Author:
Georgia Boatman, Washington OSPI OER Project, Kimberley Astle, Ellen Ebert, Barbara Soots
Subject:
Education, Elementary Education, English Language Arts, Reading Informational Text, Life Science, Biology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab, Lesson Plan, Module, Reading
Level:
Upper Primary
Grade:
5
Tags:
Conservation of Matter, Plant Growth, Plants, wa-integrated, wa-science
License:
Creative Commons Attribution
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Downloadable docs, Video

Education Standards (7)

Grade 5 - Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects: Where Do Plants Get What They Need to Grow?

Grade 5 - Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects: Where Do Plants Get What They Need to Grow?

Overview

Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects is a statewide Clime Time collaboration among ESD 123, ESD 105, and the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Development of the resources is in response to a need for research- based science lessons for elementary teachers that are integrated with English language arts, mathematics and other subjects such as social studies. The template for Elementary integration can serve as an organized, coherent and research-based roadmap for teachers in the development of their own NGSS aligned science lessons.  Lessons can also be useful for classrooms that have no adopted curriculum as well as to serve as enhancements for  current science curriculum. The EFSIS project brings together grade level teams of teachers to develop lessons or suites of lessons that are 1) focused on grade level Performance Expectations, and 2) leverage ELA and Mathematics Washington State Learning Standards.

Introduction: Standards, Phenomena, Big Ideas and Routines

Where Do Plants Get What They Need to Grow?

Elementary Science and Integrated Subjects resources are designed to be an example of how to develop a coherent lesson or suite of lessons that integrate other subjects such as English Language Arts, Mathematics and other subjects into science learning for students. The examples provide teachers with ways to think about all standards, identify an anchoring phenomena and plan for coherence in science and integrated subjects learning.

Washington State Learning Standards

Fifth Grade Disciplinary Core Ideas included are LS1, LS2

For LS1-1, LS2-1 students are expected to develop an understanding of:

  • the idea that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water
  • the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment

The Crosscutting Concepts are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

Crosscutting Concepts:

  • patterns;
  • energy and matter;
  • systems and system models;
  • interdependence of science, engineering, and technology;
  • the influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world

Students are expected to use the practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Science and Engineering Practices:

  • developing and using models
  • analyzing and interpreting data
  • planning and carrying out investigations
  • using mathematics and computational thinking
  • engaging in argument from evidence
  • obtaining, evaluating and communicating information

Performance Expectation(s)

Identify Climate Science related Performance Expectation(s) from Next Generation Science Standards that will be your focus. Copy and paste below all the possible disciplinary core ideas and performance expectations that relate to your topic.

5-LS1-1. Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water.
Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that plant matter comes mostly from air and water, not from the soil

5-LS2-1. Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.
Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that matter that is not food (air, water, decomposed materials in soil) is changed by plants into matter that is food. Examples of systems could include organisms, ecosystems, and the Earth.
Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include molecular explanations.

Science and Engineering Practices

Which SEPs will be a focus for investigating this topic/phenomenon?

Engaging in Argument from Evidence: Students would develop a model with evidence to argue that Russian olive trees get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water.

Crosscutting Concepts

Which Crosscutting Concepts will be a focus for investigating this topic/phenomenon?

Energy and Matter: Students will be growing bean seeds in order to observe the seed grow into a sprout and weigh the plant material.

English Language Arts (ELA) Standards

How will I Integrate ELA Standards (which standard, what strategy…?)

RI.5.1: Quote accurately from text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from text.

RI.5.9: Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

W.5.2: Write informative/explanatory text to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

  • Students will write initial thinking on what a plant needs for survival while creating metacognitive models. This will be revisited and modified with evidence in their final writing.

Mathematics and Social Studies Standards

How will I Integrate other Learning Standards?

5.MD.A.1 - Measurement & Data - Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system and use these conversions in solving real world problems.

  • 5.MD.A.1- Measuring plant growth over a period of time using Metric measurements, record in table to share data, convert measurement data to 5.NBT.A.3 decimal form
    • MP.2- Students will create initial model to reason abstractly on WHAT plants need to grow, use quantitative data from 5.MD.A.1
    • MP.3 & EP3- Students will defend their metacognitive models and make modifications based on new evidence
    • MP.4- Students will model with mathematics to explain the process plants use to grow, with little to no change in soil
    • *EP7- Resources are available online for students, but are able to be printed, shown by teacher is limited technology
    • MP.5- Throughout lessons, students will have scientific and mathematical tools to use.

Phenomena

What is an actual, observable local event, set of events or puzzling question that students can come to a deep understanding of over a period of days? Explain why students will find this puzzling and not just an exercise found in a textbook. The performance expectations should guide the formulation of phenomena big questions such as these Regional Place Based Questions Teachers Might Consider:

Teacher Background: Students probably never think about how a tree like a Russian olive survives in nature. Humans do not support them with water or nutrients. Use a modified Page Keeley probe to pose this question with an image in order to guide student inquiry:

What do Russian olive trees need for survival (“eat”)?

Phenomena Resources

Big Ideas

  • Plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water
  • Matter moves among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment
  • Matter is neither created nor destroyed, only changed in form (conserved)

Many students will not know how plants grow and develop. They may think plants just need water or that a plant “eats” dirt. Plants get what they need to grow from air and water. Students will explore this concept through observable phenomena in growing their own plants and modifying their original metacognitive models with new learning. By taking a bean seed, measuring it, and then measuring the sprout/plant created from the bean, students will be able to justify how the change in matter (weight) occurred.

Lesson 1 (Day 1): What Do Plants Eat?

Lesson 1 (Day 1): What Do Plants Eat?

Materials

  • Resource 1: Russian Olive Probe
  • Video 1: What do plants eat? | Mystery Science
    • Note: create a free account to access content on this website – check w/ district IT department first!
  • Article 1: A Plant Puzzle | ReadWorks.org
    • Note: create a free account to access content on this website – check w/ district IT department first!
  • Resource 2: T-Chart “Noticings and Wonderings”
  • Science Notebooks for T-Chart “Noticings and Wonderings” on video and article
  • Chart markers for whole class anchor chart
  • 9 x 11 Paper for each student to create an initial metacognitive model with a sketch of an olive tree for an entry point already on it
  • Blue colored pencil

Preparation

  • Create free accounts on MysteryScience.com and ReadWorks.org if not already using. Check with district IT Department first.
  • Print copies of “A Plant Puzzle” for students
  • Prepare a class T-chart to be used in Lesson 2, but modeled for Lesson 1 (student individual t-chart)

Vocabulary

  • convert (Spanish cognate- convertir)-to change
  • process-steps
  • puzzle-pieces that create a whole
  • food chain-transfer of energy within an ecosystem
  • weight-an object’s matter
  • perennial-plant that blooms every year
  • deciduous- a tree that sheds its leaves
  • riverbank- edges of the river

Integration Points

  • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

Procedures

Procedure 1

  • Tell students that you recently went to the river and were noticing many trees along the riverbank. Explain that many of those trees were Russian Olives.
  • Hand out Resource 1: Russian Olive Probe and read with students.
  • After reading, have students write their initial understanding on “What Does a Russian Olive Tree Need in Order to Survive?” This will serve as a pre-assessment.

Procedure 2

  • Hand out 8.5 x 14(legal size) white paper to students.
  • Have students draw out what they think plants need in order to survive using a blue colored pencil.
  • This metacognitive model will be revisited throughout the lessons.

Procedure 3

  • Teacher preloads Video 1: What do plants eat?
  • Have students watch and stop video at 3 minutes 45 seconds. This is a natural stop in the video.
  • Discuss the question posed from the video: “All that 4 million pounds of wood must have come from somewhere. What do you think plants eat? Do they even eat?”

Procedure 4

  • After discussion, hand out Article 1: A Plant Puzzle
  • Chunk up reading (whole class, partnership, etc.) based on abilities present in your classroom. RI.5.1, RI.5.9
  • Create a class T-chart. Have students make a copy in their notebooks titled “Noticing and Wonderings
  • Give students quiet time to write their own noticings and wonderings from the article and the video in their notebook. Ask them to cite their noticings directly from the text (example: “the article says…...in paragraph 2”, “in the video they said….”). Remind students to use evidence from video AND the article. RI.5.1 -Quote accurately from text, RI.5.9 -Integrate Information from several texts

Procedure 5

  • Ask students to share with table teams to build on their “Noticings and Wonderings”. Use Resource 2: T-Chart “Noticings and Wonderings”
  • Have students create a Line of Learning (line of separation that shows what a student did alone before working with others) and write down new ideas they learned from group sharing W.5.2-Write informative, explanatory texts

Procedure 6

  • Convene students to share out what their teams have found. Call on groups to share their thinking. Add information to the Class T-chart.
  • Have students add new information on their T-chart after doing another Line of Learning to show individual/group/class separation of ideas. W.5.2-Write informative, explanatory texts

Note: this would be a good break if 2 days are needed for this lesson.

Lesson 1 (Day 2): What Do Plants Eat?

Lesson 1 (Day 2): What Do Plants Eat?

Materials

  • 1-liter plastic bottle cut into two parts to make a cup for nutrient/water mixture and a funnel for sprouting seeds (1 per partner team OR 1 for class)
  • general plant food (Schulz Indoor plant food, Miracle Grow, Osomocote, etc.)
  • Dixie Cups (1 per partner team OR 1 for class)
  • Soil (or dirt from your yard)
  • Cup used for measuring soil
  • Graduated cylinder for measuring water
  • Cotton ball or cotton pad (like a cotton make up pad)
  • Sharpie type marker
  • Pea/Lima Bean mix (or other seed to grow in class)

Preparation

  • Prep planting of seeds whole class or individual models

Vocabulary

  • convert (Spanish cognate- convertir)-to change
  • process-steps
  • puzzle-pieces that create a whole
  • food chain-transfer of energy within an ecosystem
  • weight-an object’s matter
  • perennial-plant that blooms every year
  • deciduous- a tree that sheds its leaves
  • riverbank- edges of the river

Procedures

Procedure 7

Explain to the class that we will be planting seeds in order to understand what a plant needs in order to survive. Set up the hydroponic growing apparatus planters following these directions:

  • Cut the top off a 1-liter water bottle leaving ⅔ of the bottle as the bottom and a ⅓ or the bottle “funnel shaped top

12 oz water bottle cut into a funnel and open container            supplies for hydroponic system

  • Mix a quart to a gallon of nutrient/water solution following package directions (a gallon will provide water for about 6 hydroponic growing apparatus
  • In the funnel shaped top of the bottle punch many large holes around the opening (sloped side), using a nail, scissors, ice pick, etc.

poke holes i funnel part of the water bottle

  • Place a wet cotton ball or cotton pad in the funnel shaped top being sure that the cotton ball or cotton pad covers the inside of the main opening and the punched holes.

cotton pad pulled into neck of funnel to wick water      radish seed on a moist cotton pad

  • Measuring the amount of nutrient/water mixture, fill the bottom half of the bottle so that the nutrient mixture will keep the cotton ball or cotton pad wet but doesn’t float the seeds that will be placed on the cotton ball or cotton pad.
  • Mark the water level with a Sharpie type marker so that the cup can be refilled to that level if water levels drop.
  • give partner pairs of students two seeds and have them place the seeds on the cotton ball or cotton pad that is in the funnel,

​​​​​​​hydroponic system with radish seeds

  • place the hydroponic apparatus under a lamp with incandescent bulb or in a windowsill with plenty of light. To sprout the seeds light is not necessary but heat is.

​​​​​​​hydroponic system under a lamp

  • be sure seeds stay wet but not floating until the sprout. Add nutrient/water mixture to the water level line which should continue to keep the bottom of the funnel shape in the water, as needed to keep the seeds and subsequent plants moist but not soaked.

​​​​​​​radish plants growing without soil in hydroponic system     side view plants growing in hydroponic system    

plant roots growing through cotton pad
radish roots growing through cotton pad
  • Record the amount of water added to keep it at a constant level.

Procedure 8:

  • Have soil ready at an accessible location. Give each student 2 more plant seeds. Have each student plant one seed with soil in a Dixie (or comparable) cup the hydroponic apparatus.  With a graduated cylinder, have each student water the newly planted seeds. Use the graduated cylinder to measure the amount of water used each day.
  • Have students weigh the dixie cup planter with seeds after watering and record weight on the line graph. Use the same color for this plant on the graph throughout the investigation.
  • Record the amount of water used to water plants each day to keep them moist but not muddy.

Procedure 9:

  • Clean up and have students journal a Learning Log with the following prompt: “How do plants grow? What do they need in order to survive?” Remind students to use video and text evidence to support their opinions. RI.5.1 -Quote accurately from text, RI.5.9 -Integrate Information from several texts, W.5.2-Write informative, explanatory texts

Lesson 2: Is Soil Food?

Lesson 2: Is Soil Food?

Materials

  • Ruler or measuring tape marked in millimeters
  • Science notebooks
  • Class-created chart from Lesson 1
  • Venn Diagram Outline on Hydroponic Plants Versus Soil Plants to be created in front of students in lesson today.
  • Resource 3 - Plant Growth Chart
  • Student-created plants model or a class consensus plant model (if chose that method)
  • Student-created metacognitive models from Lesson 1
  • Colored pencils (1st sketch in blue, 2nd sketch in green to identify changes in their thinking)

Preparation

  • Have graduated cylinders for measuring water
  • prepare a Venn Diagram for Hydroponic Plants vs Plants in Soil on chart paper

Vocabulary

  • Hydroponic - the process of growing plants in sand, gravel, or liquid with added nutrients but without soil.

Integration Points

  • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

Procedures

Procedure 1

  • Have students get out science notebooks and answer the following prompt: What do you think will happen to your plants over time? Why do you think this? Remind them of evidence they have from the video and article. RI.5.1 -Quote accurately from text, RI.5.9 -Integrate Information from several texts, W.5.2-Write informative, explanatory texts

Procedure 2

  • Call students to an area where you have Venn Diagram on Hydroponic Plants vs. Soil Plants posted. Walk through steps of drawing/discussing different parts. For instance, when you explain the parts of a hydroponic plant move then to the parts of a plant in soil.

Procedure 3

  • Guide students to make verbal observations on the created chart. For instance, students may say “the hydroponic plant needs water just like a soil plant needs water” or “the hydroponic plant does not have soil, however the soil plant does.”
  • Have students return to their seats and record sentences using the Venn Diagram. RI.5.1 -Quote accurately from text, RI.5.9 -Integrate Information from several texts, W.5.2-Write informative, explanatory texts

*Procedure 4

  • Have students revisit their metacognitive models from day 1 and add in GREEN (or a color different from the original) any new learning from the Venn Diagram on Hydroponic Plants vs. Soil Plants.
  • Encourage students to draw, add details, and use evidence from the video, article, class discussion, and chart. Students may write on their metacognitive models to explain their thinking as well.

Procedure 5

  • When done, have students get their plants to weigh and water them.
  • Have them update their plant growth chart in their notebook. Students should have some understanding of plants not requiring soil to grow as a result of the Venn Diagram on Hydroponic Plants vs. Soil Plants. 5.MD.A.1-Measuring plant growth over a period of time using Metric measurements,

Procedure 6

  • For the next WEEK, only have students update their plant growth charts and water the soil plants daily.

A sprouted plant is needed for Lesson 3. The larger the plant your students have the greater the difference your students will notice. 5.MD.A.1-Measuring plant growth over a period of time using Metric measurements,

Lesson 3:  Do Plants Eat?

Materials

  • Article 1: A Plant Puzzle | ReadWorks.org
  •  Individual Noticings and Wonderings Chart
  • Class Noticings and Wonderings Chart
  • Chart paper and markers
  • pre-sketched GLAD Pictorial Input chart to trace
  • Resource 3 - Plant Growth Chart

Preparation

  • Post Class Noticings and Wonderings chart
  • Sketch out lightly in pencil a photosynthesis diagram/model of photosynthesis (see sample in procedures).

Vocabulary

  • carbon dioxide-an invisible gas that is part of air
  • photosynthesis- the process in which green plants use sunlight to make their own food. ... Green plants use this light energy to change water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and nutrients called sugars.
  • petal, stem, leaves, roots- parts of the plant as needed for your students’ understanding

Integration Points

  • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

Procedures

Procedure 1

  • Ask students to take out their Noticings and Wonderings from earlier lessons. Have them reread what they have on their charts and review the whole class Noticings and Wonderings chart.

Procedure 2

  • Remind them that when they started the investigation about what plants really need, we read the plant puzzle article. We also watched a video about “what plants eat” but the question is “do plants eat or do they get their energy to grow from some other process?”

Procedure 3

  • Tell students that some of the answers might be in the article they read on the first day of this investigation.
  • Ask them to re-read the article and see if they can answer the question “How do plants get the energy to grow?”
  • Students should make a line of learning on their Noticings and Wonderings chart and add information specific to the question. Look for noticings that show that they understand that plants make their own food using sunlight to change carbon dioxide and water to sugars.

Procedure 4

  • Bring students together into a Scientist Circle, having them bring their notebooks, models, Noticings and Wonderings charts.
  • Construct a GLAD Pictorial input chart as you talk students through a simple version of how plants make food. Do this by drawing each of the basic elements of photosynthesis in front of children asking for their input, based on the article as the diagram is developed (hint: sketch it out lightly in pencil ahead of time and then “trace” in darker lines as you proceed.)

Procedure 5:

  • Ask students to write a response in their notebooks to the question: “How do plants get the energy to grow?”

Lesson 4: Where Do Plants Really Get Their Energy to Grow?

Lesson 4: Where Do Plants Really Get Their Energy to Grow?

Materials

  • Graduated Cylinders
  • Science or kitchen scales * Procedure 3 may not be possible if a scale that can measure small weights is not available.
  •  Water
  • Resource 3 - Plant Growth Chart
  • Science Notebooks
  • Class-created chart from Lesson 1 and Lesson 2
  • Class-created chart on “What Do Plants REALLY Need to Survive?”
  • Student-created plants model or class model (if chose that method)
  • Resource 1: Russian Olive Probe
  • Video 1: What do plants eat? | Mystery Science
  • OPTIONAL EXTENSION from the Mystery Science video: Latex Balloons, String, Meter Stick, Binder Clips

Preparation

  • Video 1: What do plants eat? Show from beginning to refresh their thinking and continue showing the investigation (optional activity to explore later)
  • Have scales out to weigh plants
  • Have graduated cylinders for measuring water

Vocabulary

  • Matter - anything that takes up space.
  • Seedling - a very young tree that has been grown from a seed.

Integration Points

  • Look for integration points for English Language Arts and Mathematics within the procedures below. They will be noted in italics and dark blue.

Procedures

Procedure 1

  • Refresh students thinking by showing What do plants eat? from the beginning. Pause at 3:45 again. Discuss the question “All that 4 million pounds of wood must have come from somewhere. What do you think plants eat? Do they even eat?” again.
  • Have students turn and talk to their neighbors. As this question is being revisited, walk around and listen to ideas your students now have as a result of the last two lesson explorations and investigations.

Procedure 2

  • Have students get their plants and measure their height and count number of leaves. They should record the height t of the plants with planter set ups on their line graph using the colors identified in their KEY for each plant growth set up.

Procedure 3

  • In teams/partnerships, give students a “new” plant seed and have them weigh it.
  • Discuss what they notice. If the seeds were small radish or lettuce seed no weight may be detectable using available scales.
  • Weigh the plant grown in water with nutrients only. Look for differences in the weight by having students compare the weight of a seed to the weight of the current plant.
  • Discuss how we can get accurate change in weight of the actual plant by subtracting the original seed weight from the weight of the plant.  5.MD.A.1-Measuring plant growth over a period of time using Metric measurements.

Procedure 4

  • After discussion, have students share out WHAT they believe that plants actually need to survive.
  • Record this on a class created anchor chart titled What Do Plants REALLY Need to Survive?”
  • Students should have the idea that plants do nutrients which soil can provide but may get nutrients in other ways. They should also understand that plants make their own food from water and elements in the air, particularly carbon dioxide.

Procedure 5

  • Have students revisit their metacognitive models in red colored pencil to make any changes to their original models. Have students work with their partners/table teams to share their thinking as they make modifications.

Procedure 6

  • Return initial Russian Olive Assessment Probe. Have students revisit their initial thinking and record their new learning. RI.5.1, RI.5.9, W.5.2

Extension:

Resume Mystery Science “What do plants eat?” to show additional lesson where air is weighed.

Attribution and License

Attribution

NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press | Public License

Common Core State Standards © Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved | Public License

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CC BY
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This resource was made possible by funding from the ClimeTime initiative, a state-led network for climate science learning that helps teachers and their students understand climate science issues affecting Washington communities.

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