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Polar Lows Ungava Bay 01 December 2000
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Polar lows are generally short-lived but intense events that occur over cold ...

Polar lows are generally short-lived but intense events that occur over cold ocean waters, poleward of a baroclinic zone. The polar low in this case formed over the open waters of Ungava Bay, in northeastern Canada, on 2 December 2000. The case is presented as a series of challenging forecast questions followed by a more traditional case study presentation. Included in this exercise is a rich set of data products and access to background materials on polar low forecasting.

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Education
Atmospheric Science
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Module
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COMET MetEd Collection
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COMET
Precipitation Type: New Brunswick, 01-03 February 2003
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This interactive case exercise covers a 24-hour forecast period that includes the ...

This interactive case exercise covers a 24-hour forecast period that includes the challenge of precipitation type forecasting. The case exercise provides an overview of precipitation type forecasting based on model algorithms, partial thickness analysis, and the top-down method.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
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COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Blowing Snow: Baker Lake, Nunavut, Canada 04-10 February 2003
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This case exercise takes an in-depth look at a blowing snow event ...

This case exercise takes an in-depth look at a blowing snow event in the northern mainland of Canada. The case addresses specific low-level wind and snow conditions. Model data, satellite imagery, and observations are provided for assessing the potential for blowing snow and blizzard conditions as the event unfolds.

Subject:
Education
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
S-290 Unit 1: The Fire Environment
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S-290 Unit 1: The Fire Environment examines the components of the fire ...

S-290 Unit 1: The Fire Environment examines the components of the fire environment triangle and how each affects fire behavior. As part of this topic, heat transfer mechanisms and firebrand transport and the contribution to fire behavior are included. Basic fire terminology is introduced and will be used throughout the course. Later units in the S-290 course will build upon material introduced in this module.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Physics
Material Type:
Module
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COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
PBL in Complex Terrain - Part 1
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This is part 1 of a 2-part Webcast based on a presentation ...

This is part 1 of a 2-part Webcast based on a presentation by Dr. David Whiteman on August 11, 2004 in Boulder, CO. Dr. Whiteman presents conceptual and practical information regarding winds in the planetary boundary layer in complex terrain. Part 1 topics include diurnal wind systems, mountain-plain wind systems, and slope wind systems.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Distributed Hydrologic Models for Flow Forecasts - Part 1
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Distributed Hydrologic Models for Flow Forecasts – Part 1 provides a basic ...

Distributed Hydrologic Models for Flow Forecasts – Part 1 provides a basic description of distributed hydrologic models and how they work. This module is the first in a two-part series focused on the science of distributed models and their applicability in different situations. Presented by Dr. Dennis Johnson, the module begins with a review of hydrologic models, and then examines the differences between lumped and distributed models. It explains how lumped models may be distributed by subdividing the basin and suggests when distributed hydrologic models are most appropriate. Other topics covered include the advantages of physically-based versus conceptual approaches and some strengths and challenges associated with distributed modeling.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition, Chapter 1: Introduction
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Chapter 1: Introduction, is the first chapter to be published in the ...

Chapter 1: Introduction, is the first chapter to be published in the Version 2.0 format of the online textbook, Introduction to Tropical Meteorology. The chapter introduces learners to tropical meteorology including various methods of defining the tropics. An overview of energy balance and the global climate system is presented. The role of the tropics in the global energy and momentum balance is presented. Atmospheric structure of temperature and humidity are discussed in terms of latitudinal variability. Pressure ranges and scales of atmospheric motion in the tropics are reviewed. Seasonal and geographic distribution and the diurnal cycle of surface temperature and the influencing factors are examined in detail. Finally, we review tropical air masses and tropical climates.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Polar Satellite Products for the Operational Forecaster (POES) Module 1: POES Introduction
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This Web-based module is a component of the Integrated Sensor Training (IST) ...

This Web-based module is a component of the Integrated Sensor Training (IST) Professional Development Series (PDS) Professional Competency Unit #6-Satellite Data and Products. Dr. Stan Kidder of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University is the principal science advisor for this module with significant assistance from Dr. Gary Hufford (NWS Alaska Region). The module provides an overview of current polar satellite products and their applications in forecasting situations and also contains a summary of instruments currently in use and a short history of the U.S. polar satellite program. The module is the first in a series focusing on polar satellite products and applications.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Climate and Water Resources Management, Part 1: Climate Variability and Change
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Climate is changing at unprecedented rates in recorded history. A variety of ...

Climate is changing at unprecedented rates in recorded history. A variety of lines of evidence demonstrate that climate change is likely to affect the hydrologic cycle and thus create new challenges in water management. This requires that climate change information be included in water and water-related resources planning, operations, and management. Climate and Water Resources Management, Part 1: Climate Variability and Change describes the terminology, global evidence, regional manifestations, and basic science of global climate variability and anthropogenic change, with a focus on water resources management. The lesson presents this information using rich graphics, animations, and interactions. Key messages are highlighted from the 2014 National Climate Assessment, produced by the United States Global Change Research Program. The intended audience for Climate and Water Resources Management, Part 1: Climate Variability and Change includes managers and professionals working in water resources planning under variable and changing climates. This includes people who are somewhat removed from the implementation of climate change policy, but still need to be conversant in the topic.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Precipitation Estimates, Part 1: Measurement
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This is part one of a two-module series on estimation of observed ...

This is part one of a two-module series on estimation of observed precipitation. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module provides an overview of the science of precipitation estimation using various measuring platforms. First, we define quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and examine technologies for remote sensing of QPE, including radar and satellite and the strengths and limitations of each. That is followed by an examination of the use of rain gauges for precipitation estimation and important issues to consider with rain gauge measurement. Finally we provide an introduction to the strengths and limitations of using precipitation climatology for QPE including PRISM.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Dams and Dam Failure - Module 1: Terminology and Open Channel Hydraulics
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This is the first module of a two-part series offering an introduction ...

This is the first module of a two-part series offering an introduction to the science explaining catastrophic dam failure and flood-wave prediction methods associated with these events. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains key terminology and concepts including dam types and purposes, failure statistics, the general dam failure process, open channel hydraulics, critical flow, Manning's equation, and conveyance. The information covered in this two module series will provide a scientific foundation for advanced course work needed to run dam break simulations and to conduct hydraulic modeling as a part of dynamic wave forecasting.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
S-290 Unit 10: Fuel Moisture
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S-290 Unit 10: Fuel Moisture provides information about live and dead fuel ...

S-290 Unit 10: Fuel Moisture provides information about live and dead fuel moisture contents and their relation to fire behavior. Influences on fuel moisture and methods for estimating dead fuel and live fuel moisture in the field are summarized, and guidance is offered for assessing the potential fire danger based on fuel moisture and other fireline information. The module is part of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
S-290 Unit 11: Extreme Wildland Fire Behavior
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S-290 Unit 11: Extreme Wildland Fire Behavior covers the characteristics and contributing ...

S-290 Unit 11: Extreme Wildland Fire Behavior covers the characteristics and contributing factors of extreme fire conditions. Fire activity that is considered extreme includes crown fire, spotting, fire whirls, and wind-driven or plume-dominated fires. Description of what determines the probability of ignition of a fire is also included. This module is part of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
S-290 Unit 12: Gauging Fire Behavior and Guiding Fireline Decisions
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S-290 Unit 12: Gauging Fire Behavior and Guiding Fireline Decisions examines how ...

S-290 Unit 12: Gauging Fire Behavior and Guiding Fireline Decisions examines how fire behavior is evaluated and changes are identified, and how these changes affect fireline decisions. Topics in this module build upon information covered in previous units and applies it to calculating safety zones, evaluating limitations of suppression efforts, and using tools used to predict fire behavior. The FireLine Assessment MEthod (FLAME) is introduced, and cases are provided to allow learners to apply this method to typical fireline conditions. This module is part of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Eta-12 Forecast for Historic Lake Effect Snow in Buffalo, NY
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An examination of how the updated Eta-12 model, with its higher resolution, ...

An examination of how the updated Eta-12 model, with its higher resolution, improved topography, and upgraded cloud and precipitation package, performed in forecasting the initiation and evolution of the first portion of the Buffalo, NY historic lake effect snow event (24-26 December 2001).

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Ocean Effect Snow: New England Snow Storm, 14 January 1999
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This case study is the first in the Mesoscale Aspects of Winter ...

This case study is the first in the Mesoscale Aspects of Winter Weather Forecasting module series. The case is presented as a series of challenging forecast questions followed by a more traditional case study presentation. Included in the exercise is a rich set of data products and a series of background materials on lake/ocean effect snow and winter microphysics processes.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Barrier Jet Forecasting: Eastern Foothills and High Plains of Colorado, 17-20 March 2003
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This case exercise looks at a barrier jet event over central and ...

This case exercise looks at a barrier jet event over central and eastern Colorado that took on historic significance in terms of snow amounts and variability in snow distribution. The module emphasizes the mechanisms for producing both very large accumulations and extreme small-scale variability. These mechanisms involved both dynamic and thermodynamic processes in this storm. Model and observed analyses and forecasts are considered in detail as the storm unfolds.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition, Chapter 4: Tropical Variability
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This chapter presents an overview of the major cycles dominating intraseasonal and ...

This chapter presents an overview of the major cycles dominating intraseasonal and interannual variability in the tropics. Characteristic atmospheric and oceanic patterns for each oscillation are presented and methods for tracking the evolution of these cycles are described. Observations and conceptual models of equatorial waves are presented. Classical solutions for equatorial waves are outlined and the effects of moisture on the expression of these waves are discussed. Since the tropics are not an isolated region of the globe, the impacts of these cycles on higher latitudes are also explored. In view of the recent interest on the effects of long-term climate variability, the potential role of multidecadal oscillations in modulating these shorter cycles is discussed.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition, Chapter 9: Observations, Analysis, and Prediction
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The chapter describes the challenges of tropical weather forecasting. We examine types ...

The chapter describes the challenges of tropical weather forecasting. We examine types of observations and weather analysis techniques used by tropical forecasters. Those analysis tools are applied to examples of tropical synoptic weather systems as well as mesoscale analysis and nowcasting. The last three sections focus on numerical weather prediction (NWP) including: the fundamentals, data assimilation, comparisons of statistical and dynamical models, ensemble techniques, cumulus convection in NWP, tropical cyclone prediction, and methods of forecast verification and validation. We have special focus sections on Australian-Indonesia Monsoon weather and interviews with forecasters from the National Hurricane Center (audio in English and Spanish), and Tropical Cyclone Centre Météo-France/La Réunion (text in English and French).

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Jason-2: Using Satellite Altimetry to Monitor the Ocean
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Altimeters onboard satellites such as Jason-2 measure sea surface height and other ...

Altimeters onboard satellites such as Jason-2 measure sea surface height and other characteristics of the ocean surface. These characteristics are linked to underlying processes and structures, making altimetry data useful for understanding the full depth of the global ocean. This 75-minute module explores major discoveries made possible by altimetry data in oceanography, marine meteorology, the marine geosciences, climate studies, the cryosphere, and hydrology. For example, altimeters have played a vital role in detecting and monitoring sea level rise and its relation to climate change. The module also describes many of the practical applications of altimetry data, for example, in hurricane forecasting and monitoring climate events such as ENSO. Finally, the module describes Jason-2, which was launched in 2008, its products and services, and the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM), of which it is a part. OSTM is a collaboration between EUMETSAT and CNES (Europe) and NOAA and NASA (United States).

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET