Phylum Cnidaria

Phylum Cnidaria

Phylum Cnidaria includes animals that show radial or biradial symmetry and are diploblastic, that is, they develop from two embryonic layers. Nearly all (about 99 percent) cnidarians are marine species.

Cnidarians contain specialized cells known as cnidocytes (“stinging cells”) containing organelles called nematocysts (stingers). These cells are present around the mouth and tentacles, and serve to immobilize prey with toxins contained within the cells. Nematocysts contain coiled threads that may bear barbs. The outer wall of the cell has hairlike projections called cnidocils, which are sensitive to touch. When touched, the cells are known to fire coiled threads that can either penetrate the flesh of the prey or predators of cnidarians (see Figure) or ensnare it. These coiled threads release toxins into the target and can often immobilize prey or scare away predators.

The illustration shows a nematocyst before (a) and after (b) firing. The nematocyst is a large, oval organelle inside a rectangular cnidocyte cell. The nematocyst is flush with the plasma membrane, and a touch-sensitive hairlike projection extends from the nematocyst to the cell’s exterior. Inside the nematocyst, a thread is coiled around an inverted barb. Upon firing, a lid on the nematocyst opens. The barb pops out of the cell and the thread uncoils.
Animals from the phylum Cnidaria have stinging cells called cnidocytes. Cnidocytes contain large organelles called (a) nematocysts that store a coiled thread and barb. When hairlike projections on the cell surface are touched, (b) the thread, barb, and a toxin are fired from the organelle.

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