-1 Sample Assessment Tasks or have participants click on the resource link:

http://learndbir.org/resources/Sample-Assessment-Tasks-for-Grade-5-LS2-1.pdf

[estimated time: 2 min]

((NOTE: This slide and the next one focus on a fifth-grade life sciences set, but facilitators can swap in other sets of assessments as they deem appropriate for their audience. The full set of options are linked in the Resource Library for this module or can be found here:

http://learndbir.org/talks-and-papers/nsta-2016-workshop-how-to-assess-three-dimensional-learning-in-your-classroom-building-tasks-that-work

If you change to a different set of assessments, you will also have to update the Google docs that will be used in the session. More detail about this process is described in the facilitator’s guide for this session.))

Section 15: NGSS Evidence Statement

((NOTE: This is the NGSS Evidence Statement for the PE shown. It may not be relevant to your state context.))

This is the NGSS evidence statement for the PE shown. It highlights additional detail on what students should know and be able to do for each performance expectation. However, evidence statement were designed to guide summative assessments, so only specific elements would be appropriate for a given formative assessment.

[estimated time: 1 min]

Section 16: Instructions: Assessment Task Analysis

Here’s the first activity…

((Read slide and engage the group in the activity))

((Note: To set up the poll, you will have to adapt it as described in the Facilitator’s Guide. The link to the template can be found in this module's Resource Library or accessed here: http://tinyurl.com/AcesseResourceBTaskTemplate. Once you have done this, edit this task (using the pencil icon above) then click the Add Resource button below to put in the link for your participants to access.))

[estimated time: 8-13 min]

Section 17: Discussion: Assessment Task Analysis

((Pull up the Google form results on the screen. Review the data together for each assessment item. Be sure to review the justifications with the group as you pose these questions))

Where was there agreement? Where was there disagreement? How did we decide if a task is 3D or not?

((It is likely that the group agreed about many of the items. Highlight this fact—to help people recognize they are perceiving “3D-ness.”. For the places where there is disagreement, ask about what caused the difference in analysis?))

What are some principles we could use, to decide whether an assessment is 3D or not?

((To the degree possible, surface the assessment design principle associated with people’s critiques. Write these down on butcher block paper for the group to refer back to.))

[estimated time: 4-6 min]

Section 18: Steps to Designing 3D Assessments

But how can we make assessments a better fit to the 3D vision for science learning for all students?

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 19: Steps to Designing (Adapting) 3D Assessments

This five-step process can be used to design assessments from start to finish. It is described in detail in STEM Teaching Tool #29:

http://stemteachingtools.org/brief/29

In order to “improve” the items we have been analyzing and make them more 3D, we will jump into Step 3 and use a couple of design tools to develop better questions.

[estimated time: 1 min]

Section 20: Tools to Support Assessment Item Development or Adaptation

The STEM Teaching Tools site has a set of tools to support the development and adaptation of 3D assessments.

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 21: Assessment Task Formats for the Practices

The science and engineering practices are a central element of the 3D learning model—they are the foundation on which conceptual knowledge is developed and applied. They are the means by which students make sense of natural phenomena—or build solutions to problems—through sustained investigations.

((Read slide))

[estimated time: 30 sec]

Section 22: Task Formats for Developing & Using Models

This tool offers between four and eight possible task formats for each of the science and engineering practices listed in the NRC Framework / NGSS. The task formats can give you specific ideas about how to craft assessment questions that engage students in the practice in question. The task formats are roughly ordered from less to more cognitively complex. Think of them as like blueprints for developing tasks that require students to engage in a practice to show what they know.

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 23: Prompts for Assessing Cross-Cutting Concepts

Similarly, cross-cutting concepts are another dimension of the 3D learning model. This STEM Teaching Tool helps you design questions about this dimension.

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 24: Prompts for Assessing Cross-Cutting Concepts: Example

This tool highlights prompts that can be used in assessments or in classroom conversation to support the learning and application of these cross-cutting concepts that show up across the disciplines of science and engineering. These are some of the prompts for Cause and Effect.

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 25: Assessments for Emerging Bilingual Students

It is particularly important to worry about how students who are not fluent English speakers are able to express their understanding of natural phenomena—on assessments and in conversation more generally. This tool highlights design principles for developing more inclusive assessments.

Read this tool and discuss it with an elbow partner or two, using the questions listed on the back. You should try to apply the design guidance on the back page as you improve an assessment.

(NOTE: The term “emerging bilinguals” is another way of referring to “English Language Learners”.)

[estimated time: 5-7 min]

Section 26: Activity: Adapt an Existing Task + Debrief

So let’s work to improve the assessments.

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 27: Steps to Designing (Adapting) 3D Assessments

We are going to work on Step 3.

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 28: Instructions: Design (Adaptation) Work for Today

In groups of 2 or 3, select an assessment item to improve and use the task formats to make the cluster more three dimensional.

Intentionally use the three tools we just learned about to support your work. Now let’s get to work.

((Note: To set up the poll, you will have to adapt it as described in the Facilitator’s Guide. The link to the template can be found in this module's Resource Library or accessed here: http://tinyurl.com/AcesseResourceBTaskTemplate. Once you have done this, edit this task (using the pencil icon above) then click the Add Resource button below to put in the link for your participants to access.))

[estimated time: 8-13 min]

Section 29: Discussion: Assessment Task Adaptation

((Read and process the slide))

[estimated time: 4-6 min]

Section 30: Criteria for Assessments Scenarios

We didn’t focus on this today, but assessment scenarios themselves can be a major source of inequity.

In the Introduction to Formative Assessment PD Session, we described these criteria for the selection of assessment scenarios. Assessment scenarios need to be quickly understandable by as many students as possible. Often specific scenarios from everyday life are culturally unfamiliar to some students.

((Ask the room to skim the criteria))

It is ideal to test out assessment scenarios with your actual students. As you think about the one you worked on today, you might want to refine or adjust it to make it more fair.

[estimated time: 2 min]

Section 31: Short Course: Steps to Designing a Three Dimensional Assessment

As part of an effort called the Research + Practice Collaboratory funded by the National Science Foundation, a team of researchers and educators have started developing professional learning resources for the development of 3D cognitive assessments and interest- and identity-focused cultural assessments. This is the online, short course mentioned earlier that provides an overview of those resources.

[estimated time: 30 sec]

Section 32: Theme: Formative Assessment

The STEM Teaching Tools site includes a wide range of professional learning resources on 3D assessment, including some of those we used today.

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 33: Professional Learning Resources

These tools are all part of a broader collection of resources designed to support implementation of the NRC Framework and NGSS vision.

[estimated time: 15 sec]

Section 34: Improvements for the Resource

((Read and ask participants to complete the survey. Clarify that this is information for the ACESSE team to refine the—and not for you as the facilitator.))

[estimated time: 3-5 min]

Section 35: Thank You!

Here are some resources and contact information for the authors of this PD unit. They hope you have found it useful. They welcome any feedback or suggestions on how to improve it. This resource developed with funding from the National Science Foundation.

[estimated time: 30 sec]