In this lesson, students expand their understanding of solid waste management to include the idea of 3RC (reduce, reuse, recycle and compost). They will look at the effects of packaging decisions (reducing) and learn about engineering advancements in packaging materials and solid waste management. Also, they will observe biodegradation in a model landfill (composting).
AP Environmental Science APES Water Pollution Treatment. Water Pollution and Water Treatment. Water Pollution and Water Treatment Our Water World Types of Water Pollution and their Sources Consequences of Water Pollution Module WrapUp Final Assessments Waste Water Treatment Quiz Groundwater Pollutants FRQ Marine Trash FRQ Groundwater Pollutants
In the last two decades, research in various aspects of mobile ad-hoc networks, MANETs, has been very active, motivated mainly by military, disaster relief and law enforcement scenarios. More recently, location information has become increasingly available; partially prompted by the emerging trend to incorporate location or position sensing into personal handheld devices. An evolutionary natural step is to adopt such position-based operation in MANETs. This results in what we call position-based MANETs. In such settings, devices are equipped with position-sensing capabilities and rely on position information in their operation. The main distinguishing feature of the envisaged position-based MANET environment is the communication paradigm based not on permanent or semi-permanent identities, addresses or pseudonyms, but on instantaneous node locations or positions. In some application settings, such as: military, law enforcement and search-and-rescue, node identities are not nearly as important as node positions. Such settings have certain characteristics in common. First, node position is very important: knowledge of the physical, as opposed to logical or relative topology, makes it possible to avoid wasteful communication and focus on nodes located within a speciﬁc area. Thus, the emphasis is not on the longterm node identity, but rather on current node position. Second, critical environments face security and privacy attacks. Security attacks aim to distribute false location and network ing control information, e.g., routing control messages, or impede the propagation of genuine information. The goal of privacy attacks is to track nodes as they move. Third, when the operating environment is hostile, as is the case in military and law enforcement settings, node identities must not be revealed. We use the term hostile to mean that communication is being monitored by adversarial entities that are not part of the MANET. The need to hide node identities becomes more pressing if we further assume that MANET nodes do not trust each other, due to a suspicious environment where nodes can be compromised. In such an environment, it is natural for node movements to be obscured, such that tracking a given node is impossible or, at least, very diﬃcult. While we do not claim that such suspicious and hostile location-based MANET environments are commonplace, they do occur and require high security and privacy guarantees. While doing all these;there is a challenge for nodes to maintain anonymity protection from outside observers or malicious attackers. Full anonymity protection can be achieved only when ;sources,destinations and routes all are protected. In this work, to oﬀer better anonymity protection, we propose an Anonymous Position-based Security Aware Routing Protocol (APSAR). Experimental results exhibit consistency with the theoretical analysis, and show that APSAR achieves better route anonymity protection compared to other anonymous routing protocols. Also, APSAR achieves comparable routing eﬃciency to the GPSR geographical routing protocol. The work in this thesis addresses a number of security and privacy issues arising in position-based MANETs. models. We address the problem of position based security aware routing in consideration with better anonymity protection .
Poor research reporting is a major contributing factor to low study reproducibility, financial and animal waste. The ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines were developed to improve reporting quality and many journals support these guidelines. The influence of this support is unknown. We hypothesized that papers published in journals supporting the ARRIVE guidelines would show improved reporting compared with those in non-supporting journals. In a retrospective, observational cohort study, papers from 5 ARRIVE supporting (SUPP) and 2 non-supporting (nonSUPP) journals, published before (2009) and 5 years after (2015) the ARRIVE guidelines, were selected. Adherence to the ARRIVE checklist of 20 items was independently evaluated by two reviewers and items assessed as fully, partially or not reported. Mean percentages of items reported were compared between journal types and years with an unequal variance t-test. Individual items and sub-items were compared with a chi-square test. From an initial cohort of 956, 236 papers were included: 120 from 2009 (SUPP; n = 52, nonSUPP; n = 68), 116 from 2015 (SUPP; n = 61, nonSUPP; n = 55). The percentage of fully reported items was similar between journal types in 2009 (SUPP: 55.3 ± 11.5% [SD]; nonSUPP: 51.8 ± 9.0%; p = 0.07, 95% CI of mean difference -0.3–7.3%) and 2015 (SUPP: 60.5 ± 11.2%; nonSUPP; 60.2 ± 10.0%; p = 0.89, 95%CI -3.6–4.2%). The small increase in fully reported items between years was similar for both journal types (p = 0.09, 95% CI -0.5–4.3%). No paper fully reported 100% of items on the ARRIVE checklist and measures associated with bias were poorly reported. These results suggest that journal support for the ARRIVE guidelines has not resulted in a meaningful improvement in reporting quality, contributing to ongoing waste in animal research.
This activity is acid-base titration lab where students determine the percent of calcium carbonate in an eggshell.
A Study of correlation of Social Media Addiction and Self Esteem
among Secondary School Students
Origin of the research problem:
The use of social media users are growing exponentially. According to social statistics one third of the world’s population is already engaged with social media and on an average 10% of the population, to use social media sites, is increasing every year.
There is no clear definition of social media addiction but it is obvious that it indicates over usage of internet facility to be a part of virtual groups or person. It is addictive and has resulted in lot of psychological problems like anxiety, depression etc. Immediate response syndrome is clearly visible among users which are the state of checking our social media sites again and again which may lead to psychological imbalance.
Adolescents are the most affected group of this usage. This is the time where they should be career oriented, exploring newer avenues in their life, but very surprisingly most of the constructive time is simply wasted in uploading and maintaining relationship which may not have any significant impact in their development. So the researcher was keen to understand the psyche behind these activities, does it have any relationship with their respective self esteem?
According to Oxford’s university, Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth. It is the decision made by an individual as an attitude towards the self. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself, (for example, "I am competent", "I am worthy"), as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame.
Students self esteem may play a dual role in addiction towards social media. High Self esteem may result to more interaction and showcasing oneself in social platforms. On the other hand sometimes low self esteem may also lead to better participation in virtual world because they hesitate to be a part of the real world. The researcher is keen to know whether there is positive/ negative or no relationship between social addiction and self esteem of students.
Need of the Study:
Internet de-addiction has become the need of the hour because the negative impact of internet addiction is superseding the positive impact. Following are the few cons which the researcher was able to identify:
Phubbing: Phubbing is the practice of ignoring one's companion or companions in order to pay attention to one's phone or other mobile device. This is a new word added to the dictionary because of the traits seen in people who overuses mobile devices. So the use of technology instead of making our life easier has in fact created a barrier between humans only.
Breakdown of real communication: If the addiction of internet is very large then the person tries to spend most of their time in virtual communication. This breaks the interest of having real communication.
Immediate response syndrome/ instant need of immediate gratification: Once a message is sent or picture is posted, have you realized how many times you look back into your mobile to check the trailing messages or how many likes you have got or even how many social friends have even gone through it?
Inability to focus on the present: Adolescents are so busy sharing whatever they do that they have lost to live in the moment for the sake of sharing the moment.
Sleep deprivation: Internet has opened up such vast avenues for the young generation that they are totally absorbed in variety of internet related activities. It is to such an extent that they cannot balance their life compromising upon their sleep habits. Sleep deprivation is further leading to restlessness, anxiety and other health related issues.
Lack of hobby: Gone are the days when young generation would collect rare historical objects as their hobby, go out for nature trails, distress them by engaging in games and sports
Attention span / Memory loss: We have become slaves in the hand of technology. It has overpowered our capabilities to such an extent that we have lost believing in our memory. We have become so dependent on technology that for every small thing instead of using our brains we click to find out information.
Lack of language comprehension: Too many short forms used in messages have resulted in lack of incorrect usage of language.
Health related issues: It has resulted in the rise of 'neurasthenia' ('tired nerves') because of overuse of mobile devices.
Review of related literature:
Kanoh, Hiroko (2016) analyzed trends of social media and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Scale. The spread of SNS has changed communications between people to a great extent. For them it is a place their hearts can rely on and where they can hang out, a place for self-approval, for self-expression and a place where the other person listens to their dissatisfaction and discontent. At the beginning people are interested in knowing what everyone is doing, so they check SNS every day. However, they feel gradually tired. Immediate response syndrome refers to the feeling of having to check SNS sites and being is a state of psychological imbalance. Some have a loss of self-esteem in the SNS communication. So the researcher analyzed the relationship of social media use and the self-esteem. As results, the high self-efficacy group prefers both Facebook and LINE while the low self-efficacy group tends to use Twitter.
Kircaburun, Kagan (2016) studied Self-Esteem, Daily Internet Use and Social Media Addiction as Predictors of Depression among Turkish Adolescents. In this study, direct and indirect effects of self-esteem, daily internet use and social media addiction to depression levels of adolescents have been investigated by testing a model. This descriptive study was conducted with 1130 students aged between 12 and 18 who are enrolled at different schools in southern region of Aegean. In order to collect data, "Children's Depression Inventory", "Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale" and "Social Media Addiction Scale" have been used. In order to test the hypotheses Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling were performed. The findings revealed that self-esteem and social media addiction predict 20% of the daily internet use. Furthermore, while depression was associated with self-esteem and daily internet use directly, social media addiction was affecting depression indirectly. Tested model was able to predict 28% of the depression among adolescents.
Tas, Ibrahim (2017) examined the relationship of Internet addiction and gaming addiction with school engagement and effects of Internet addiction and gaming addiction on school engagement. The research was conducted with 365 students (140, 38.4%, males; 225, 61.6%, females) studying at an Anatolian high school in Gaziantep province. Personal Information Form, Scale of Internet Usage Addiction, Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents and School Engagement Scale for Children and Adolescents (High School Form) were utilized as data collection tools. The data obtained were analyzed with correlation and multiple regression analysis. A weak negative relationship was found between Internet addiction and school engagement. No relationship was found between gaming addiction and school engagement. It was also concluded that Internet addiction is a significant predictor of school engagement and gaming addiction does not predict school engagement significantly.
Title of the study: A Study of correlation of Social Media Addiction and Self Esteem
among Secondary School Students
To find out correlation between social media addiction and self esteem among secondary school students
There is no relationship between social media addiction and self esteem among secondary school students
Methodology & Plan of Work:
The present study is descriptive survey method which deals with description, analysis and interpretation of existing phenomenon.
The sample for the study is 100 secondary school students of greater Mumbai.
Rosenberg Social Media Addiction Scale
Self esteem Scale
Relevant Statistics of the Relationship of Social Media Addiction and Self esteem
Variables Pearson Correlation Significant
Social media addiction -0.1 Not significant
Interpretation and Discussion:
The correlation value is -0.1 which is not significant. This indicates that self esteem does not play a significant role in social media addiction.
Students with high self esteem wants to be connected with the world because they want to share their confidence, happiness with the outer world. High self esteem students loves experimenting which may increase the use of social media because they want to explore new things every day. So this enhanced initiative may be a cause of getting addicted to social media more and more.
On the other hand even if the students have low self esteem, they hesitate to communicate in real world. They may lack self confidence, be in their own shell, and do not confront with real people and real incidences. These are the set of students who then want to go to their comfort zone and engage themselves in virtual media.
Significance of the study:
The study will be significant for the following members of the society:
Students: It will be an eye opener to those students who just waste their time, energy and resources to such a virtual world which does not have any significant impact in their future. Getting addicted to social media have negative impact on health and wellbeing.
Teacher: Teacher will realize that their roles are now not limited to only teaching learning process; they are guide and counselors to students. They need to engage in more and more constructive activities which will make the students realize the importance of living life with a purpose instead of just getting carried away with addiction.
Parents: Social media addiction leads to many psychological problems too like anxiety, depression, loneliness, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and addiction. It has also led to phubbing i.e. snub contact with social life. So as parents it’s important to first identify whether the child is addicted, and if so how to help the child to come out of this.
Curriculum Framers: Textbooks should include theme based lessons on negative impact of addiction of social media sites, how to balance our self esteem with our day to day dealings etc
The social media sites is highlighting only the best day, the best vacation the best party, the best dress and so on and so forth. The real life has lot more than this but feeds from peers and other social friends reflects only the good part of it. If the child/ student are not matured it may cause distress because they will be unable to relate it with their practical life.
So we conclude that students, whether they have high self esteem or low self esteem, are simply getting dragged to a darker world. The idea is not abstinence but have better control. In the connected world we live in, it is simply not feasible to prohibit someone from accessing all smart devices. But it has become a necessity to have proper check points to monitor their internet usage.
Baby steps to a digital detox:
We have to accept the fact that internet addiction has become a menace in today’s generation millennial. The reason we keep checking our social media is to keep up with everyone and pace with the ongoing trends. We tend to compare our real lives with others social media life. We need to realize that the entire feed portrayed by a person is a mere highlight of their lives and not their lives as a whole. It is filtered. It is unfair for our own selves to have this habit, we realize that the feeling of missing out (FOMO) while we see others pictures is just an illusion it will help us to get over constantly checking our social media pages. So to combat all these problems, following are few baby steps to a digital detox :
1) Turn off notifications: The continuous pings in the mobile distract us to do any productive work. It is really hard to resist the siren as we always think it is always important. Therefore turn off notifications of some apps which are not very useful.
2) Assign time limits for social media sites: It is tough to completely delete social media at once, it is better to have specific time allotted. This means you can keep track of the hours you spent on social media, this also means you wouldn’t constantly be checking your phones.
3) Choose your friends and followers: Although socializing is good, sometimes it gets out of hand with more friends and followers and it can be pretty time consuming.
4) Replace social media time with outdoor activities: You can take your mind off social media by substituting that time by pursuing your hobbies or developing new ones.
5) Do not take your electronics to bed: Your bedroom should be a place of peace and tranquility. Reflect the activities which you have witnessed throughout the day and plan for tomorrow instead of hanging on social media sites or other electronics. The continuous signals sent by Wi-Fi disturb our mental being too.
6) Uninstall Social Media: This will eliminate the chance of getting distracted completely.
7) Look at the positive benefits of social media detox: Our brain is inclined to do activities which have reasoned to it. If you look at the benefits of the detox , we can have more focused life, better mental health, strong relationships and so on and so forth.
Kircaburun, Kagan(2016) Self-Esteem, Daily Internet Use and Social Media Addiction as Predictors of Depression among Turkish Adolescents. Retrieved on 14/07/2018 from https://www.eric.ed.gov/?q=social+media+self+esteem&id=EJ1112856
Kanoh, Hiroko (2016). Analysis of Usage Trends of Social Media and Self-Esteem by the Rosenberg Scale. Retrieved on 14/07/2018 from https://www.eric.ed.gov/?q=social+media+self+esteem&id=ED571615
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
Tas, Ibrahim (2017) Relationship between Internet Addiction, Gaming Addiction and School Engagement among Adolescents. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?q=internet+addiction&id=EJ1170124 on 30/08/2018
In this brochure, the European Aluminium Association (EAA) evaluates the need for vehicle lightweighting to reduce CO2 emissions. Since the 70's aluminum has been used for some car components (radiators, cylinder heads, and bumper beams), but now has grown to the average amount of 140 kg per car produced in Europe. Aluminum castings, extrusions, forgings and sheets can now be found nearly everywhere, including in car bodies, closures, chassis, suspensions and wheels. This resource explains why, now more than ever, reducing vehicle mass is necessary and how aluminum can be used to further improve the sustainability and the safety of future generations of cars.
This report by The Aluminum Association reviews the North American use of aluminum over the past 20 years in order to improve industry emissions, efficiency, recycling, and to address the challenges ahead in regards of sustainability. Challenges faced with sustainability include technological progress, energy and resource use, waste minimization and elimination, business operations, and product end-of-life ("design for recycling" and recycling incentives).
In this report funded by The Aluminum Associationand performed by IBIS Associates, the consumer's vehicle lifecycle cost for conventional gas, diesel, alternative fuel, and hybrid vehicles are compared using lightweight aluminum instead of steel. Since alternative fuel and hybrid vehicles are put at a cost disadvantage due to lower production, all studies were conducted with projected cost as if these vehicles were mass produced. Some factors affecting lifecycle cost are miles per gallon, materials, components, initial price, and maintenance. It's concluded that using aluminum in place of steel will lower the overall lifecycle price of all types of vehicles. However, in the current market the overall lifecycle cost of a conventional gas vehicle will still be less expensive than a hybrid vehicle despite the higher miles per gallon of the hybrid. IBIS has conducted studies for OEM, Tier 1, and material suppliers on material economics, manufacturing, operation, and disposal/recycle costs (slide4). For more info on IBIS visit http://ibisassociates.com.
For classics scholars, the vast number of damaged and fragmentary texts from the waste dumps of Greco-Roman Egypt has resulted in a difficult and time-consuming endeavor, with each manuscript requiring a character-by-character transcription. Words are gradually identified based on the transcribed characters and the manuscripts' linguistic characteristics. Both the discovery of new literary texts and the identification of known ones are then based on this analysis in relation to the established canon of extant Greek literature and its lexicons. Documentary texts, letters, receipts, and private accounts, are similarly assessed and identified through key terms and names. Furthermore, an immense number of detached fragments still linger, waiting to be joined with others to form a once intact text of ancient thought, both known and unknown. The data not only continues to reevaluate and assess the literature and knowledge of ancient Greece, but also illuminates the lives and culture of the multi-ethnic society of Greco-Roman Egypt.
Objectives Prospective registration of animal studies has been suggested as a new measure to increase value and reduce waste in biomedical research. We sought to further explore and quantify animal researchers’ attitudes and preferences regarding animal study registries (ASRs). Design Cross-sectional online survey. Setting and participants We conducted a survey with three different samples representing animal researchers: i) corresponding authors from journals with high Eigenfactor, ii) a random Pubmed sample and iii) members of the CAMARADES network. Main outcome measures Perceived level of importance of different aspects of publication bias, the effect of ASRs on different aspects of research as well as the importance of different research types for being registered. Results The survey yielded responses from 413 animal researchers (response rate 7%). The respondents indicated, that some aspects of ASRs can increase administrative burden but could be outweighed by other aspects decreasing this burden. Animal researchers found it more important to register studies that involved animal species with higher levels of cognitive capabilities. The time frame for making registry entries publicly available revealed a strong heterogeneity among respondents, with the largest proportion voting for “access only after consent by the principal investigator” and the second largest proportion voting for “access immediately after registration”. Conclusions The fact that the more senior and experienced animal researchers participating in this survey clearly indicated the practical importance of publication bias and the importance of ASRs underscores the problem awareness across animal researchers and the willingness to actively engage in study registration if effective safeguards for the potential weaknesses of ASRs are put into place. To overcome the first-mover dilemma international consensus statements on how to deal with prospective registration of animal studies might be necessary for all relevant stakeholder groups including animal researchers, academic institutions, private companies, funders, regulatory agencies, and journals.
About 70% of our planet is covered by oceans and seas: large, full of life and mysterious.
They are a source of food, way of transportation, oxygen producer, and more.
But the sea is in danger: overfishing, plastic waste, acidification, species extinction.
We need to better understand the marine life and deal with it in a sustainable way, because our life is closely linked to the sea. If it is sick, we cannot stay healthy.
edeos - digital education
Developed for the second grade. A biodome is a self-sustaining habitat for plants. Students will make a biodome in a recycled soda bottle and watch as their seeds grow. Students will observe and understand how the water in the biodome continues to recycle itself through condensation and evaporation.Biology In Elementary Schools is a Saint Michael's College student project. The teaching ideas on this page have been found, refined, and developed by students in a college-level course on the teaching of biology at the elementary level. Unless otherwise noted, the lesson plans have been tried at least once by students from our partner schools. This wiki has been established to share ideas about teaching biology in elementary schools. The motivation behind the creation of this page is twofold: 1. to provide an outlet for the teaching ideas of a group of college educators participating in a workshop-style course; 2. to provide a space where anyone else interested in this topic can place their ideas.
Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand. To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.
By the end of this section, you will be able to:Explain how vacuoles, present in microorganisms, work to excrete wasteDescribe the way in which flame cells and nephridia in worms perform excretory functions and maintain osmotic balanceExplain how insects use Malpighian tubules to excrete wastes and maintain osmotic balance
By the end of this section, you will be able to:Explain how hormonal cues help the kidneys synchronize the osmotic needs of the bodyDescribe how hormones like epinephrine, norepinephrine, renin-angiotensin, aldosterone, anti-diuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide help regulate waste elimination, maintain correct osmolarity, and perform other osmoregulatory functions
By the end of this section, you will be able to:Compare and contrast the way in which aquatic animals and terrestrial animals can eliminate toxic ammonia from their systemsCompare the major byproduct of ammonia metabolism in vertebrate animals to that of birds, insects, and reptiles