The purpose of this task is to give students experience in using ...

The purpose of this task is to give students experience in using simulation to determine if observed results are consistent with a given model (in this case, the Ňjust guessingÓ model). Part (i) also addresses the role of random assignment in the design of an experiment and assesses understanding of this concept.

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how ...

This task examines, from a mathematical and statistical point of view, how scientists measure the age of organic materials by measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 to Carbon 12. The focus here is on the statistical nature of such dating. This task addresses a very important issue about precision in reporting and understanding statements in a realistic scientific context.

This task lets students explore the concepts of probability as a fraction ...

This task lets students explore the concepts of probability as a fraction of outcomes, and using two-way tables of data. The special emphasis is on developing their understanding of conditional probability and independence. This task could be used as a group activity where students cooperate to formulate a plan of how to answer each question and calculate the appropriate probabilities. The task could lead to extended class discussions about the different ways of using probability to justify general claims.

This task involves two aspects of statistical reasoning: providing a probabilistic model ...

This task involves two aspects of statistical reasoning: providing a probabilistic model for the situation at hand, and defining a way to collect data to determine whether or not the observed data is reasonably likely to occur under the chosen model. When guessing between two choices, there is no reason to suspect that one outcome is more likely than the other. Thus, a model that assumes the two outcomes to be equally likely (such as flipping a coin) is appropriate.

This is a very open ended task. It poses the question, but ...

This is a very open ended task. It poses the question, but the students have to formulate a plan to answer it, and use the two-way table of data to find all the necessary probabilities. The special emphasis is on developing their understanding of conditional probability and independence. This task could be used as a group activity where students cooperate to formulate a plan of how to answer the question and calculate the appropriate probabilities. The task could lead to extended class discussions about the different ways of using probability to justify general claims.

This task addresses many standards regarding the description and analysis of bivariate ...

This task addresses many standards regarding the description and analysis of bivariate quantitative data, including regression and correlation. Students should recognize that the pattern shown is one of a strong, positive, linear association, and thus a correlation coefficient value near +1 is plausible. Students should also be able to interpret the slope of the least-squares line as an estimated increase in y per unit change in x (and thus for a 3 unit increase in x, students should expect an estimated increase in y that equals 3 times the model's slope value).

In this task, output is given from a computer-generated simulation, generating size-100 ...

In this task, output is given from a computer-generated simulation, generating size-100 samples of data from an assumed school population of 2000 students under hypotheses about the true distribution of yes/no voters.

The purpose of this task is to assess a student's ability to ...

The purpose of this task is to assess a student's ability to compute and interpret an expected value. Notice that interpreting expected value requires thinking in terms of a long-run average.

Using this lesson worksheet, computers and a simple programming interface, students step ...

Using this lesson worksheet, computers and a simple programming interface, students step through and build a simple program to sequentially calculate all of the variables in the Hardy Weinberg equations. By building the program in sequence it is hoped that students will learn the sequence to solve a Hardy Weinberg problem and appreciate the value and power of computer number crunching capabilities as well as sequential programming considerations.

By building a program to determine the valence of ANY element on ...

By building a program to determine the valence of ANY element on the first three rows of the Periodic table, students learn the steps to solve the problem while learning how to program logic and think about processing data in sequence. NOTE: The worksheet includes the option of letting students create a bug that they have to fix.

This professional development article identifies resources that show young learners (K-grade 5) ...

This professional development article identifies resources that show young learners (K-grade 5) how scientists study Earth's climate and make predictions. The online lessons either allow students to collect and analyze data or learn about tools and technologies that make data collection possible. The lessons are aligned with national content standards for science education. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which examines the recognized essential principles of climate literacy and the climate sciences for elementary teachers and their students.

The lessons posted on this site were designed to engage students with ...

The lessons posted on this site were designed to engage students with real-world data relevant to content taught in middle school and high school science courses, and to foster an understanding of ways in which they might gather organize, analyze and interpret the data in order to draw scientifically valid inferences, interpretations and conclusions. Most of the labs use computer-based technology of spreadsheet programs or the Python programming interface. The Python lessons guide students in computational thinking to create simple programs to manipulate data. The lessons also provide students (and teachers) with instructions and guidance in the use of these technologies. Teacher and Student worksheets, as well as any supporting files, are linked to from links at the top of each lesson webpage as well as from the downloads page ("downloads" link on the scrolling menu to the left).

This task requires students to use the normal distribution as a model ...

This task requires students to use the normal distribution as a model for a data distribution. Students must use given means and standard deviations to approximate population percentages. There are several ways (tables, graphing calculators, or statistical software) that students might calculate the required normal percentages. Depending on the method used, answers might vary somewhat from those shown in the solution.

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