Author:
Jeremy Haack, MSDE Admin, Melissa Kaye-Kamauff, Laura Garfinkel
Subject:
Applied Science, Engineering, Environmental Science
Material Type:
Lesson Plan
Level:
High School
Grade:
9, 10, 11, 12
Tags:
Environmental, MSDE, Science
License:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
Language:
English
Media Formats:
Downloadable docs

Education Standards (4)

MISA HS Sample Item Set - Wind Turbines (PS/ESS)

MISA HS Sample Item Set - Wind Turbines (PS/ESS)

Lesson Overview

Sample high school MISA test item set which uses a physics and earth space science performance expectations.  The Item set focuses on wind turbines and their environmental impacts. It contains 5 questions and one constructed response for a total of 9 points. 

(Image source: “Wind Turbine” by Painter06 at Pixabay.com.)

 

 

Task 1: Question 1

Question 1

Performance Expectation: HS-PS3-3 Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

Evidence Statement: 1.b.ii. Identify the forms of energy that will be converted from one form to another in the designed system

Item Type: Selected Response (fill in the blank from word bank) Tab(s) Referenced: Tab 1 Basic Information

Answers and Point Break Down: Answer for blank one Kinetic, Answer for blank two Electrical. Worth 1 point, must choose the correct answer for both blanks.

Questions are below the stimulus tabs

Tab 1 - Basic Info /Design Specifications

The United States is home to one of the largest and fastest-growing wind markets in the world. To stay competitive in this sector, the Energy Department invests in wind research and development projects, both on land and offshore, to advance technology innovations, create job opportunities and boost economic growth.

 

Today, wind energy is mainly used to generate electricity, converting wind energy to electrical energy as the movement of the blades creates kinetic energy harnessed by a generator.

 

The next two tabs provide information describing two proposals to the US Energy Department for their wind turbines. It is your role to evaluate each source in order to determine what wind turbines should be installed.

Tab 2 - Design Proposal A

 

The Windy Day Engineering Company would like to propose a horizontal turbine for the upcoming USED Wind Turbine Project. Wind is an excellent alternate resource and our turbines work at 45% efficiency, converting up to 50% of wind to electricity at peak hours. Additionally, our operational costs are only 6 cents/kWh. For this low operational cost, energy can be supplied not only to local consumers powering tens of thousands of homes while only occupying 5 acres of land.

 

Our company has also been working diligently to reduce environmental impact. For example, our plants have been keeping wind turbines motionless during times of low wind speeds could reduce bat deaths by more than half without significantly affecting power production. Additionally, unlike most other generation technologies, wind turbines do not use combustion to generate electricity, and hence don't produce air emissions.

Tab 3 - Design Proposal B

 

Vertical Turbines from Gusty Engineering company are sure to be your next turbine for the USED Wind Turbine Project. Our vertical design provides over 55% efficiency with up to 58% efficiency at peak wind times! With low operational costs of only 10 cents/kWh, we reach thousands of homes while having the capability to store energy for long term use.

 

At Gusty Engineering company, we also care about environmental concerns ensuring the ecosystem safety wherever we install our turbines. For starters, our engineers have made design changes to reduce the noise from wind turbines by using proper siting and insulating materials are used to minimize noise impacts. As our turbines have become more efficient, more of the wind is converted into rotational torque and less into acoustic noise. Additionally, by placing our turbines strategically on the required 3 acres of land, we are able to minimize noise effects while also minimizing the impact on the environment and wildlife in the area.

Question 1.  Wind Turbines operate by converting ________ (kinetic, potential or electrical)  energy captured by their blades and via the generator converting it into  ____________ (thermal, electrical or chemical) energy

Task 2: Questions 2-5

Question 2

Performance Expectation: HS-PS3-3 Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

Evidence Statement: 1.b.iii. Identify losses of energy by the design system to the surrounding environment Item Type: Selected Response (multiple select)

Tab(s) Referenced tabs 2 and 3 Design Proposals

Answers and Point Break Down: Thermal and Sound. Worth 1 point, must select both answers

 

Question 3

Performance Expectation: HS-ESS3-2 Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on cost-benefit ratios

Evidence Statement: 2.a.iii. The costs and benefits of the given design solutions Item Type: Selected Response (Drag and Drop or Sorting)

Tab(s) Referenced tabs 2 and 3 Design Proposals

Answers and Point Break Down:

Costs:

  • Amount of land used
  • Amount of noise pollution
  • Possible harm to birds/bats

Benefits:

  • Amount of air pollution
  • Use of fossil fuels
  • Renewable fuel source

 Worth 2 points; Point Break-Down:

  • 2pts: Student sorts at least 6 terms appropriately
  • 1 pt.: Student sorts at least 3 terms appropriately
  • 0 pts: student sorts 2 or less terms appropriately

 

Question 4

Performance Expectation: HS-PS3-3 Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy

Evidence Statement: 3.b. Students systematically and quantitatively evaluate the performance of the device against the criteria and constraints.

Item Type: Selected Response (multiple select) Tab(s) Referenced: Tabs 2 and 3 Design Proposals

Answers and Point Break Down: Cost (per watts) and Wildlife. Worth 1 point, must select both answers

 

Question 5

Performance Expectation: HS-ESS3-2 Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on cost-benefit ratios

Evidence Statements: 2.a. Students evaluate the given design solutions, including:

i. The relative strengths of the given design solutions, based on associated economic, environmental, and geopolitical costs, risks, and benefits;

ii. The reliability and validity of the evidence used to evaluate the design solutions; and

iii. Constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, aesthetics, cultural effects environmental effects.

Item Type: Constructed Response (4 points) Tab(s) Referenced: All

Answers and Point Break Down: To earn credit a student must:

  • 4 pts To earn credit accurately compare 3 criteria
  • There is evidence in this response that the student has a full and complete understanding of the solution to a problem or constructs a full and complete explanation of the question.

[Refer to MISA 4 point Rubric for more detail]

Question 2

The Windy Day Engineering Company operates with up to 50% efficiency while Gusty Engineering Company operates with up to 58% efficiency. Which of the following types of energy could attribute to loss of energy and less than 100% efficiency? Select all that apply.

o Solar

o Chemical

o Thermal

o Sound

o Elastic

 

Question 3

Sort each of the following in terms of costs and benefits of Wind Turbine generation of electricity:

  • Amount of land used
  • Amount of air pollution
  • Use of fossil fuels
  • Amount noise pollution
  • Possible harm to birds/bats
  • Renewable fuel source
CostsBenefits
 

 

 

 

 

Question 4

Which of the following constraints does Design A better meet the criteria? Select all that apply.

o Efficiency

o Costs Per Watts

o Land Area Required

o Wildlife

o Noise Pollution

 

 

Question 5 Constructed Response

Non-renewable energy sources such as coal and oil typically have operational costs of 3.6 cents/kwh while nuclear costs are typically 2.5 cents/kwh. These sources produce products, which are released into the environment or require proper disposal.

Compare these non-renewable sources to the use of wind turbines such as those in Proposals A & B. In your comparison, discuss at least three of the following criteria:

  • Economic Costs
  • Environmental Effects
  • Reliability
  • Aesthetics
  • Cultural Effects