Liberty, republicanism, and independence are powerful causes. The patriots tenaciously asserted American rights and brought the Revolution. The Revolution brought myriad consequences to the American social fabric. There was no Reign of Terror as in the French Revolution. There was no replacement of the ruling class by workers' groups as in revolutionary Russia. How then could the American Revolution be described as radical? Nearly every aspect of American life was somehow touched by the revolutionary spirit. From slavery to women's rights, from religious life to voting, American attitudes would be forever changed.
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During the colonial era, Americans were bound by British law. Now, they were no longer governed by the Crown or by colonial charter. Independent, Americans could seek to eliminate or maintain laws as they saw fit. The possibilities were endless. Republican revolutionary sentiment brought significant change during the immediate postwar years.
In many ways, the Revolution reinforced American commitment to slavery. On the other hand, the Revolution also hinged on radical new ideas about "liberty" and "equality," which challenged slavery's long tradition of extreme human inequality. The changes to slavery in the Revolutionary Era revealed both the potential for radical change and its failure more clearly than any other issue.
The Revolutionary rethinking of the rules for society also led to some reconsideration of the relationship between men and women. At this time, women were widely considered to be inferior to men, a status that was especially clear in the lack of legal rights for married women. The law did not recognize wives' independence in economic, political, or civic matters in Anglo-American society of the eighteenth century.
The Revolution succeeded for many reasons, but central to them was broad popular support for a social movement that opposed monarchy and the hereditary privilege. Diverse Americans rallied to the cause to create an independent American republic in which individuals would create a more equal government through talent and a strong commitment to the public good. Two groups of Americans most fully represented the independent ideal in this republican vision for the new nation: yeomen farmers and urban artisans.
The United States changed dramatically in its first half century. In 1776 the U.S. consisted of thirteen colonies clustered together on the eastern seaboard. By 1821 eleven new states had been added from Maine to Louisiana. This geographic growth and especially the political incorporation of the new states demonstrated that the United States had resolved a fundamental question about how to expand. This growth not only built upon the Louisiana Purchase, but included military intervention in Spanish Florida which the United States then claimed by treaty in 1819.
The transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy took more than a century in the United States, but that long development entered its first phase from the 1790s through the 1830s. The Industrial Revolution had begun in Britain during the mid-18th century, but the American colonies lagged far behind the mother country in part because the abundance of land and scarcity of labor in the New World reduced interest in expensive investments in machine production. Nevertheless, with the shift from hand-made to machine-made products a new era of human experience began where increased productivity created a much higher standard of living than had ever been known in the pre-industrial world.
In part because religion was separated from the control of political leaders, a series of religious revivals swept the United States from the 1790s and into the 1830s that transformed the religious landscape of the country. Known today as the Second Great Awakening, this spiritual resurgence fundamentally altered the character of American religion. At the start of the Revolution the largest denominations were Congregationalists (the 18th-century descendants of Puritan churches), Anglicans (known after the Revolution as Episcopalians), and Quakers. But by 1800, Evangelical Methodism and Baptists, were becoming the fasting-growing religions in the nation.
The breadth and success of the Second Great Awakening meant that it had multiple dimensions. Its origins in the 1790s had been especially radical and included strong commitments to anti-slavery among Methodists and Baptists. This radicalism quickly passed and even its populist elements tended to fade, or was most fully expressed in more egalitarian western locations. In urban areas the social movement also had a major impact, but here it tended to have a more conservative and institutional character that grew from the increasing distance between rich and poor created by the rapid economic growth of the early Industrial Revolution.
The social forces transforming the new nation had an especially strong impact on white women who, of course, could be found in families of all classes throughout the nation. As we have seen, the early Industrial Revolution began in the United States by taking advantage of young farm girls' labor. Meanwhile, the Second Great Awakening was largely driven forward by middle-class women who were its earliest converts and who filled evangelical churches in numbers far beyond their proportion in the general population. Furthermore, the Benevolent Empire included an institutional place for respectable women who formed important women's auxiliaries to almost all of the new Christian reform organizations.
On July 4, 1826, less than two years before "King Andrew" ascended to the "throne," the Yankee John Adams and the aristocratic Virginian Thomas Jefferson both passed away. America's Revolutionary generation was gone. With them went the last vestiges of the Federalist and Republican parties. This helped to bring about a new balance of political power, and with it two new political parties. The 1828 election was portrayed by Jackson's Democrats as proof of the "common people's right" to pick a President. No longer were Virginia Presidents and northern money-men calling the shots. Class systems were breaking down. To that end, some states had recently abolished property requirements for voting. These poorer folk supported General Jackson.
The development of railroads was one of the most important phenomena of the Industrial Revolution. With their formation, construction and operation, they brought profound social, economic and political change to a country only 50 years old. Over the next 50 years, America would come to see magnificent bridges and other structures on which trains would run, awesome depots, ruthless rail magnates and the majesty of rail locomotives crossing the country.
Modern wars are not confined to the battlefield. Americans in the North and South contributed to the war effort unlike civilians of any previous conflict. The political leaders in the Union and Confederacy each had battles of their own to wage. The Civil War would also require a complete revolution in the economies of both regions. The results of such changes would not only determine the outcome of the war, but would utterly transform the new nation politically, socially, and economically.
The United States has a long history of activists seeking social, political, economic, and other changes to Americaalong with a history of other activists trying to prevent such changes. American activism covered a wide range of causes and utilized many different forms of activism. American sociopolitical activism became especially prominent during the period of societal upheaval which began during the 1950s. The African American civil rights movement led the way, soon followed by a substantial anti-war movement opposing American involvement in the Vietnam War, and later by vigorous activism involving womens issues, gay rights, and other causes. The United States remains a land of nearly constant change, and activists play a significant role in the ongoing evolution of American democracy. It seems likely that Americans will remain enthusiastic activists in the future. This exhibition is part of the Digital Library of Georgia.
The boycott is one of the most powerful, time-tested tactics that social movements have at their disposal. History offers many examples of people joining together to exercise their power as consumers in support of movements for social justice, civil rights, and workers' rights. By calling for people to not spend their money on a target good or service, boycotts can aid these movements by drawing on a wider base of supporters who would otherwise be unable to participate.
This lesson examines the historical development of the boycott as a tactic - with examples of its use by both progressives and conservatives - and looks at some recent boycotts that are related to hot-button political issues.
- Material Type:
- Lesson Plan
- Morningside Center for Teaching Social Responsibility
- Provider Set:
- Teachable Moment
- Mark Engler
- Date Added:
The Community Tool Box is a free, online resource for those working to build healthier communities and bring about social change. Our mission is to promote community health and development by connecting people, ideas, and resources. The Community Tool Box is a public service developed and managed by the KU Center for Community Health and Development and partners nationally and internationally. The Tool Box is a part of the Center’s role as a designated World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Community Health and Development.
Professors and instructors from various disciplines use the Community Tool Box as a resource for their teaching. The Tool Box is often used as course text in the fields of public health, community psychology, nursing, social welfare, and other applied fields.
Chapter 1. Our Model for Community Change and Improvement
Chapter 2. Other Models for Promoting Community Health and Development
Chapter 3. Assessing Community Needs and Resources
Chapter 4. Getting Issues on the Public Agenda
Chapter 5. Choosing Strategies to Promote Community Health and Development
Chapter 6. Communications to Promote Interest
Chapter 7. Encouraging Involvement in Community Work
Chapter 8. Developing a Strategic Plan
Chapter 9. Developing an Organizational Structure for the Initiative
Chapter 10. Hiring and Training Key Staff of Community Organizations
Chapter 11. Recruiting and Training Volunteers
Chapter 12. Providing Training and Technical Assistance
Chapter 13. Orienting Ideas in Leadership
Chapter 14. Core Functions in Leadership
Chapter 15. Becoming an Effective Manager
Chapter 16. Group Facilitation and Problem-Solving
Chapter 17. Analyzing Community Problems and Solutions
Chapter 18. Deciding Where to Start
Chapter 19. Choosing and Adapting Community Interventions
Chapter 20. Providing Information and Enhancing Skills
Chapter 21. Enhancing Support, Incentives, and Resources
Chapter 22. Youth Mentoring Programs
Chapter 23. Modifying Access, Barriers, and Opportunities
Chapter 24. Improving Services
Chapter 25. Changing Policies
Chapter 26. Changing the Physical and Social Environment
Chapter 27. Cultural Competence in a Multicultural World
Chapter 28. Spirituality and Community Building
Chapter 29. The Arts and Community Building
Chapter 30. Principles of Advocacy
Chapter 31. Conducting Advocacy Research
Chapter 32. Providing Encouragement and Education
Chapter 33. Conducting a Direct Action Campaign
Chapter 34. Media Advocacy
Chapter 35. Responding to Counterattacks
Chapter 36. Introduction to Evaluation
Chapter 37. Operations in Evaluating Community Interventions
Chapter 38. Some Methods for Evaluating Comprehensive Community Initiatives
Chapter 39. Using Evaluation to Understand and Improve the Initiative
Chapter 40. Maintaining Quality Performance
Chapter 41. Rewarding Accomplishments
Chapter 42. Getting Grants and Financial Resources
Chapter 43. Managing Finances
Chapter 44. Investing in Community Resources
Chapter 45. Social Marketing of Successful Components of the Initiative
Chapter 46. Planning for Sustainability
Sample syllabi are also available: https://ctb.ku.edu/en/teaching-with-the-community-tool-box
This powerful volume represents the broadest engagement with disability issues in South Africa yet. Themes include: theoretical approaches to and representations of disability, governmental and civil society responses to disability, aspects of education as these pertain to the oppression, liberation of disabled people, social security for disabled people, the complex politics permeating service, provision relationships and consideration of disability in relation to human spaces, physical, economic and philosophical. Noteworthy, is the inclusivity of its nearly fifty contributors, many of whom write both as disabled South Africans and as educators, , linguists, psychologists, human rights activists, entrepreneurs, mental health practitioners, academics, and NGO and government officials. Equally stimulating is the range of writing styles, including interviews, a provocatively stark contrasting of voices in a chapter on Psychiatric Disability and Social Change, various well-crafted articles on theoretical issues, and the autobiographical style of many of the contributions. Firmly located within the social model of disability, this collection will resonate powerfully with contemporary thinking and research in the disability field and will set the benchmark for cutting-edge debates in a transforming South Africa.
This accredited journal publishes contributions from any field of education. While the emphasis is on empirical research, theoretical or methodological papers, review articles, short communications, book reviews and letters containing fair commentary on previously published articles will also be considered. Priority is given to articles that are relevant to Africa or that address cross-cultural topics, and to contributions addressing educational issues of social change and development.
- Business and Communication
- Material Type:
- Teaching/Learning Strategy
- OER Africa
- University of Johannesburg, Centre for Education Practice Research
- Date Added:
The 12th grade learning experience consists of 7 mostly month-long units aligned to the Common Core State Standards, with available course material for teachers and students easily accessible online. Over the course of the year there is a steady progression in text complexity levels, sophistication of writing tasks, speaking and listening activities, and increased opportunities for independent and collaborative work. Rubrics and student models accompany many writing assignments.Throughout the 12th grade year, in addition to the Common Read texts that the whole class reads together, students each select an Independent Reading book and engage with peers in group Book Talks. Language study is embedded in every 12th grade unit as students use annotation to closely review aspects of each text. Teacher resources provide additional materials to support each unit.
The laws that govern and the social norms that regulate society are not always fair, legal, moral, or ethical. What is a person to do about all this injustice? What are the hazards of righting injustices or changing social norms? And what are the dangers of doing nothing?
Students read and annotate Antigone, “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” and Pygmalion.
Students write a literary analysis showing the effect of social class or the law on a character’s life.
These questions are a guide to stimulate thinking, discussion, and writing on the themes and ideas in the unit. For complete and thoughtful answers and for meaningful discussions, students must use evidence based on careful reading of the texts.
How do social class and legal institutions shape literary characters’ lives (and presumably our lives)?
How does social class affect a person in dealing with the law (protect a person, hurt a person)?
How is social class determined in America and in other places in the world?
BENCHMARK ASSESSMENT: Cold Read
During this unit, on a day of your choosing, we recommend you administer a Cold Read to assess students’ reading comprehension. For this assessment, students read a text they have never seen before and then respond to multiple-choice and constructed-response questions. The assessment is not included in this course materials.