In the wake of Columbus' historic voyage in 1492, expeditions, especially from Imperial Spain, swarmed into Aztec territory. They came in search of gold and souls gold to enrich the coffers of the Spanish king (and their own), and heathen souls to rescue for Christianity. Within a generation, America's ancient civilizations were crushed. Both the Aztec and Inca Empires collapsed after campaigns lasting just a couple of years. How did they fall so fast? Historians suggest many causes.
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As tensions flared between England and Spain, it soon became sensible for England to establish permanent settlements in the New World to rival the Spanish. If nothing more, they could serve as bases from which to raid Spanish ships.
There was more than one way to acquire more land. If the globe had already been claimed by imperial powers, the United States could always seize lands held by others. Americans were feeling proud of their growing industrial and military prowess. The long-dormant Monroe Doctrine could finally be enforced. Good sense suggested that when treading on the toes of empires, America should start small. In 1898, Spain was weak and Americans knew it. Soon the opportunity to strike arose.
This collection uses primary sources to explore the Spanish-American War. Digital Public Library of America Primary Source Sets are designed to help students develop their critical thinking skills and draw diverse material from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States. Each set includes an overview, ten to fifteen primary sources, links to related resources, and a teaching guide. These sets were created and reviewed by the teachers on the DPLA's Education Advisory Committee.
A satiric portrait of Venezuelan-born general Narciso Lopez, leader of an 1850 expedition to liberate Cuba from Spanish rule. Lopez's army of American volunteers captured the Cuban coastal town of Cardenas in May 1850. After a brief occupation Lopez's forces were driven out by Spanish troops, and fled to Key West. Lopez is shown fleeing to the left, holding a sword and a bag marked $50,000 (an exaggerated reference to the small sum of money taken by his men from the Cardenas customhouse). A milestone points "To Cardenas Custom House" in the distance, where a battle rages. Lopez says: "Well! we have not Revolutionized Cuba, but then we have Got what we came for, my Comrades came for Glory, I came for Cash, I've got the Cash, they've got the Glory, & I suppose we're all satisifed. I'm O-P-H [?] for the United States again. Cant Live under a Military Despotism." Weitenkampf dates the print tentatively 1851, the year of Lopez's second Cuban expedition. Specific reference here to the Cardenas affair of the preceding year, however, is persuasive evidence for an 1850 date.|Pubd. & for sale by John L. Magee 34 Mott St. N.Y.|Title appears as it is written on the item.|Weitenkampf, p. 103.|Forms part of: American cartoon print filing series (Library of Congress)|Published in: American political prints, 1766-1876 / Bernard F. Reilly. Boston : G.K. Hall, 1991, entry 1850-10.
This kit provides the materials and background information needed to engage students in a dynamic and constructive process of learning how global media perspectives differ based on country of production, media source, target audience, and political and social context. There are five lessons representing important issues and media documents from: Africa (news and documentary film clips about the food crisis), Latin America (editorial cartoons about immigration), Europe (news and documentary film clips about Islam and cultural identity), India (magazine covers about India's rise in the global economy), and Southeast Asia (websites concerning Islamic majorities and minorities).
A satire on Taylor administration efforts to curtail American "filibusters," armed expeditions against Cuba for the purpose of freeing the island from Spanish rule. Specific reference here is to the Navy's blockade of one such expeditionary force, which assembled on Round Island under Colonel G. W. White in early September 1849. The many puzzling references in the dialogue and imagery here aside, it is clear that the artist is also poking fun at the expansionist dreams of Americans of the time who advocated annexation of Cuba, Canada, and even parts of South America. The artist is critical as well of the current Cuban regime. On the shore of Round Island, the would-be invaders sit at a long rustic banquet table. Nearby several youths play with marbles and hoops, while two boys and a man ride a seesaw. Beyond, two men fly star-shaped kites which read "Cuba" and "Canada." The table is set with food, apparently taken from two large baskets at right. Several of the banqueters toast, "The Queen of Slave Traders!" "The Republic of Sierra Madre!" and "Venezuela! St Domingo! and Yucatan!" A man at the head of the table, holding a "N.Y. Express Proclamation" (perhaps Zachary Taylor's 1848 proclamation denouncing the expedition) addresses them, "You should thank us ye Pirates and Robbers of Cuba for saving you from [Spanish governor of Cuba Federico] Roncali's Garrote." One of the diners protests, "We are no Pirates! we dont kidnap people from the United States nor from Africa" (a reference to the Cuban government's alleged abduction of Juan Francisco Garcia y Rey from New Orleans in July 1848 and to Cuba's slave trade). Offshore are several boats, including a U.S. naval frigate with the words "Nine Millions a year" emblazoned on its sail and a small sloop. A man in the sloop calls out to the frigate, "Help! Help! dont let Roncali trample on your laws." The man is former Havana jailer Juan Francisco Garcia y Rey, now held by the Spanish government for freeing Cuban revolutionaries. Garcia y Rey had appealed for help to the American government, on the basis of his illegal abduction by the Spanish consul. To his call comes the response, "We dont care for the laws we are reaping laurels. Mr. Rey." Others on deck on the American ship converse, saying, "This is as safe and more glorious than Tampico" and "La Cronica will let the Negroes loose upon those who escape from the proclamation."|Probably published in New York.|Title appears as it is written on the item.|Weitenkampf, p. 100.|Forms part of: American cartoon print filing series (Library of Congress)|Published in: American political prints, 1766-1876 / Bernard F. Reilly. Boston : G.K. Hall, 1991, entry 1849-5.
Studies the major social, political, and aesthetic modes which have shaped Spanish civilization. Coordinates the study of literature, film, art, and architecture with the historical evolution of Spain. Readings and discussions focus on such topics as: the coexistence of Christians, Moors, and Jews; Imperial Spain; The First and Second Republics; and the contemporary period as background for the emergence of distinctively Spanish literary and artistic movements. Taught in Spanish. This course has several purposes. The major concern will be the examination of Spanish culture including Spain's history, architecture, art, literature and film, to determine if there is a uniquely Spanish manner of seeing and understanding the world - one which emerges as clearly distinct from our own and that of other Western European nations.
In this class we will come to understand the vast changes in Spanish life that have taken place since Franco's death in 1975. We will focus on the new freedom from censorship, the re-emergence of movements for regional autonomy, the new cinema, reforms in education and changes in daily life: Sex roles, work, and family that have occurred in the last decade. In so doing, we will examine myths that are often considered commonplaces when describing Spain and its people.
Gives students the necessary language skills to successfully employ Spanish in a variety of social situations. Focuses on oral communication and uses popular media for listening practice. Student projects involve reading, oral presentations, and classroom interaction. Emphasizes communication skills needed by students in engineering and management for work in Latin America or Spain. Taught in Spanish. A second-year intermediate course that includes vocabulary enhancement and limited review of selected points of grammar. Focuses on listening comprehension and speaking, with group activities, discussions and individual oral reports based on readings, films, music and art.
This role play begins with the premise that a monstrous crime was committed in the years after 1492, when perhaps as many as three million or more Taínos on the island of Hispaniola lost their lives. (Most scholars estimate the number of people on Hispaniola in 1492 at between one and three million; some estimates are lower and some much higher. By 1550, very few Taínos remained alive.)
Who — and/or what — was responsible for this slaughter? This is the question students confront here.
The purpose of these PBL units is to provide advanced students of Spanish (generally 3rd and 4th year college students) a series of compelling problems from Spanish culture and society. Each unit introduces a problem that students must solve collaboratively in small teams (4-6) over the course of approximately four weeks, assuming 2-3 class meetings per week. The instructor coaches the teams as they seek to fill gaps in understanding, revise hypotheses to incorporate new knowledge, and craft solutions that recognize various perspectives on the problem. Each unit is based on particular objectives, but the skills and processes students will exercise are the same across all units: collaborative problem solving, self-directed research and synthesis of information, argumentation based on sound evidence, and communication in Spanish.
Continued study of the language, literature, and culture of Spanish-speaking countries. Materials are from Spain and Latin America and include films, short stories, novels, plays, poetry, and journalistic reports in various media.