- Jeanne Burth
- Education, Early Childhood Development, Elementary Education, Higher Education, Special Education
- Material Type:
- Assessment, Case Study, Homework/Assignment, Lecture Notes, Module
- College / Upper Division
- Creative Commons Attribution
- Media Formats:
- Downloadable docs, Graphics/Photos, Text/HTML, Video
504 Accommodations Checklist
ADHS Work Sample
Ants in Their Pants
CAST website - UDL
Communication Disorders What to Do
How Difficult Can This Be?
Introduction to Special Ed
Layered Curriculum Example
Learners with Communication Disorders
Learners with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Learners with Specific Learning Disabilities
lesson plan differentiation
Lesson plan differentiation2
Principles of Differentiation
Reg Ed Work Sample II
Speech and Language Patterns by Age
THE MAIN IDEA -- Driven by Data
Universal Design for Learning video
Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to Differentiate
High-Incidence Disabilities are disabilities that are more often seen in the regular education classroom. This resource is intended to be used by pre-service teacher who are learning about disabilities in the classroom and how to make accommodations for all learners.
High Incidence Disabilities and Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
High-incidence disabilities are disabilities that are more commonly seen in regular education classrooms. Students with high incidence disabilities typically are able to participate in regular education with some additional learning and support.
“High-incidence” disabilities may include:
- Communication disorders
- Intellectual disabilities
- Specific learning disabilities
- Autism Spectrum Disorder recently considered high-incidence.
See the PPT in the resource section, Introduction to Special Ed for an overview along with the resource, 13 Categories of Disabilities, which notes the areas of disabilities for which an individual may have an Individualized Education Program (IEP).
One way to support all learners is to plan lessons using Universal Design for Learning (UDL). See introductory video on Universal Design for Learning in resource section. The CAST website explains the three common areas for UDL: Engagement, Representation, and Action and Expresssion. Visit the website and view the UDL Guidelines for how to build access, build, and internalize each of the areas.
Learners with Communication Disorders
Writing IEP Goals for Speech
Open and analyze the two (2) documents from the Speech Evaluation Report (ER). There is one for Early Childhood titled Preschool_Sample Speech ER and one for secondary titled Middle School_Speech ER. From the information in the reports, write at least two goals for each students’ Individualized Education Report (IEP). IEP goals are annual --- something to work on for one year – and follow a particular format:
A-Audience: Determine who will achieve the objective. (THE STUDENT)
B-Behavior: Use action verbs (Bloom’s taxonomy) to write observable and measurable behavior that shows mastery of the objective.
C-Condition: State the condition under which behavior is to be performed.
D-Degree: State the criterion for acceptable performance, speed, accuracy, quality, etc.
Given a diagram of the eye, students will be able label the 9 extra-ocular muscles and describe at least 2 of their actions.
Write two IEP goals for each student using the ABCD format. The goals should be things that you as the regular education or special education teacher will develop over a year. Think about things that will take a year, not a short term – one is done – goal. For example, develop comprehension skills by increasing fluency would be a long-term goal where memorize three sight words would be short term.
Grading: 24 points
Each IEP goal will be worth 6 points:
4 points: Each part of the ABCD goal is obvious and highlighted as in the example above.
1 point: Goal matches the needs of the student.
1 point: Goal is long-term.
Speech-Language Diagnostic Evaluation Report
NAME: Joe Speaks NAME OF SCHOOL: Say Something Preschool
DATE OF BIRTH: 00/00/0000 CHRONOLOGICAL AGE: 3.8
TEACHER: Ms. Heythere GRADE: Preschool
EXAMINER: Ms. Talker EVALUATION DATE: 00/00/0000
Joe, a –year three, eight-month-old male, was seen for a speech and language assessment at
the Say Something Preschool on 00/00/0000.
Additional information from Joe’s family, teacher, or medical history was not attained.
Joe’s hearing was not screened at the time of assessment.
ORAL MOTOR STRUCTURE/FUNCTION:
A thorough oral-facial examination was not completed; however, Joe’s face, mouth, and mandible (jaw) appeared symmetrical. His lips remained closed at rest, and there was no evidence of a repaired cleft lip or additional inhibitory scar tissue.
The Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation was administered as a formal assessment of Joe’s articulation of consonant sounds at word level. During the GFTA, the student spontaneously or imitatively produces a single-word label after looking at pictures. Performance on this measure aids in diagnosis of a speech sound disorder, which is difficulty with sound production or delayed phonological processes. The former affects a specific speech sound in all word positions. In example, an individual with a phonetic error during the production of “s” will present this error in initial (“soft”), medial (“blessing”), and final position (“looks”). A phonological process simplifies adult speech through errors in patterns of sounds. Examples include consistently substituting difficult consonants (“r”) with ones that are easier to produce (“w”) or reducing/deleting the consonant cluster, or blend (“str” to just “t”). The speech sounds are produced accurately but are not organized correctly within the individual’s speech. While most of these types of errors are considered normal during language acquisition, all are typically suppressed gradually in children’s speech during the ages of 3-5 years.
The GFTA provides standardized scores with a mean score of 100, and a standard deviation of 15. Standard scores between 85 and 115 are considered to be within the typical range. A standard score of 100 was obtained for Joe, which falls within normal limits.
The following errors were noted:
Initial Medial Final
“p” – pig, pajamas “g” - tiger “s” - house
“q” - quack “r” - giraffe “sh” - fish
“d” - drum “t” - vegetable “f” - leaf
“v” - vacuum “l” - yellow “ch” - watch
“l” - lion “th” - brother
“r” – ring, red
“sl” - slide
“sh” - shovel
“tr” - truck
“pl” – plate
None of these speech sound errors were present consistently in Joe’s speech. These sounds were elicited correctly in other opportunities during the assessment. The most common phonological process was gliding: substituting “y” or “w” for “r” or “l.”
Formal and informal evaluation measures were used to evaluate Joe’s language skills.
Language was informally assessed during a 5-minute play sample.
The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (PPVT-4) was administered to assess receptive vocabulary. This formal evaluation measures only words that Joe comprehends. The student is asked to point to the appropriate visual representation of the target word from a field of four on a stimulus book. The PPVT-4 provides standardized scores with a mean score of 100, and a standard deviation of 15. Standard scores between 85 and 115 are considered to be within the typical range. A standard score of 68 was obtained for Joe, falling more than 2 standard deviations below the mean. Joe incorrectly identified vocabulary from all categories: nouns, attributes, and present participles (-ing ending that accompanies a form of “to be”). The results from the PPVT-4 indicated below-average receptive vocabulary skills.
Informal evaluation measures were used to assess the student’s voice quality, and Joe exhibited normal voice quality.
An informal evaluation of fluency indicated a normal speaking rate for Joe during the evaluation.
Despite STUDENT’s articulation delays, he is eager to share ideas in class. He needs occasional cues to use articulation strategies: “close the gate” for /s/ production. STUDENT also benefits from being allowed a second repetition of his/her expressions. This strategy increases intelligibility and his/her ability to express ideas clearly to teachers and peers. STUDENT does need assistance to keep work/things organized. He often misplaces things. STUDENT is well liked by peers and makes friends easily. He is functioning independently with age appropriate personal care and independent living skills.
Joe demonstrated appropriate articulation skills as evidenced by a standard score within normal limits on the GFTA-3. He exhibited impaired receptive vocabulary skills characterized by a score of more than 2 standard deviations below the mean on the PPVT-4. Therefore, Joe is able to produce intelligible speech, but understanding core vocabulary words is an area of need.
Prognosis for Joe’s improvement in language abilities with treatment is good, provided his continued participation and motivation. In addition to intervention, he will also have a language-rich learning environment at school and extensive support from his classroom teachers.
The following paragraph is information from the Evaluation Report of a 7th grader.
In direct speech sessions, JENNIFER is working on naming, defining, comparing and categorizing 5th grade level vocabulary. Jennifer is also working on improving her ability to cohesively convey thoughts and ideas in the academic setting. JENNIFER still requires moderate cues to add details to definitions. JENNIFER is able to provide 4-5 details with those support cues. JENNIFER’s decreased vocabulary skills impact both writing skills and success on language arts assessments. JENNIFER needs moderate cues (50-70% of the time) to use vocabulary strategies. JENNIFER’S expressions often lack organization and critical details. This negatively impacts her ability to demonstrate what she has learned in class.
A communication disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand, detect, or apply language and speech to speak and communicate with others. The delays and disorders can range from simple sound substitution to the inability to understand or use language.
This module includes the following for your review:
PPT_Learners with Communication Disorders
Speech and Language Patterns by Age
PPT_Communication Disorders: What is Expected? What to Do?
Learners with Specific Learning Disabilities
Analyze the following description about Robert, a student identified with a Specific Learning Disability in Reading. After reviewing the PPT_Accommodations, describe at least 8 accommodations that you as the classroom teacher would provide for Robert and WHY. WHY – explain your reasoning for each of the accommodations that you have suggested.
Robert, aged 14, is the eldest son and the second child of a family of seven. He has always been a bright and intelligent boy, quick at games, and in no way inferior to others of his age. His great difficulty is his inability to learn to read. He has been at school or under tutors since he was 7 years old, and the greatest efforts have been made to teach him to read, but, in spite of this laborious and persistent training, he can only with difficulty spell out words of one syllable.
He seems to have no power of preserving and storing up the visual impression produced by words‐hence the words, though seen, have no significance for him. His visual memory for words is defective or absent.
Robert is bright and of average intelligence in conversation. His eyes are normal and his eyesight is good. His teacher says that he would be the smartest lad in the school if the instruction were entirely oral.
His father informs me that the greatest difficulty was found in teaching the boy his letters, and they thought he never would learn them.
Grading = 16 points total
Each accommodation 8 maximum points (1 point each)
Explanation of WHY you think the accommodation will benefit Robert
8 maximum points (1 point each)
Specific learning disabilities can be defined by a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written language.Included in this section are the following:
PPT_Learners with Specific Learning Disabilities
Workshop Video_How Difficult Can This Be? -- This is a dated video, but so very helpful in understanding SLD. Worth watching!!
Learners with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities
Learners with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities - Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18. An Intellegence Quotient (IQ) of 70 or below typically indicates an Intellectual Disability.
The following resources are available for your review:
PPT_Learners with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Assignment: Differentiating an Assignment
Review the assignment below and provide differentiation for content, process, and product for 3 learners with special needs: Intellectual Disability, Specific Learning Disability in Reading, Gifted. Use the chart to show your answers. Consider the entire lesson plan leading up to this assignment for the students, what content you are covering in the lesson and how you teach based on each learner’s needs. Then, think about how you would change this particular assignment as the product. An example is provided.
Example of Differentiation
Mrs. Forest wanted to plan how to contact her students by phone in case the field trip they were going on the next day needed to be canceled. She decided to call one student who would then call 2 other students. Each of these students would then call 2 other students. This would continue until all students had been called. Mrs. Forest has 31 students. How many students will need to make phone calls if Mrs. Forest calls the first student?
Suggested Grade Span
Grade(s) in Which Task Was Piloted
Alternative Versions of Task
More Accessible Version:
Mrs. Forest wanted to plan how to contact her students by phone in case the field trip they were going on the next day needed to be canceled. She decided to call one student who would then call 2 other students. Each of these students would then call 2 other students. This would continue until all students had been called. Mrs. Forest has 15 students. How many students will need to make phone calls if Mrs. Forest calls the first student?
More Challenging Version:
Mrs. Forest wanted to plan how to contact her students by phone in case the field trip they were going on the next day needed to be canceled. She decided to call one student who would then call 2 other students. Each of these students would then call 2 other students. This would continue until all students had been called. Mrs. Forest has 31 students. How many students will need to make phone calls if Mrs. Forest calls the first student? Find a rule for determining how many phone calls will be made for any number of students.
Assignment that you will differentiate:
Objective: I can identify examples of how writers use grammar in fiction.
DIRECTIONS: For each grammar concept listed below, find a sentence from ANY fiction book that correctly uses the concept.
Commas (in a list)
Commas (nonessential clauses/ phrases)
Commas (after an introductory clause or phrase)
Specific LD in Reading
Content – How would you change WHAT you are teaching?
Process – How would you change HOW you are teaching?
Product – How would you change what the student is turning in for this assignment?
Points – Each of the responses within the chart will be based on the following rubric:
1 or 0
Uses depth with details and examples in response; knowledge on disability is evident; focuses on learning the objective; adaptations for the disability or ability are appropriate and thorough.
Uses some explanation with details or examples in response; knowledge on disability is somewhat evident; focuses on learning the objective; adaptations for the disability or ability are somewhat appropriate.
Lack of explanation with details or examples in response; lack of knowledge on disability; does not focus on learning the objective; adaptations for the disability or ability are inappropriate.
Other – can earn up to 3 bonus points total for additional information.
Total points – 45 with possible 3 bonus points
Differentiation is a way to adjust the content, process, and products of instruction so that students may participate. There are a variety of things to consider when differentiating and a variety of ways to differentiate.
- Readiness Levels
- Learning Profiles
- Learning Environment
- VAK (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic)
- Multiple Intelligences
- Universal Design for Learning
- Bloom's Taxonomy
- Using data
Included in this section are the following:
PPT_Principles of Differentiation
Example of planning for differentiation in a lesson (2)
PPT_Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Differentiate Instruction
The MAIN IDEA - Driven by Data
Choice boards are a means of offering students a choice in assignments. Easier work is worth less points, so more assignments are completed. Conversely, more challenging work is worth more points if completed well. Students often choose what suits them best. Most importantly, all of the choices assess the objective and meet the learner’s needs.
The focus of this assignment is for you to be exposed to and experienced making a variety choice boards.
Please choose 15 points worth of options. You must choose 2 different choices. Use a lesson plan that you previously designed in another course.
Choice boards offer a series of acticities that focus on students' specific learning needs, interests, and abilities. Students decide which activities they are most comfortable completing. Included in this section are the following:
Examples: Tic-tac-toe boards, Learning contracts, Menus, Layered curriculum
Students decide which activity they are most comfortable completing first, and once they master it, they can move on to more challenging activities.Choice boards offer a series of activities that focus on students’ specific learning needs, interests, and abilities. Students decide which activity they are most comfortable completing first, and once they master it, they can move on to more challenging activities.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD Behavioral Intervention Plan
– each area worth 5 points based on quality of responses
Teaching Alternative Behaviors:
Consequences for Non-compliance:
Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly genetic, brain-based syndrome that has to do with the regulation of a particular set of brain functions and related behaviors.
Included in this section are the following:
PPT_Ants in Their Pants
Work samples from regular education student compared to a student with ADHD
AAC: Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmsdLzQW5G0
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.aaidd.org/intellectual-disability/definition
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/01/
Austrailian Disability Clearinghouse on Education and Training. Retrieved on 5.11.20 from https://www.adcet.edu.au/inclusive-teaching/specific-disabilities/intellectual-disability/
Bambrick-Santoyo, P. (2010). Driven by Data: A Practical Guide to Improve Instruction. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.
Bloom's in the Classroom. Retrieved on 5.12.20 from http://www.bloomsintheclassroom.com/2012/05/blooms-taxonomy-sample-products-and.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 5.13.20 from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/school-success.html
Daniel - Speech Delay 4.5 Years Old. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mMmK-FyHds
Dysarthria. Retrrived on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SriryvkbU9c
Dyslexia and ADHD - Dyslexia Connect. Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1WD4tNMaFyI
Dyslexia for a Day- Writing Simulation. Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZznFCz6V1cM
Examples of Different Levels of Severity in Childhood Apraxia of Speech. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEOy3APLA-g
Facts About Down Syndrome. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/downsyndrome.html
How Difficult Can This Be? Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q3UNdbxk3xs&t=22s
Introduction to Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmsdLzQW5G0
Learning Disabilies: What are the Different Types? Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yG_xSBsFMPQ
Looney Tunes and Communication Disorders. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UASW6zSuXaE
Mayo Clinic. Retrived on 5.6.20 from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prader-willi-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20355997?utm_source=Google&utm_medium=abstract&utm_content=Prader-Willi-syndrome&utm_campaign=Knowledge-panel
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy Process Verbs, Assessments, and Questioning Strategies. Retrieved on 5.12.20 from https://www.cloud.edu/Assets/pdfs/assessment/revised-blooms-chart.pdf
See Dyslexia Differently. Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11r7CFlK2sc
Specific Learning Disabilities. Project Ideal: Informing and Designing Education for All Students. Retrieved on 5.5.20 from http://www.projectidealonline.org/v/specific-learning-disabilities/
Supporting Developmental Language Disorders in the Classroom. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKegRlHFqH4
Teachers TV: Speech and Language Strategies. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUw1zkZkzhk
UDL at a Glance. Retrieved on 4.28.20 from http://www.cast.org/our-work/about-udl.html?utm_source=udlguidelines&utm_medium=web&utm_campaign=none&utm_content=homepage#.XqiNtchKhPY
Using Speak Screen in iOS 8. Retrieved on 4.29.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6E59bJfv75U
We Are Teachers. Retrieved on 04.13.2020 from https://www.weareteachers.com/what-is-an-iep/
What are Learning Disabilities? Retrieved on 5.5.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_3ONz6TaKIk
What is Developmental Disability? Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QCk0Iq_Pwug&t=30s
Williams Syndrome: What You Need to Know. Medical News Today. Retrieved on 5.6.20 from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/220139