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1a. Diversity of Native American Groups
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Since 1492, European explorers and settlers have tended to ignore the vast diversity of the people who had previously lived here. It soon became common to lump all such groups under the term "Indian." In the modern American world, we still do. There are certain experiences common to the survivors of these tribes. They all have had their lands compromised in some way and suffered the horrors of reservation life.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
10/16/2014
1c. The Algonkian Tribes
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When the British set foot on the North American continent at Jamestown, they encountered the Powhatan Indians. The Pequots and Narragansetts lived in New England as the Pilgrims and Puritans established a new home. William Penn encountered the Leni Lenape natives while settling "Penn's Woods." Although these tribes have great differences, they are linked linguistically. All of these tribes (or nations) speak an Algonquin language. These Algonkian (or Algonquian) groups were the first the English would encounter as these early settlements began to flourish.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
10/16/2014
1d. The Iroquois Tribes
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Technically speaking, "Iroquois" refers to a language rather than a particular tribe. In fact, the Iroquois consisted of five tribes prior to European colonization. Their society serves as an outstanding example of political and military organization, complex lifestyle, and an elevated role of women.

Subject:
U.S. History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
US History
Date Added:
10/16/2014
Avilal OER: Languages
Conditions of Use:
Remix and Share
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Overview:

On this webpage you will find several open Language textbooks along with supplemental material and a few lecture videos.
The purpose of these discipline specific pages is to display content that might be of interest to faculty who are considering adopting open educational resources for use in their classes. This list of content is by no means exhaustive. The nature of open educational resources is very collaborative and it is in that spirit that we encourage any comments about the content featured on this page or recommendations of content that are not already listed here.

Subject:
Languages
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Avila University
Author:
Larry J. Kramer
Date Added:
04/30/2019
The Bilingual Language Profile
Rating

There is great need to understand individuals' functional language abilities, not only in education but in commerce and public policy discussion. The aim is to quantify language use patterns, proficiency, and dominance in the two languages of bilinguals. The Bilingual Language Profile (BLP) is an instrument for assessing language dominance through self-reports that is concise, quick, and easy to use. The BLP is intended to produce a continuous dominance score and a general bilingual profile taking into account a variety of linguistic variables. The BLP is an open and free assessment tool for researchers, educators, and anyone with an interest in assessing language dominance.

Subject:
Languages
Material Type:
Assessment
Provider:
University of Texas at Austin
Provider Set:
COERLL
Author:
Birdsong, D., Gertken, L.M., & Amengual, M.
Date Added:
06/11/2012
Choral Diction-English and Latin
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This module represents a discussion of choral diction with particular attention to English and Latin diction. Questions are given to stimulate one's attention to specific diction problems and solutions. References are also provided.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
Connexions
Author:
Gordon Lamb
Date Added:
02/16/2011
Comment/How to DIY
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No Strings Attached
Rating

Step-by-step DIY tutorials for the world's almost 7000 languages. All tutorials are public domain or Creative Commons licensed. Anyone can copy any article so they can translate and localize it for their language and context.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
Individual Authors
Provider Set:
Individual Authors
Author:
Individual Authors
Date Added:
07/30/2011
Foreign Language
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
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Upon completion of this course you will be able to :

• Identify and use familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly.

• Identify and use phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local area, employment).

• catch the main point in short, clear, simple messages and announcements.

• read familiar names, words and very simple sentences, for example on notices and posters or in catalogues.

• read very short, simple texts.

• find specific, predictable information in simple everyday material such as advertisements, prospectuses, menus and timetables

• read short simple personal letters.

• interact in a simple way provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help you formulate what you are trying to say.

• ask and answer simple questions in areas of immediate need or on very familiar topics.

• communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities.

• handle very short social exchanges, even though you may not understand enough to keep the conversation going yourself.

• use simple phrases and sentences to describe where you live and people you know.

• use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms your family and other people, living conditions, your educational background and your present or most recent job.

• write a short, simple postcard, for example sending holiday greetings.

• fill in forms with personal details, for example entering your name, nationality and address on a hotel registration form.

• write short, simple notes and messages.

• write a very simple personal letter, for example thanking someone for something.

Subject:
Languages
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
African Virtual University
Provider Set:
OER@AVU
Author:
Karen Ferreira Meyers
Date Added:
02/10/2018
Keys to Understanding the Middle East
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This book is intended for readers who have never studied the Middle East, or experts who may wish to fill gaps in their knowledge of the region from other disciplines. Whether for establishing or deepening one's knowledge of the region, these fundamentals are important to know. The languages, cultural, religious and sectarian communities of the region, and selected turning points and influential people in history are starting points for gaining an understanding of the diverse contexts of the region. It isbased on introductoryand graduatecourseson thecontemporaryMiddle East, which the Center's director, Dr. Alam Payind, has been teaching for the past 30 years. The book's co-author,Melinda McClimans,hastaught these and other courses with him, as well as her own,for the past 15years. The material isintendedengage with diverse – even conflicting – culturaland historicalperspectives,andways of perceivingboth Middle Easternandworld historyfrom perspectives within the region. It is not intended to reinforce a monolithic or matter-of-fact perception of the region.For this and many other reasons, images are an important aspect of the knowledge presented. Each chapter starts with links to its image galleries, along with other visual aids and key elements.

Subject:
World Cultures
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
The Ohio State University
Provider Set:
Pressbooks
Author:
Alam Payind
Melinda McClimans
Date Added:
01/01/2017
Language and its Structure II: Syntax, Fall 2003
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Introduction to fundamental concepts in syntactic theory and its relation to issues in philosophy and cognitive psychology. Examples and exercises from a variety of languages. This course will acquaint you with some of the important results and ideas of the last half - century of research in syntax. We will explore a large number of issues and a large amount of data so that you can learn something of what this field is all about. From time to time, we will discuss related work in language acquisition and processing. The class will emphasize ideas and arguments for these ideas in addition to the the details of particular analyses. At the same time, you will learn the mechanics of one particular approach (sometimes called Principles and Parameters syntax). Most of all, the course tries to show why the study of syntax is exciting, and why its results are important to researchers in other language sciences. The class assumes some familiarity with basic concepts of theoretical linguistics, of the sort you could acquire in 24.900.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Linguistics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Pesetsky, David Michael
Date Added:
01/01/2003
The Lexicon and Its Features, Spring 2007
Conditions of Use:
Remix and Share
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This course provides an overview of the distinctive features which distinguish sound categories of languages of the world. Theories which relate these categories to their acoustic and articulatory correlates, both universally and in particular languages are covered. Models of word recognition by listeners, features, and phonological structure are also discussed. In addition, the course offers a variety of perspectives on these issues, drawn from Electrical Engineering, Linguistics and Cognitive Science.

Subject:
Linguistics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Flemming, Edward
Gow, David
Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie
Steriade, Donca
Stevens, Kenneth
Date Added:
01/01/2007
LookLex
Conditions of Use:
Read the Fine Print
Rating

Looklex Encyclopedia is a Norway based media whose intent is to introduce and present the diverse countries in North Africa and the Middle East along with their cultures to a predominantly western audience. This resource offers a variety of accredited articles in the fields of education, religion, modern countries, languages, economy, health, politics, ancient civilizations and much more. The encyclopedia also offers an atlas of several civilizations throughout different time periods in addition to travel guides.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Languages
World Cultures
Material Type:
Reading
Provider:
LexicOrient
Date Added:
10/14/2013
The Magic of Sound, e-knjiga – XV. gimnazija
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This e-book is one of the results of the international project “The Magic of Sound” coordinated by XV. gimnazija, Zagreb, Croatia, with the partners: Devonport High School for Girls, Plymouth, United Kingdom, Justus-von-Liebig Gymnasium, Neußäs, Germany and Colegiul National Moise Nicoara, Arad, Romania. The project was funded by the European Union through the program Erasmus+.
Based on the existing curricula of all participating schools, we produced the teaching/ learning materials which could make education more interesting. As they are independent from the school system, they can be shared and further developed on a broad base.
The developed teaching/ learning materials and methods integrate the teaching of basic skills, as in science, mathematics, literacy and arts, and present strategies on how to simultaneously give students deeper insights into the global picture. They also provide students with the tools to interconnect their knowledge and apply it in different fields, which still presents one of the biggest challenges in education on the overall.
We chose sound as a topic because we found that it can be perfectly integrated in the subject curricula of Physics, Mathematics, Music, Languages, Biology, History and Psychology in all four countries. The sub-topics are organised in four groups around the main subjects - O1: Magic of Music, O2: Sounds in Nature, O3: Sounds of Europe, O4: Theory of Sound- which allowed us to establish a solid basis for the interdisciplinary teaching. In the final sub-topic, O5: The Magic of Sound, the techniques and examples on how to reorganise the materials in an arbitrary context are presented.
The materials are presented in a variety of forms: worksheets, methodological instructions, presentations, videos, quizzes, etc. There are examples of completely developed interdisciplinary units, but there are also shorter pieces that incorporate elements of general knowledge or other subject- specific links which enrich the teaching of a primary subject without overloading it. Some materials include evidence of students’ work.
Most of the materials are given in four languages of the participating countries, all of them in the English language. Topics to be incorporated in the teaching of languages are structured as follows: French is given separately, because it is not one of the four “official” languages, English given only in the sections in English, and German is given in all sections.
Some materials allow students to see the opportunities for future employment within the EU in the context of what has been taught, and to realize that being a part of Europe does not mean losing their identity, but enhance it in many positive ways. Together we are stronger.

Subject:
Education
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Game
Lecture Notes
Lesson
Lesson Plan
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Unit of Study
Author:
Aneta Copić
Augustini Moraru Romu
Bernarda Mlinarić
Biljana Agotić Smital
Branco Arsenov
Cristina Puscas
Csaba Major
Dana Camenita
Denise Broadbent
Eva Špalj
Fotini Morris
Hellen Crowther
Iva Čorak
Katharina Eymann
Katherine Little
Lavinia Pirvu
Liliana Lavinia Negrila
Loreana Selišek Butina
Ovidiu Bodrogean
Ozana Bijelonjić
Paul Edwards
Philipp Denk
Sandra Markota Sever
Sanja Antoliš
Sanja Vučetić
Sebastian Kirscher
Virginia Götze
Zrinka Mavračić
Date Added:
12/12/2017
Multimedia toolkit – OpenSpeaks
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
Rating

When languages die, they take away the knowledge preserved in them. At least one language is dying in every second week. Think about the indigenous culture, and cuisine, and weaving techniques, the unique soothing music, the dance forms, and many more that have only been ascribed in a particular language—they are too valuable to lose. We can create a lot with AI, but who does not want to play a digital game or even a board game that is recreated from an indigenous game-play?It’s a great benefit to live in an era that has such powerful digital tools to document and grow languages for many generations that are yet to come. This is probably the right time to think how we can take the advantage of openness—that contains the open source software, the open educational resource, the open processes and communities, and a diverse range of outcomes in open standards—to transform the state of many endangered languages.

Subject:
Languages
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Author:
Subhashish Panigrahi
Date Added:
07/19/2017
Multithreaded Parallelism: Languages and Compilers, Fall 2002
Conditions of Use:
Remix and Share
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Languages and compilers to exploit multithreaded parallelism. Implicit parallel programming using functional languages and their extensions. Higher-order functions, non-strictness, and polymorphism. Explicit parallel programming and nondeterminism. The lambda calculus and its variants. Term rewriting and operational semantics. Compiling multithreaded code for symmetric multiprocessors and clusters. Static analysis and compiler optimizations.

Subject:
Computer Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
MIT
Provider Set:
MIT OpenCourseWare
Author:
Arvind, V.
Date Added:
01/01/2002
Principles of Database Systems
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
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This course examines the underlying concepts and theory of database management systems. The course takes the learner through the foundations of database systems, focusing on basics such as the relational algebra and data model, schema normalization. The course focus is mainly on relational data models and relational query operations, together with SQL for data definitions and queries. The course offers a learner an introduction to the design and programming of database system Topics include : Data models, schemas, and Instances; Database language and Interfaces ; Data modeling using the Entity-relationship model ; Relational model concepts; Update operations; Relational algebra and the use of SQL in a programming environment.

Subject:
Computer Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
African Virtual University
Provider Set:
OER@AVU
Author:
John Kandiri
Date Added:
02/22/2018
Problem-Based Units for Advanced Students of Spanish
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The purpose of these PBL units is to provide advanced students of Spanish (generally 3rd and 4th year college students) a series of compelling problems from Spanish culture and society. Each unit introduces a problem that students must solve collaboratively in small teams (4-6) over the course of approximately four weeks, assuming 2-3 class meetings per week. The instructor coaches the teams as they seek to fill gaps in understanding, revise hypotheses to incorporate new knowledge, and craft solutions that recognize various perspectives on the problem. Each unit is based on particular objectives, but the skills and processes students will exercise are the same across all units: collaborative problem solving, self-directed research and synthesis of information, argumentation based on sound evidence, and communication in Spanish. 

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Languages
World Cultures
Higher Education
Material Type:
Module
Author:
David Thompson
Date Added:
03/06/2018
SPA 101.pdf
Conditions of Use:
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This is a book written by a community college Spanish instructor. It contains explanations, examples, fill-in-the-blank activities, reading activities, writing activities and speaking activities. The grammar and vocabulary covered in this book are in line with the state-wide accepted goals and objectives for grammar at the 101 level in Arizona. If you would like an editable version of the book, or learn how to make this type of book, feel free to contact me at jared.reynolds@yc.edu.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Languages
Higher Education
Material Type:
Full Course
Homework/Assignment
Textbook
Author:
Jared Reynolds
Date Added:
10/05/2018