This site is a lecture about crystal structure from Dr. Stephen Nelson at Tulane University. Topics include axial ratios, intercepts of crystal faces (Weiss Parameters), determination of the Miller Index of a crystal, the modified notation of hexagonal systems, which is referred to as Miller-Bravais Indices, and using the Miller Index notation to designate crystal forms. Tables and illustrations accompany the text.
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This set of lecture notes about contact metamorphism contains information on contact aureoles, isograds, thermal conductivity, and latent heat of crystallization. Albite-epidote hornfels, hornblende hornfels, pyroxene hornfels, and sanidinite facies are presented. Skarns are also discussed. A number of ternary diagrams and illustrations are included. This resource is part of the Teaching Petrology collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/index.html
This site is a lecture from Tulane University that explores the symmetry observed in crystals. Topics covered include crystallographic axes, the crystal lattice, and unit cells. Tables and illustrations accompany the text.
This site is a lecture by Dr. Stephen Nelson from Tulane University that discusses crystallographic calculations. Topics include a review of Miller indices, axial ratios, angles corresponding to a Miller Index, and angles between crystallographic axes in monoclinic or triclinic systems. Step by step examples of the calculations are provided, including associated illustrations and diagrams.
This website provides access to lesson plans published by the Evolution and the Nature of Science Institutes (ENSI). Based on 32 key ideas of scientific thought, the ENSI program emphasizes the importance of teaching the nature of modern science before introducing the elements of evolution as an example of modern scientific thinking. This website features lessons in three categories - the nature of science, the origins of life, and evolution. Lesson plans are organized into eight sections including an overview of concepts and objectives, logistics such as time, materials, and teaching preparations, and ready-to-use handouts and worksheets for students. These lessons are intended for use in any high school biology course, and may also be used in middle school and/or lower division university courses depending on slight modifications and the experience and level of students.
This site is a lecture by Dr. Stephen Nelson from Tulane University that explores the 32 possible combinations of symmetry operations that define the external symmetry of crystals. The lecture defines the six crystal systems (triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, tetragonal, hexagonal, and isometric) and explains the derivation of the Hermann-Mauguin symbols (also called the international symbols) used to describe the crystal classes from the symmetry content. Tables and illustrations accompany the text.
This site, which accompanies an introductory structural geology class at the University of Leeds, UK, contains information on faults. Topics include normal faults, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, faults and stress, and soft-linked fault systems. The site features explanations of the three basic types of faults with informative diagrams and a photo gallery.
This virtual five-day field mapping project allows students to construct a geological map from data provided by the web site. Students collect geologic, structural, paleontologic, strain and microstructural data observed at specific localities. Students are then able to derive a structural history for the area, including a field map, stereographs, and deformation plots. The site contains photographs and images, data, and all information that is needed to complete the exercise. It also provides solutions to some of the exercises.
These lecture notes are part of a series of lectures available on the geology department website at Tulane University. Topics covered include criteria for the classification of igneous rocks, field identification of minerals present in hand sample, thin section examination and chemical analysis. The general chemical classification covers silica content (silica saturation), aluminum saturation, and alkaline and subalkaline rocks. This resource is part of the Teaching Petrology collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/index.html
This excerpt from the CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulas covers geometry, excluding differential geometry. It is a reference for advanced students, and covers the material in quick, condensed sections of notes. Notes and diagrams are organized into sections and subsections, starting with coordinate systems, plane transformations, lines, and polygons in two-dimensional geometry. The section on three-dimensional geometry covers coordinate systems in space, space symmetries, directions, polyhedra, spheres, and quadrics. This resource is part of the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/
This classroom activity allows students to use water surface temperature, bathymetric data and weather data to look at trends in the water temperature of the Great Lakes. The exercise asks students to make predictions, and then use the data to answer questions. The site contains everything that is needed for the exercise, including student handouts, maps, links to data sources, and background information and questions for discussion.
This module is designed to allow students to learn about igneous rocks at their own speed using images of hand samples and rock outcrops in their natural settings. Topics covered include the common igneous rock types, igneous textures, and intrusive rock bodies. Each topic has instructive text and several images. The site also features a self-quiz with 17 questions about 12 hand sample pictures. This site provides useful reference material suitable for high school or introductory college students. This resource is part of the Teaching Petrology collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/index.html
These lecture notes present a discussion of mineralogical classification of granitic rocks, definitions of hypersolvus and subsolvus granites, tectonic and chemical classification, and depth of emplacement of granites. Other topics include pegmatites, continental rhyolites, origin of large volumes of silicic magma, continental flood basalts, continental rift valleys, evolution of rock suites, and peralkaline rhyolites. The notes are in outline format and contain instructional figures, including ternary diagrams. This resource is part of the Teaching Petrology collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/index.html
This set of lecture notes discusses the occurrence and tectonic settings of igneous rocks near convergent plate margins. A discussion of petrography includes major element composition, calc-alkaline trends in ternary diagrams, trace element variations, isotopes to distinguish magma sources, and the origin of igneous rocks at convergent margins. The lecture notes include helpful illustrations, maps and phase diagrams. This resource is part of the Teaching Petrology collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/index.html
These lecture notes introduce magmatism and petrology as they relate to the oceanic lithosphere. The notes cover ophiolite sequences and types of volcanic settings found in ocean basins. A section about basalt includes discussion of location, composition and origin of mid-ocean ridge basalts. Ocean island basalts are further discussed with regards to occurrence, composition and origin. These notes include graphs, maps and phase diagrams. This resource is part of the Teaching Petrology collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/index.html
This site consists of an introductory lecture on crystal symmetry and symmetry operations. It provides the definition of a mineral and then covers topics including different types of rotational symmetry, mirror symmetry, the center of symmetry, different types of rotoinversion, and combinations of symmetry operations. Drawings help illustrate the concepts presented in the lecture.
These lecture notes provide an introduction to igneous rocks. The notes cover information about characteristics of magmas, plutonic rocks, volcanic rocks, and textures of igneous rocks. There are several illustrations within the text. This resource is part of the Teaching Petrology collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/index.html
This Introduction to Petrography homepage from the University of Houston contains a variety of instructional materials. Topics covered include tectonics, the rock cycle, mineralogy, sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic petrology, classification, phase diagrams, and magmatic differentiation. There are also links to 5 virtual field trips; Central hill country of Texas, Mohawk Valley field trip, virtual climb Stromboli, Big Bend, and Ring Mountain. There are comprehensive lecture notes, self quizzes, exercises and labs included on the page. This resource is part of the Teaching Petrology collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/index.html
This site is intended as a brief introduction to some of the common x-ray diffraction techniques used in materials characterization. It is designed for people who are novices in this field but are interested in using the techniques in their research. Topics include x-ray generation and properties, lattice planes and Bragg's Law, powder and thin film diffraction, texture measurement and pole figures, residual stress measurements, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and x-ray crystallography.
This site provides a brief review of many aspects of algebraic language and use, from symbol sets and fractions to exponents and factoring. Intended as a reference for students already familiar with algebra, it is the first section of the online text Introductory Statistics: Concepts, Models, and Applications. This resource is part of the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences collection. http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/