Author:
Jeanne Burth
Subject:
Higher Education
Material Type:
Assessment, Interactive, Module, Reading, Unit of Study
Level:
Community College / Lower Division, College / Upper Division, Graduate / Professional
Tags:
BranchED SPED, History of Special Education, Iep, branched-sped
License:
Creative Commons Attribution
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Downloadable docs, Other

History of Special Education and the Special Education Process

History of Special Education and the Special Education Process

Overview

This resource can be used by an individual to learn more about the history of special education and the process of special education. 

PL94 - 142 and History of Special Education

Assignments:

ADAPTATIONS AND ACCOMMODATIONS

 

Observe your surroundings for the next two weeks.  What specific adaptations or accommodations do you notice for people with disabilities? Check out buildings, technologies, your home, etc. One example would be Braille on keys of an elevator.

Compile a list of your observations, minimum of 10.

Include photos.

Compile a list of 10 adaptations or accommodations that you feel need to be made.

 

Point System:

10 points                  list of 10 observations

10 points                  10 photos of observations

10                               list of 10 of your own recommendations for needed accommodations

30                               Total possible points

 

Timeline of History of Special Education

Create a timeline of the changes impacted by laws that have made significant adjustments to how we educate the learners with special needs. Begin with the Board vs. Education case in 1954 and travel in time through Every Student Succeeds Act in 2015.

On your timeline, note the year, the name of the law, and a one-paragraph description of how the law changed education. You must add at least things to the timeline.

Points:         Name of at least Eight Changes           8       

                    Year                                                     8

                    Paragraphs                                           16

                    Total                                                    32 points

PL94-142 is the public law that actually started the right and privileges for educating students with disabilities. Prior to this law (1975) enactment, students with disabilities were often kept at home or even institutionalized. All the nightmarish stories you may have heard about classrooms next to boiler rooms in the basement of the schools or in trailers behind the schools are true. This law was the pioneering act to make educaiton for learners with disabilities more equitable. Schools went through many transitions from the enactment of this law up to present times, and, the law changed as well over the years. 

Please see the link to Wright's Law to learn more about changes to the law, beginning with some case law (Brown vs. Board of Education in 1954), Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), and other case laws building up to the 1975 PA94-142 enactment. PA94-142 provided Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) and Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) to learners with special needs. The law morphed into Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, No Child Left Behind, and finally into the Every Student Succeeds Act in 2015. 

Special Education Process

Assessment: 

Scavenger Hunt from Referral to NOREP – 14 points

Use the resources and attachments provided in the Special Education Process section to complete the answers to these questions.

 

Matching: Write the letter on the line which indicates the correct form to satisfy each action. Two choices will not be used. Several have two possible answers. One point each (10).

             1. Placing a student in special education                        A. Permission to Evaluate

             2. Requesting testing                                                    B. NOREP                               

             3. Gathering information from parents and teachers        C. Evaluation Report

             4. The MDT determines placement                               D. ER

             5. Reporting of testing information                                E. Manifestation Determination

             6. Parent must sign to proceed                                       F. Notice of Recommended Placement

                                                                                                G. Permission to Reevaluate

                                                                                                H. Referral

 

Answer the following questions with one to two sentences. Be sure to capitalize each sentence and use a punctuation mark at the end --- Right? I shouldn’t have to state this. Two (2) points each.

7. Do all persons at the MDT have to agree on the recommended placement?

What form will you use to find this answer? How do they indicate that they agree or disagree and is there something they have to do to indicate their choices?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

 

8. Who can make a request for testing a student for special education services?

What is this process called and how might someone make a request?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

 

9.  What information is on the Evaluation Report that might help to determine eligibility for special education? Give at least four things that are reviewed for this purpose.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

 

10. Where would the following types of behaviors be recorded and for what purpose?

  • Difficulties in communicating efficiently
  • Uneven learning patterns in all domains including cognition, communication, socialization and self-help
  • Difficulty learning new tasks, maintaining new skills, and generalizing skills to new environments.
  • Difficulty demonstrating problem solving skills when new skills or information is presented in a traditional academic curriculum.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

 

The process of Special Education begins with a referral. 

The referral can originate from a parent, teacher or other school personnel. The Individual with Disabilities Education Act, mandates that school districts have the responsibility to identify, find and evaluate students who are suspected of having a disability. This is called child find. The referral should be in writing. 

Parents must then sign a Permission to Evaluate Form. See resources attached for Permission to Evaluate form and the annotated version.

Once this form is signed, the School Psychologist will begin gathering information and testing the student to determine eligibility. There is a 45 school days time limit to complete the process of compiling a report with the results. The report will review the information gathered, review of records, testing results, and observation reports. The information will be used to determine if the student has a disability. The disability category will be stated on the Evaluation Report. There is an Evaluation Report attached along with an annotated form.

There may be some categories of disabilities that a School Psychologist is NOT permitted to diagnose, for example one that is health related like Autism Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In these cases, the diagnosis must be made by a doctor - a physician or a psychiatrist. The diagnosis can then be added to the Evaluation Report in determining eligibility for special education. When determining eligibilty, two things much be found: a disability and a showing a need. Showing a need is often determined when the student is failing. 

A meeting is held to review the results of the evaluation. This meeting is called a Multi-Disciplinary Team Meeting (MDT). The persons who should attend are the parents, the Local Education Agency representative (LEA), the school psychologist, the regular education teacher and the special education teacher. [The LEA is usually the principal, who represents the school.] Other people who may attend are the school nurse if there is medication or a health-related disability, the Title I teacher if applicable, a counselor, physical therapist (PT), occupational therapist (OT), or speech therapist (if any of these needs are applicable), or anyone else who has worked with the child or may have significant input. For example, if the student may need Assistive Technology for his/her education, then a specialist in this field may attend the meeting. The parent may invite anyone to the meeting, especially for support, for example a parent advocate. 

Once the information on the Evaluation Report is reviewed at the MDT, a determination is made regarding the need for special education placement. Remember, two things must be found: a disability diagnosis and showing a need. Then, another form is used to make the placement, the Notice of Recommended Placement (NOREP). The NOREP will officially place the student in special education. The NOREP is in the attachments along with the annotated form for your review. From the time of the signature on the NOREP, the special education teacher has ten days to complete the Individualized Education Program (IEP)

In the next section, we will look at the IEP. 

 

Individualized Education Program

This is the Key for the Handout on the webquest. 

KEY_IEP Scavenger Hunt

 

Your answer:

Source – Website used

What is the general definition for an IEP given in the IDEA Federal Regulations?

written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in a meeting in accordance with §§300.320 through 300.324, and that must include—PLOP, goals, related services, progress, participation with reg. ed. rates, transition services, accommodations and modifications.

IDEA - https://sites.ed.gov/idea/regs/b/d/300.320

Give an example of present levels of performance in an IEP for a student with a Learning Disability in Reading?

vary

IDEA - https://sites.ed.gov/idea/regs/b/d/300.320

What must occur during the 45 school day time period

after the school receives parental consent for an initial evaluation?

Evaluation report is provided to parents.

https://kidslegal.org/special-education-timelines

How long will the evaluation process take place?

45 School Days

https://kidslegal.org/special-education-timelines

Give an example of what a full-day self-contained classroom looks like.

 

https://specialedresource.com/

Where would you list information about medications on the IEP?

Special Education Related Services

https://www.pattan.net/getattachment/Forms/INDIVIDUALIZED-EDUCATION-PROGRAM-IEP-ANNOTATED/Annotated-IEP/Annotated-IEP-Feb-2020.pdf?lang=en-US&ext=.pdf

How often do new evaluations occur?

Every 3 years

https://kidslegal.org/special-education-timelines

When must the Procedural Safeguards be presented to parents?

Once a year and

Upon notice of a disciplinary change of

placement

Initial referral or parent request for evaluation Parent request for the PSN, AND

The first occurrence of a due process complaint or State complaint in a school year

https://www.pattan.net/getattachment/Forms/INDIVIDUALIZED-EDUCATION-PROGRAM-IEP-ANNOTATED/Annotated-IEP/Annotated-IEP-Feb-2020.pdf?lang=en-US&ext=.pdf

Give an example of what transition services might look like.

 

https://www.pattan.net/getattachment/Forms/INDIVIDUALIZED-EDUCATION-PROGRAM-IEP-ANNOTATED/Annotated-IEP/Annotated-IEP-Feb-2020.pdf?lang=en-US&ext=.pdf

At what age does transition services begin?

14 or 16

https://www.pattan.net/getattachment/Forms/INDIVIDUALIZED-EDUCATION-PROGRAM-IEP-ANNOTATED/Annotated-IEP/Annotated-IEP-Feb-2020.pdf?lang=en-US&ext=.pdf

What happens if the parent does not agree with the evaluations?

Right to request an Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE) at no cost to the parent.

https://kidslegal.org/special-education-timelines  

How often is the IEP updated?

(i) Reviews the child's IEP periodically, but not less than annually, to determine whether the annual goals for the child are being achieved; and

 

(ii) Revises the IEP, as appropriate, to address -

 

(A) Any lack of expected progress toward the annual goals described in § 300.320(a)(2), and in the general education curriculum, if appropriate;

 

(B) The results of any reevaluation conducted under § 300.303;

 

(C) Information about the child provided to, or by, the parents, as described under § 300.305(a)(2);

 

(D) The child's anticipated needs; or

 

(E) Other matters.

https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/34/300.324

 

 

The Individualized Education Program (IEP) idocuments the support that the child who is identified with a disability will receive. Please review the blank IEP form in the attached resources along with an annotated form. The Special Education teacher is the case manager and will usually complete a draft IEP prior to the meeting to review the IEP. Changes can be made to the draft at the meeting before the IEP is finalized. The meeting is called a to review the IEP and attendees are the same as in the Multi-Disciplinary Team Meeting (MDT). The persons who should attend are the parents, the Local Education Agency representative (LEA), the school psychologist, the regular education teacher and the special education teacher. [The LEA is usually the principal, who represents the school.] Other people who may attend are the school nurse if there is medication or a health-related disability, the Title I teacher if applicable, a counselor, physical therapist (PT), occupational therapist (OT), or speech therapist (if any of these needs are applicable), or anyone else who has worked with the child or may have significant input. For example, if the student may need Assistive Technology for his/her education, then a specialist in this field may attend the meeting. The parent may invite anyone to the meeting, especially for support, for example a parent advocate. 

So.....what is an IEP? An IEP is a legal document that clearly defines how a school plans to meet a child’s unique educational needs that result from a disability. The goals of an IEP are twofold: to set reasonable, measurable goals for the child and to also specify the services the school will provide. There are 13 categories of disabilities where an individual can qualify for an IEP. Please see attachment in the resources section for the 13 categories. 

The most important three components of the IEP are the Present Levels of Performance (PLOP), goals and services

PLOP is information about how the child is doing in school and how their disability affects their progress and involvement. Information may include observations, results of standardized tests, as well as special education evaluations. Information about a student’s functional performance include an assessment of language development, social skills, and behavior.

An IEP must include measurable goals for the student that can be reasonably accomplished in a school year. The goals are based on the student’s present level of performance and focus on the student’s needs based on their disability. The IEP includes how the school will measure the goals and how they will provide progress reports. The IEP spells out what kind of special education support and services the child will receive, for instance speech or occupational therapy. 

The IEP also contains any accommodations, modifications, and supplementary aids the student will receive. Modifications are changes in what is taught or expected of a student. For example, if a student is reading below grade level, the team must determine which texts or  modified content to use. Accommodations are changes in how a student shows what they’ve learned, like an oral exam instead of a written one. Supplementary aids include special supports, such as an aide, using graphic organizers, or using a computer instead of paper and pencil. 

In order to learn more about the IEP, complete the scavenger hunt webquest linked below.