Author:
Jeanne Burth
Subject:
Education, Early Childhood Development, Elementary Education, Higher Education, Special Education
Material Type:
Assessment, Case Study, Homework/Assignment, Lecture Notes, Module
Level:
College / Upper Division
Tags:
ADHD, Accommodations, BranchED SPED, Choice Boards, Communication Disability, Differentiation, High-incidence Disabilities, Intellectual Disability, Special Education, Specific Learning Disability, branched-sped
License:
Creative Commons Attribution
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Downloadable docs, Graphics/Photos, Text/HTML, Video

High-incidence Disabilities

High-incidence Disabilities

Overview

High-Incidence Disabilities are disabilities that are more often seen in the regular education classroom. This resource is intended to be used by pre-service teacher who are learning about disabilities in the classroom and how to make accommodations for all learners. 

High Incidence Disabilities and Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

High-incidence disabilities are disabilities that are more commonly seen in regular education classrooms. Students with high incidence disabilities typically are able to participate in regular education with some additional learning and support.

“High-incidence” disabilities may include:

  • Communication disorders
  • Intellectual disabilities
  • Specific learning disabilities
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder recently considered high-incidence. 

See the PPT in the resource section, Introduction to Special Ed for an overview along with the resource, 13 Categories of Disabilities, which notes the areas of disabilities for which an individual may have an Individualized Education Program (IEP). 

One way to support all learners is to plan lessons using Universal Design for Learning (UDL). See introductory video on Universal Design for Learning in resource section. The CAST website explains the three common areas for UDL: Engagement, Representation, and Action and Expresssion. Visit the website and view the UDL Guidelines for how to build access, build, and internalize each of the areas. 

Learners with Communication Disorders

Assignment: 

Writing IEP Goals for Speech

Open and analyze the two (2) documents from the Speech Evaluation Report (ER). There is one for Early Childhood titled Preschool_Sample Speech ER and one for secondary titled Middle School_Speech ER. From the information in the reports, write at least two goals for each students’ Individualized Education Report (IEP). IEP goals are annual --- something to work on for one year – and follow a particular format:

ABCD.

A-Audience: Determine who will achieve the objective.   (THE STUDENT)

B-Behavior: Use action verbs (Bloom’s taxonomy) to write observable and measurable behavior that shows mastery of the objective.

C-Condition:   State the condition under which behavior is to be performed.

D-Degree:   State the criterion for acceptable performance, speed, accuracy, quality, etc.

Example:

Given a diagram of the eyestudents will be able label the 9 extra-ocular muscles and describe at least 2 of their actions.

 

Write two IEP goals for each student using the ABCD format. The goals should be things that you as the regular education or special education teacher will develop over a year. Think about things that will take a year, not a short term – one is done – goal. For example, develop comprehension skills by increasing fluency would be a long-term goal where memorize three sight words would be short term.

Grading:  24 points

Each IEP goal will be worth 6 points:

4 points:                      Each part of the ABCD goal is obvious and highlighted as in the example above.

1 point:                        Goal matches the needs of the student.

1 point:                        Goal is long-term.

 

Speech-Language Diagnostic Evaluation Report

 

NAME: Joe Speaks                            NAME OF SCHOOL: Say Something Preschool

DATE OF BIRTH: 00/00/0000          CHRONOLOGICAL AGE: 3.8

TEACHER: Ms. Heythere                  GRADE: Preschool

EXAMINER: Ms. Talker                   EVALUATION DATE: 00/00/0000

 

HISTORY INFORMATION:

Joe, a –year three, eight-month-old male, was seen for a speech and language assessment at

the Say Something Preschool on 00/00/0000.

 

Additional information from Joe’s family, teacher, or medical history was not attained.

 

ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

HEARING SCREENING:

Joe’s hearing was not screened at the time of assessment.

 

ORAL MOTOR STRUCTURE/FUNCTION:

A thorough oral-facial examination was not completed; however, Joe’s face, mouth, and mandible (jaw) appeared symmetrical. His lips remained closed at rest, and there was no evidence of a repaired cleft lip or additional inhibitory scar tissue.

 

ARTICULATION EVALUATION:

The Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation was administered as a formal assessment of Joe’s articulation of consonant sounds at word level. During the GFTA, the student spontaneously or imitatively produces a single-word label after looking at pictures. Performance on this measure aids in diagnosis of a speech sound disorder, which is difficulty with sound production or delayed phonological processes. The former affects a specific speech sound in all word positions. In example, an individual with a phonetic error during the production of “s” will present this error in initial (“soft”), medial (“blessing”), and final position (“looks”). A phonological process simplifies adult speech through errors in patterns of sounds. Examples include consistently substituting difficult consonants (“r”) with ones that are easier to produce (“w”) or reducing/deleting the consonant cluster, or blend (“str” to just “t”). The speech sounds are produced accurately but are not organized correctly within the individual’s speech. While most of these types of errors are considered normal during language acquisition, all are typically suppressed gradually in children’s speech during the ages of 3-5 years.

The GFTA provides standardized scores with a mean score of 100, and a standard deviation of 15. Standard scores between 85 and 115 are considered to be within the typical range. A standard score of 100 was obtained for Joe, which falls within normal limits.

The following errors were noted:

Initial Medial Final

“p” – pig, pajamas “g” - tiger “s” - house

“q” - quack “r” - giraffe “sh” - fish

“d” - drum “t” - vegetable “f” - leaf

“v” - vacuum “l” - yellow “ch” - watch

“l” - lion “th” - brother

“r” – ring, red

“sl” - slide

“sh” - shovel

“tr” - truck

“pl” – plate

 

None of these speech sound errors were present consistently in Joe’s speech. These sounds were elicited correctly in other opportunities during the assessment. The most common phonological process was gliding: substituting “y” or “w” for “r” or “l.”

 

LANGUAGE EVALUATION:

Formal and informal evaluation measures were used to evaluate Joe’s language skills.

Language was informally assessed during a 5-minute play sample.

The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (PPVT-4) was administered to assess receptive vocabulary. This formal evaluation measures only words that Joe comprehends. The student is asked to point to the appropriate visual representation of the target word from a field of four on a stimulus book. The PPVT-4 provides standardized scores with a mean score of 100, and a standard deviation of 15. Standard scores between 85 and 115 are considered to be within the typical range. A standard score of 68 was obtained for Joe, falling more than 2 standard deviations below the mean. Joe incorrectly identified vocabulary from all categories: nouns, attributes, and present participles (-ing ending that accompanies a form of “to be”). The results from the PPVT-4 indicated below-average receptive vocabulary skills.

 

VOICE EVALUATION:

Informal evaluation measures were used to assess the student’s voice quality, and Joe exhibited normal voice quality.

 

FLUENCY EVALUATION:

An informal evaluation of fluency indicated a normal speaking rate for Joe during the evaluation.

 

SOCIAL SKILLS/BEHAVIORAL:

Despite STUDENT’s articulation delays, he is eager to share ideas in class.  He needs occasional cues to use articulation strategies: “close the gate” for /s/ production.  STUDENT also benefits from being allowed a second repetition of his/her expressions.  This strategy increases intelligibility and his/her ability to express ideas clearly to teachers and peers.  STUDENT does need assistance to keep work/things organized.  He often misplaces things. STUDENT is well liked by peers and makes friends easily.  He is functioning independently with age appropriate personal care and independent living skills.

 

DIAGNOSTIC IMPRESSIONS:

Joe demonstrated appropriate articulation skills as evidenced by a standard score within normal limits on the GFTA-3. He exhibited impaired receptive vocabulary skills characterized by a score of more than 2 standard deviations below the mean on the PPVT-4. Therefore, Joe is able to produce intelligible speech, but understanding core vocabulary words is an area of need.

 

PROGNOSIS:

Prognosis for Joe’s improvement in language abilities with treatment is good, provided his continued participation and motivation. In addition to intervention, he will also have a language-rich learning environment at school and extensive support from his classroom teachers.

__________________________________ __________________________________

 

The following paragraph is information from the Evaluation Report of a 7th grader.

 

In direct speech sessions, JENNIFER is working on naming, defining, comparing and categorizing 5th grade level vocabulary. Jennifer is also working on improving her ability to cohesively convey thoughts and ideas in the academic setting. JENNIFER still requires moderate cues to add details to definitions.   JENNIFER is able to provide 4-5 details with those support cues.  JENNIFER’s decreased vocabulary skills impact both writing skills and success on language arts assessments.  JENNIFER needs moderate cues (50-70% of the time) to use vocabulary strategies.  JENNIFER’S expressions often lack organization and critical details. This negatively impacts her ability to demonstrate what she has learned in class.

 

 

 

communication disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand, detect, or apply language and speech to speak and communicate with others. The delays and disorders can range from simple sound substitution to the inability to understand or use  language.

This module includes the following for your review: 

     PPT_Learners with Communication Disorders

     Speech and Language Patterns by Age

     PPT_Communication Disorders: What is Expected? What to Do? 

Learners with Specific Learning Disabilities

Assignment_CASE STUDY

Analyze the following description about Robert, a student identified with a Specific Learning Disability in Reading. After reviewing the PPT_Accommodations, describe at least 8 accommodations that you as the classroom teacher would provide for Robert and WHY. WHY – explain your reasoning for each of the accommodations that you have suggested.

 

Robert, aged 14, is the eldest son and the second child of a family of seven. He has always been a bright and intelligent boy, quick at games, and in no way inferior to others of his age. His great difficulty is his inability to learn to read. He has been at school or under tutors since he was 7 years old, and the greatest efforts have been made to teach him to read, but, in spite of this laborious and persistent training, he can only with difficulty spell out words of one syllable.

He seems to have no power of preserving and storing up the visual impression produced by wordshence the words, though seen, have no significance for him. His visual memory for words is defective or absent.

Robert is bright and of average intelligence in conversation. His eyes are normal and his eyesight is good. His teacher says that he would be the smartest lad in the school if the instruction were entirely oral.

His father informs me that the greatest difficulty was found in teaching the boy his letters, and they thought he never would learn them.

 

Grading = 16 points total

Each accommodation                                    8 maximum points (1 point each)

Explanation of WHY you think the accommodation will benefit Robert

                                                                      8 maximum points (1 point each)

Specific learning disabilities can be defined by a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language.Included in this section are the following: 

PPT_Learners with Specific Learning Disabilities

PPT_Accommodations

Workshop Video_How Difficult Can This Be? -- This is a dated video, but so very helpful in understanding SLD. Worth watching!!

 

Learners with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities

Learners with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities - Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18. An Intellegence Quotient (IQ) of 70 or below typically indicates an Intellectual Disability. 

The following resources are available for your review:

PPT_Learners with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

PPT_Teaching Strategies_ID

Task Analysis 

 

Differentiation

Assignment: Differentiating an Assignment

Review the assignment below and provide differentiation for content, process, and product for 3 learners with special needs: Intellectual Disability, Specific Learning Disability in Reading, Gifted. Use the chart to show your answers. Consider the entire lesson plan leading up to this assignment for the students, what content you are covering in the lesson and how you teach based on each learner’s needs. Then, think about how you would change this particular assignment as the product. An example is provided.

 

Example of Differentiation

Math 3-5

Mrs. Forest wanted to plan how to contact her students by phone in case the field trip they were going on the next day needed to be canceled. She decided to call one student who would then call 2 other students. Each of these students would then call 2 other students. This would continue until all students had been called. Mrs. Forest has 31 students. How many students will need to make phone calls if Mrs. Forest calls the first student?

Suggested Grade Span

Grades 3-5

Grade(s) in Which Task Was Piloted

Grade 4

Alternative Versions of Task

More Accessible Version:

Mrs. Forest wanted to plan how to contact her students by phone in case the field trip they were going on the next day needed to be canceled. She decided to call one student who would then call 2 other students. Each of these students would then call 2 other students. This would continue until all students had been called. Mrs. Forest has 15 students. How many students will need to make phone calls if Mrs. Forest calls the first student?

More Challenging Version:

Mrs. Forest wanted to plan how to contact her students by phone in case the field trip they were going on the next day needed to be canceled. She decided to call one student who would then call 2 other students. Each of these students would then call 2 other students. This would continue until all students had been called. Mrs. Forest has 31 students. How many students will need to make phone calls if Mrs. Forest calls the first student? Find a rule for determining how many phone calls will be made for any number of students.

 

 

Assignment that you will differentiate: 

Name: ___________________________________________

 

Objective: I can identify examples of how writers use grammar in fiction.

DIRECTIONS: For each grammar concept listed below, find a sentence from ANY fiction book that correctly uses the concept.

 

 

Topic

Example Sentences:

Complete:

Punctuation

Semicolons

 

 

 

Colons

 

 

Dialogue

 

 

Commas (in a list)

 

 

Commas (nonessential clauses/ phrases)

 

 

Commas (after an introductory clause or phrase)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intellectual Disability

Specific LD in Reading

Gifted

Content – How would you change WHAT you are teaching?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Process – How would you change HOW you are teaching?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product – How would you change what the student is turning in for this assignment?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other???

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Points – Each of the responses within the chart will be based on the following rubric:

 

5 points

3

1 or 0

Uses depth with details and examples in response; knowledge on disability is evident; focuses on learning the objective; adaptations for the disability or ability are appropriate and thorough.

Uses some explanation with details or examples in response; knowledge on disability is somewhat evident; focuses on learning the objective; adaptations for the disability or ability are somewhat appropriate.

Lack of explanation with details or examples in response; lack of knowledge on disability; does not focus on learning the objective; adaptations for the disability or ability are inappropriate.

 

Other – can earn up to 3 bonus points total for additional information.

Total points – 45 with possible 3 bonus points

Differentiation is a way to adjust the content, process, and products of instruction so that students may participate. There are a variety of things to consider when differentiating and a variety of ways to differentiate. 

  • Content
  • Process
  • Product
  • Readiness Levels
  • Interests
  • Learning Profiles
  • Affect
  • Learning Environment
  • Grouping
  • VAK (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic)
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Universal Design for Learning 
  • Bloom's Taxonomy
  • Assessment
  • Using data

Included in this section are the following: 

PPT_Principles of Differentiation

PPT_Differentiation

Example of planning for differentiation in a lesson (2)

VAK

PPT_Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Differentiate Instruction

The MAIN IDEA - Driven by Data

 

 

 

 

Choice Boards

CHOICE BOARD

Choice boards are a means of offering students a choice in assignments. Easier work is worth less points, so more assignments are completed. Conversely, more challenging work is worth more points if completed well. Students often choose what suits them best. Most importantly, all of the choices assess the objective and meet the learner’s needs.

The focus of this assignment is for you to be exposed to and experienced making a variety choice boards.

Please choose 15 points worth of options. You must choose 2 different choices. Use a lesson plan that you previously designed in another course.

 

CHOICES

Tic-tac-toe Board

7 points

Learning contract

7 points

Layered curriculum

8 points

Menu

8 points

 

Choice boards offer a series of acticities that focus on students' specific learning needs, interests, and abilities. Students decide which activities they are most comfortable completing. Included in this section are the following: 

PPT_Choice Boards

Examples: Tic-tac-toe boards, Learning contracts, Menus, Layered curriculum

 

 

Students decide which activity they are most comfortable completing first, and once they master it, they can move on to more challenging activities.Choice boards offer a series of activities that focus on students’ specific learning needs, interests, and abilities. Students decide which activity they are most comfortable completing first, and once they master it, they can move on to more challenging activities.

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

ADHD Behavioral Intervention Plan

– each area worth 5 points based on quality of responses

 

Targeted Behavior:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

Intervention Plan

Objectives:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

Preventative Strategies:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

Teaching Alternative Behaviors:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

Positive Reinforcement:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

Consequences for Non-compliance:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

Home Interventions:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the regulation of a particular set of brain functions and related behaviors. 

 Included in this section are the following: 

PPT_Ants in Their Pants

504 Accommodations 

Work samples from regular education student compared to a student with ADHD

Resources

AAC: Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmsdLzQW5G0

American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.aaidd.org/intellectual-disability/definition

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/01/

Austrailian Disability Clearinghouse on Education and Training. Retrieved on 5.11.20 from https://www.adcet.edu.au/inclusive-teaching/specific-disabilities/intellectual-disability/

Bambrick-Santoyo, P. (2010). Driven by Data: A Practical Guide to Improve Instruction. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. 

Bloom's in the Classroom. Retrieved on 5.12.20 from http://www.bloomsintheclassroom.com/2012/05/blooms-taxonomy-sample-products-and.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 5.13.20 from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/school-success.html

Daniel - Speech Delay 4.5 Years Old. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mMmK-FyHds

Dysarthria. Retrrived on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SriryvkbU9c

Dyslexia and ADHD - Dyslexia Connect. Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1WD4tNMaFyI

Dyslexia for a Day- Writing Simulation. Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZznFCz6V1cM

Examples of Different Levels of Severity in Childhood Apraxia of Speech. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEOy3APLA-g

Facts About Down Syndrome. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/downsyndrome.html

How Difficult Can This Be? Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3UNdbxk3xs&t=22s

Introduction to Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmsdLzQW5G0

Learning Disabilies: What are the Different Types? Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yG_xSBsFMPQ

Looney Tunes and Communication Disorders. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UASW6zSuXaE

Mayo Clinic. Retrived on 5.6.20 from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prader-willi-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20355997?utm_source=Google&utm_medium=abstract&utm_content=Prader-Willi-syndrome&utm_campaign=Knowledge-panel

Revised Bloom's Taxonomy Process Verbs, Assessments, and Questioning Strategies. Retrieved on 5.12.20 from https://www.cloud.edu/Assets/pdfs/assessment/revised-blooms-chart.pdf

See Dyslexia Differently. Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11r7CFlK2sc

Specific Learning Disabilities. Project Ideal: Informing and Designing Education for All Students. Retrieved on 5.5.20 from http://www.projectidealonline.org/v/specific-learning-disabilities/

Supporting Developmental Language Disorders in the Classroom. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKegRlHFqH4

Teachers TV: Speech and Language Strategies. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUw1zkZkzhk 

UDL at a Glance. Retrieved on 4.28.20 from http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html?utm_source=udlguidelines&utm_medium=web&utm_campaign=none&utm_content=homepage#.XqiNtchKhPY

Using Speak Screen in iOS 8. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6E59bJfv75U

We Are Teachers. Retrieved on 04.13.2020 from https://www.weareteachers.com/what-is-an-iep/

What are Learning Disabilities? Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_3ONz6TaKIk

What is Developmental Disability? Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QCk0Iq_Pwug&t=30s

Williams Syndrome: What You Need to Know. Medical News Today. Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/220139