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Molecular Structure of 3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one
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3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is a flavoring agent for maple and caramel odors. It is ...

3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is a flavoring agent for maple and caramel odors. It is a fat soluble molecule that is found in tobacco smoke. Compared to other compounds that give food a caramel or maple odor, 3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one has a more burnt quality.

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Molecular Structure of 1-Azanaphthalene
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Most commonly called quinoline, this compound is naturally found in coal tar. ...

Most commonly called quinoline, this compound is naturally found in coal tar. It was first extracted in 1834 by German chemist F. Runge and is now used as a flavoring agent, preservative, disinfectant and solvent. It can also be used to make fungicides, dyes, rubber chemicals, and drugs (especially anti-malarial medicines). It is one of several compounds that add to the bitterness in coffee. Although it is safe in our food, it is highly toxic in its vapor form. If inhaled, acute exposure can irritate respiratory tract and cause headaches, nausea, or a coma.

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Molecular Structure of 1,2dichloronapthalene
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1,2-Dichloronaphthalene is a PCN (polychlorinated naphthalenes) which is synthesized in a mixture ...

1,2-Dichloronaphthalene is a PCN (polychlorinated naphthalenes) which is synthesized in a mixture of several congeners, ranging from thin liquids to hard waxes to high melting point solids. PCNs have been used as waxes and impregnants (for protective coatings), water repellents, and wood preservatives. The major sources of release of chlorinated naphthalenes into the environment are likely to be from waste incineration and disposal of items containing chlorinated naphthalenes to landfill. PCNs are no longer produced due to their toxicity. Like related compounds (such as PCBs), chlorinated naphthalenes have been demonstrated to be inducers of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) dependent microsomal enzymes. The environmental impact of PCNs has not been extensively investigated, and PCN concentrations have only been measured in the environment in a few rare cases. Chlorinated naphthalenes are expected to adsorb onto soil and sediments to a large extent, and have been identified to do as such in drainage ditches and sediments from Florida and the San Francisco bay. PCNs have also been identified in birds of prey in Britain and the Netherlands.

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Molecular Structure of 1,2-Dichloroethane
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1, 2-Dichloroethane production was first reported in the United States in 1922. ...

1, 2-Dichloroethane production was first reported in the United States in 1922. It is a clear liquid with a chloroform-like odor. It is sparingly soluble in water and soluble in most organic solvents. When heated to decomposition, it produces toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid. The largest usage of this compound is for the production of vinyl chloride monomer, which is used to produce polyvinyl chloride (PVC). It can also be used as a solvent, fumigant, degreaser, paint remover and intermediate for other organic compounds. It is also used as an antiknock additive in leaded fuels.

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Molecular Structure of Vitamin B12
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Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has many uses as a nutritional supplement in both ...

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has many uses as a nutritional supplement in both humans and livestock. It is used in humans to treat pernicious anemia, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, and to help maintain the body's metabolism. In its long-effect form (hydroxocobalamin), vitamin B12 is used to treat anemia, growth impediment, improvement in the function of the heart, liver, kidneys and nerves, and general strengthening of the body. In livestock, it is used to improve feed production.

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Molecular Structure of 1,3,5,7-tetrafluorocylcooctatetraene
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Tetrafluorocyclooctatetraene consists of eight carbon atoms in a linear arrangement. The unique ...

Tetrafluorocyclooctatetraene consists of eight carbon atoms in a linear arrangement. The unique bonding of the carbons in the chain allow for a very unusual "tub-like" conformation of the molecule, allowing for the pi-electrons from each adjacent carbon to overlap more comfortably. This compound is used in industry primarily in computer simulations, in conjuction with other polyenes, to determine concentrations of unknown compounds with similar spectral properties. Biologically, polyenes, such as tetrafluorocyclooctatetraene, are used in polyene antibiotics, where they bind somewhat sufficiently to sterols.

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Molecular Structure of 1,4-Diazine
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Pyrazine is a heterocyclic aromatic compound and its derivatives are often used ...

Pyrazine is a heterocyclic aromatic compound and its derivatives are often used as flavoring agents in food. It is most commonly found in coffee and peanut butter. As one of nearly 800 compounds that affect coffee’s aroma, pyrazine is responsible for its bitterness, and in peanut butter, it accounts for the roasted or earthy flavor. Pyrazine is water soluble and its color ranges from clear to pale yellow with a taste threshold of only 1 mg/L. It is a highly flammable irritant, but it poses no safety concern at the levels found in our food.

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Molecular Structure of 1,5-dichloronapthalene
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1,5-Dichloronaphthalene is a PCN (polychlorinated naphthalenes) which is synthesized in a mixture ...

1,5-Dichloronaphthalene is a PCN (polychlorinated naphthalenes) which is synthesized in a mixture of several congeners, ranging from thin liquids to hard waxes to high melting point solids. PCNs have been used as waxes and impregnants (for protective coatings), water repellents, and wood preservatives. The major sources of release of chlorinated naphthalenes into the environment are likely to be from waste incineration and disposal of items containing chlorinated naphthalenes to landfill. PCNs are no longer produced due to their toxicity. Like related compounds (such as PCBs), chlorinated naphthalenes have been demonstrated to be inducers of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) dependent microsomal enzymes. The environmental impact of PCNs has not been extensively investigated, and PCN concentrations have only been measured in the environment in a few rare cases. Chlorinated naphthalenes are expected to adsorb onto soil and sediments to a large extent, and have been identified to do as such in drainage ditches and sediments from Florida and the San Francisco bay. PCNs have also been identified in birds of prey in Britain and the Netherlands.

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Molecular Structure of 2-Acetylaminofluorene
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2-Acetylaminofluorene is used by scientists to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of ...

2-Acetylaminofluorene is used by scientists to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines and as a positive control in the study of liver enzymes. 2-Acetylaminofluorene was intended for use as a pesticide but was never marketed because of its carcinogenicity in experimental animals.2-Acetylaminofluorene is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. The EPA has not classified 2-acetylaminofluorene for carcinogenicity. Causes are reduced functioning of liver, kidneys, bladder, and pancreas. 2-Acetylaminofluorene occurs as light tan crystalline needles. It is insoluble in water and soluble in alcohols, glycols, ether, acetic acid, and fat solvents. 2-Acetylaminofluorene is available as a grade that is 95 to 98% pure. When heated to decomposition, it emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides (NOx).

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Molecular Structure of Vitamin D2
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Vitamin D2 is a colorless to white crystal that is odorless with ...

Vitamin D2 is a colorless to white crystal that is odorless with a bitter, metallic taste and it is insoluble in water. Vitamin D2 is used to promote healthy bones and teeth helping your body to maintain the proper levels of calcium and phosphorus. It is also used to help boost the immune system and is sometimes used in the treatment of psoriasis, refractory rickets, familial hypophosphatemia and hypoparathyroidism. The synthetic form of vitamin D2 is prepared from ergosterol, which occurs in yeast and fungi, by UV radiation in a suitable solvent. It is also obtained from yeast and fungi which synthesizes it from simple sugar such as glucose. Some symptoms of vitamin D2 intoxication include irregular heartbeats, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, decreased appetite, constipation, weakness, headache, and a metallic taste in the mouth.

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Molecular Structure of 3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylcyclopent-2-en-one
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3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is a molecule in the caramel and maple flavoring category that ...

3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is a molecule in the caramel and maple flavoring category that is described as more burnt. The odor is very strong, burnt, caramel and maple. It has only been accounted for in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

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Molecular Structure of 2,2'-Dichlorobiphenyl
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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids ...

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers. Most applications used oily or waxy mixtures of different PCBs that differ from each other in the number and location of chlorine atoms around the aromatic carbon rings. More than 1.5 billion pounds of PCBs were manufactured in the United States (mostly by Monsanto) before their production was cancelled in 1977. Studies suggest that some PCBs interfere with mammal and bird reproduction, and may disturb development or cause cancer in humans. Despite efforts to ban the use and reduce the emissions of PCBs, their disappearance from the environment is either slow or nonexistent. PCBs bioaccumulate and have a tendency to travel to distant places through the air as vapors or on dust particles. In fact, surprisingly large concentrations of PCBs are found in places where they were never used. For example, the animals and people living in the Arctic have high body burdens of PCBs due to the process of global distillation that has brought PCBs from the lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia. 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl contains a chlorine atom in the ortho-position of each aromatic ring. It is one of the smaller PCBs, meaning that it is more volatile and prone to atmospheric transport. However, having only two chlorines, it is also more reactive.

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Molecular Structure of 2,2',6,6'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl
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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids ...

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers. Most applications used oily or waxy mixtures of different PCBs that differ from each other in the number and location of chlorine atoms around the aromatic carbon rings. More than 1.5 billion pounds of PCBs were manufactured in the United States (mostly by Monsanto) before their production was cancelled in 1977. Studies suggest that some PCBs interfere with mammal and bird reproduction, and may disturb development or cause cancer in humans. Despite efforts to ban the use and reduce the emissions of PCBs, their disappearance from the environment is either slow or nonexistent. PCBs bioaccumulate and have a tendency to travel to distant places through the air as vapors or on dust particles. In fact, surprisingly large concentrations of PCBs are found in places where they were never used. For example, the animals and people living in the Arctic have high body burdens of PCBs due to the process of global distillation that has brought PCBs from the lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia.

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Molecular Structure of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin
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The chemical, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was first synthesized and characterized in 1957. In ...

The chemical, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was first synthesized and characterized in 1957. In the pure form, this compound is white and crystalline. This compound is a known carcinogen, teratogen, and mutagen. In addition, this dioxin causes a skin condition called chloracne. TCDD gained noteriety when it was found to be a contaminant in the herbicide, Agent Orange, used in the Vietnam War. As a result, Agent Orange was banned by FDA.

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Molecular Structure of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzofuran
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Chlorinated dioxins and furans are emitted into the atmosphere from the burning ...

Chlorinated dioxins and furans are emitted into the atmosphere from the burning of municipal and chemical wastes (e.g., PCBs) and sometimes formed as byproducts during the manufacturing of chlorinated aromatic compounds. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran is highly carcinogenic (causes cancer) and is related to the most infamous dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Both are often found together in a wide variety of environments all across the planet. Its extreme toxicity, persistence, and ability to spread to remote regions has earned it a place on the United Nation's "Dirty Dozen" list of persistent organic pollutants.

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Molecular Structure of 2,4-D
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The first successfully developed herbicide, 2,4-D, is a member of the phenoxy ...

The first successfully developed herbicide, 2,4-D, is a member of the phenoxy family of herbicides. Today, it is the third most widely used herbicide in North America and it is an active ingredient in over 1500 pesticide products. Its predominant uses are in the field of agriculture, specifically on wheat and small grains, corn, rice, sugar-cane, low-till soybeans, pasture, and rangeland. In addition, it is also used in non-crop areas, such as on roadsides, forestry, lawn and turf care, and on aquatic weeds. One of the short-term effects of inhalation or oral exposure to 2,4-D is neuro-toxicity. Symptoms could include stiffness of the arms and legs, lethargy, anorexia, and coma in humans. It could lead to irritation of the gastrointestinal tract thus causing nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Dermal contact leads to skin rash or dermatitis in humans.

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Molecular Structure of Benzophenone-3
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Oxybenzone is one of the compounds that are used in sunscreens with ...

Oxybenzone is one of the compounds that are used in sunscreens with high Sun Protection Factors (SPF) to block ultraviolet radiation, both UVA and UVB. It converts light into heat Recent studies show however that it also may cause certain skin cancers (melanoma).

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Molecular Structure of DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid monohydrate
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DL-3-amino-n-butanoic acid is a non-protein amino acid, also known as β-aminobutyric acid ...

DL-3-amino-n-butanoic acid is a non-protein amino acid, also known as β-aminobutyric acid or BABA, which posses an antifungal activity. This amino acid can induce local and systemic resistance against downy mildew in grape leaves. BABA is believed to alter cell wall structure or metabolism in tomato plants and thus makes the tissues more resistant to fungal enzyme attacks.

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Molecular Structure of 4,4'-Dichlorobiphenyl
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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids ...

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are semivolatile organic compounds used predominantly as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers. Most applications used oily or waxy mixtures of different PCBs that differ from each other in the number and location of chlorine atoms around the aromatic carbon rings. More than 1.5 billion pounds of PCBs were manufactured in the United States (mostly by Monsanto) before their production was cancelled in 1977. Studies suggest that some PCBs interfere with mammal and bird reproduction, and may disturb development or cause cancer in humans. Despite efforts to ban the use and reduce the emissions of PCBs, their disappearance from the environment is either slow or nonexistent. PCBs bioaccumulate and have a tendency to travel to distant places through the air as vapors or on dust particles. In fact, surprisingly large concentrations of PCBs are found in places where they were never used. For example, the animals and people living in the Arctic have high body burdens of PCBs due to the process of global distillation that has brought PCBs from the lower latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia. 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl contains a chlorine atom in the para-position of each aromatic ring (carbon directly opposite of the ring linkage). It is one of the smaller PCBs, meaning that it is more volatile and prone to atmospheric transport. However, having only two chlorines, it is also more reactive.

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Molecular Structure of 5-Fluorouracil
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5-Fluorouracil has been used for several decades and is one of the ...

5-Fluorouracil has been used for several decades and is one of the oldest currently used chemotherapy drugs. Two popular forms in use today are Adrucil, an intravenous form, and Efudex, in a skin cream form. 5-Fluorouracil is an antieoplastic antimetabolite, which works by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA by blocking the synthesis of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, it interferes with healthy cells and is an immunosuppressant. The drug is administered by injection, infusion, orally or as a cream to treat colon, rectum, breast, stomach, skin and pancreas cancer. Common side-effects include: reduced red blood cell count, hair loss, loss of appetite, weight loss, headache, and dry and darkening of the skin.

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