Ratios Type of Unit: Concept Prior Knowledge Students should be able to: …

Ratios

Type of Unit: Concept

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Calculate with whole numbers up to 100 using all four operations. Understand fraction notation and percents and translate among fractions, decimal numbers, and percents. Interpret and use a number line. Use tables to solve problems. Use tape diagrams to solve problems. Sketch and interpret graphs. Write and interpret equations.

Lesson Flow

The first part of the unit begins with an exploration activity that focuses on a ratio as a way to compare the amount of egg and the amount of flour in a mixture. The context motivates a specific understanding of the use of, and need for, ratios as a way of making comparisons between quantities. Following this lesson, the usefulness of ratios in comparing quantities is developed in more detail, including a contrast to using subtraction to find differences. Students learn to interpret and express ratios as fractions, as decimal numbers, in a:b form, in words, and as data; they also learn to identify equivalent ratios.

The focus of the middle part of the unit is on the tools used to represent ratio relationships and on simplifying and comparing ratios. Students learn to use tape diagrams first, then double number lines, and finally ratio tables and graphs. As these tools are introduced, students use them in problem-solving contexts to solve ratio problems, including an investigation of glide ratios. Students are asked to make connections and distinctions among these forms of representation throughout these lessons. Students also choose a ratio project in this part of the unit (Lesson 8).

The third and last part of the unit covers understanding percents, including those greater than 100%.

Students have ample opportunities to check, deepen, and apply their understanding of ratios, including percents, with the selection of problems in the Gallery.

Four full-year digital course, built from the ground up and fully-aligned to …

Four full-year digital course, built from the ground up and fully-aligned to the Common Core State Standards, for 7th grade Mathematics. Created using research-based approaches to teaching and learning, the Open Access Common Core Course for Mathematics is designed with student-centered learning in mind, including activities for students to develop valuable 21st century skills and academic mindset.

Proportional Relationships Type of Unit: Concept Prior Knowledge Students should be able …

Proportional Relationships

Type of Unit: Concept

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Understand what a rate and ratio are. Make a ratio table. Make a graph using values from a ratio table.

Lesson Flow

Students start the unit by predicting what will happen in certain situations. They intuitively discover they can predict the situations that are proportional and might have a hard time predicting the ones that are not. In Lessons 2–4, students use the same three situations to explore proportional relationships. Two of the relationships are proportional and one is not. They look at these situations in tables, equations, and graphs. After Lesson 4, students realize a proportional relationship is represented on a graph as a straight line that passes through the origin. In Lesson 5, they look at straight lines that do not represent a proportional relationship. Lesson 6 focuses on the idea of how a proportion that they solved in sixth grade relates to a proportional relationship. They follow that by looking at rates expressed as fractions, finding the unit rate (the constant of proportionality), and then using the constant of proportionality to solve a problem. In Lesson 8, students fine-tune their definition of proportional relationship by looking at situations and determining if they represent proportional relationships and justifying their reasoning. They then apply what they have learned to a situation about flags and stars and extend that thinking to comparing two prices—examining the equations and the graphs. The Putting It Together lesson has them solve two problems and then critique other student work.

Gallery 1 provides students with additional proportional relationship problems.

The second part of the unit works with percents. First, percents are tied to proportional relationships, and then students examine percent situations as formulas, graphs, and tables. They then move to a new context—salary increase—and see the similarities with sales taxes. Next, students explore percent decrease, and then they analyze inaccurate statements involving percents, explaining why the statements are incorrect. Students end this sequence of lessons with a formative assessment that focuses on percent increase and percent decrease and ties it to decimals.

Students have ample opportunities to check, deepen, and apply their understanding of proportional relationships, including percents, with the selection of problems in Gallery 2.

Students analyze the graph of a proportional relationship in order to find …

Students analyze the graph of a proportional relationship in order to find the approximate constant of proportionality, to write the related formula, and to create a table of values that lie on the graph.Key ConceptsThe constant of proportionality determines the steepness of the straight-line graph that represents a proportional relationship. The steeper the line is, the greater the constant of proportionality.On the graph of a proportional relationship, the constant of proportionality is the constant ratio of y to x, or the slope of the line.A proportional relationship can be represented in different ways: a ratio table, a graph of a straight line through the origin, or an equation of the form y = kx, where k is the constant of proportionality.Goals and Learning ObjectivesIdentify the constant of proportionality from a graph that represents a proportional relationship.Write a formula for a graph that represents a proportional relationship.Make a table for a graph that represents a proportional relationship.Relate the constant of proportionality to the steepness of a graph that represents a proportional relationship (i.e., the steeper the line is, the greater the constant of proportionality).

Students connect percent to proportional relationships in the context of sales tax.Key …

Students connect percent to proportional relationships in the context of sales tax.Key ConceptsWhen there is a constant tax percent, the total cost for items purchase—including the price and the tax—is proportional to the price.To find the cost, c , multiply the price of the item, p, by (1 + t), where t is the tax percent, written as a decimal: c = p(1 + t).The constant of proportionality is (1 + t) because of the structure of the situation:c = p + tp = p(1 + t).Because of the distributive property, multiplying the price by (1 + t) means multiplying the price by 1, then multiplying the price by t, and then taking the sum of these products.Goals and Learning ObjectivesFind the total cost in a sales tax situation.Understand that a proportional relationship only exists between the price of an item and the total cost of the item if the sales tax is constant.Find the constant of proportionality in a sales tax situation.Make a graph of an equation showing the relationship between the price of an item and the total amount paid.

Students create equations, tables, and graphs to show the proportional relationships in …

Students create equations, tables, and graphs to show the proportional relationships in sales tax situations.Key ConceptsThe quantities—price, tax, and total cost—can each be known or unknown in a given situation, but if you know two quantities, you can figure out the missing quantity using the structure of the relationship among them.If either the price or the total cost are unknown, you can write an equation of the form y = kx, with k as the known value (1 + tax), and solve for x or y.If the tax is the unknown value, you can write an equation of the form y = kx and solve for k, and then subtract 1 from this value to find the tax (as a decimal value).Building a general model for the relationship among all three quantities helps you sort out what you know and what you need to find out.Goals and Learning ObjectivesMake a table to organize known and unknown quantities in a sales tax problem.Write and solve an equation to find an unknown quantity in a sales tax problem.Make a graph to represent a table of values.Determine the unknown amount—either the price of an item, the amount of the sales tax, or the total cost—in a sales tax situation when given the other two amounts.

Allow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus far …

Allow students who have a clear understanding of the content thus far in the unit to work on Gallery problems of their choosing. You can then use this time to provide additional help to students who need review of the unit's concepts or to assist students who may have fallen behind on work.Gallery DescriptionSolving Percent ProblemsStudents understand the structure of percent problems by analyzing many problems.Running a Clothing StoreStudents help the owner of a clothing store determine how to get the greatest profit.Less FatStudents determine the percentage of fat in whole milk.10% MoreStudents evaluate three statements from Huey, Dewey, and Louie and determine which statement is correct.Free SpaceStudents determine which of two hard drives has the most free space.

Students are given a collection of statements that are incorrect. Their task …

Students are given a collection of statements that are incorrect. Their task is to construct arguments about why the statements are flawed and then correct the flawed statements.Key ConceptsPercent change is a rate of change of an original amount.In two situations with the same percent change but different original amounts, the percent amount will be different because the percent amount depends directly on the original amount. For example: 50% of 20 is 10. 50% of 10 is 5.Similarly, in two situations with the same amount of increase but different original amounts, the percent change of each amount is different. For example: Suppose two amounts increase by $5. If one original amount is $20, the increase is 25%. If the other original amount is $25, the increase is 20%.Goals and Learning ObjectivesIdentify errors in reasoning in percent situations.Use examples to explain why the reasoning is incorrect.

Students represent and solve percent increase problems.Key ConceptsWhen there is a percent …

Students represent and solve percent increase problems.Key ConceptsWhen there is a percent increase between a starting amount and a final amount, the relationship can be represented by an equation of the form y = kx where y is the final amount, x is the starting amount, and k is the constant of proportionality, which is equal to 1 plus the percent change, p, represented as a decimal: k = 1 + p, so y = (1 + p)x.The constant of proportionality k has the value it does—a number greater than 1—because of the way the distributive property can be used to simplify the expression for the starting amount increased by a percent of the starting amount: x + x(p) = x(1 + p).Goals and Learning ObjectivesDetermine the unknown amount—either the starting amount, the percent change, or the final amount—in a percent increase situation when given the other two amounts.Make a table to represent a percent increase problem.Write and solve an equation to represent a percent increase problem.

In Part l of this two-part lesson, students use an interactive to …

In Part l of this two-part lesson, students use an interactive to place percent increase and percent decrease signs between monetary amounts to indicate the correct increase or decrease between the amounts of money. They must also place the correct decimal multiplier between the two amounts to show what decimal to multiply the original amount by to get the final amount.Key ConceptsStudents apply understanding of percent change situations to systematize and generalize patterns in relating two amounts by multiplication.Goals and Learning ObjectivesIdentify the percent increase or percent decrease between two amounts.Identify the decimal multiplier that when multiplied by the original amount results in the final amount.Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

Students will breed fruit flies through several generations and record their data …

Students will breed fruit flies through several generations and record their data using mathematical models in order to demonstrate the inheritance of trait variations.

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