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Alternative Fuels from Biomass Sources
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Is climate change real? Yes, it is! And technologies to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are being developed. One type of technology that is imperative in the short run is biofuels; however, biofuels must meet specifications for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, or catastrophic damage could occur. This course will examine the chemistry of technologies of bio-based sources for power generation and transportation fuels. We'll consider various biomasses that can be utilized for fuel generation, understand the processes necessary for biomass processing, explore biorefining, and analyze how biofuels can be used in current fuel infrastructure.

Subject:
Chemistry
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences (http
Penn State University
Provider Set:
// e-education.psu.edu/oer/)
Author:
Caroline Clifford
Date Added:
10/07/2019
Biology
Conditions of Use:
No Strings Attached
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Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand. To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.

Subject:
Life Science
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Date Added:
08/22/2012
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Biology, The Cell, Cellular Respiration, Metabolism without Oxygen
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By the end of this section, you will be able to:Discuss the fundamental difference between anaerobic cellular respiration and fermentationDescribe the type of fermentation that readily occurs in animal cells and the conditions that initiate that fermentation

Subject:
Applied Science
Life Science
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Author:
Tina B. Jones
Biology, The Cell, Cellular Respiration, Metabolism without Oxygen
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By the end of this section, you will be able to:Discuss the fundamental difference between anaerobic cellular respiration and fermentationDescribe the type of fermentation that readily occurs in animal cells and the conditions that initiate that fermentation

Subject:
Applied Science
Life Science
Biology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Cellular Respiration and Population Growth
Conditions of Use:
Read the Fine Print
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Two lessons and their associated activities explore cellular respiration and population growth in yeasts. Yeast cells are readily obtained and behave predictably, so they are very appropriate to use in middle school classrooms. In the first lesson, students are introduced to yeast respiration through its role in the production of bread and alcoholic beverages. A discussion of the effects of alcohol on the human body is used both as an attention-getting device, and as a means to convey important information at an impressionable age. In the associated activity, students set up a simple way to indirectly observe and quantify the amount of respiration occurring in yeast-molasses cultures. Based on questions that arise from this activity, in the second lesson students work in small groups as they design and execute their own experiments to determine how environmental factors affect yeast population growth.

Subject:
Engineering
Environmental Science
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
TeachEngineering
Provider Set:
TeachEngineering
Author:
Mary R. Hebrank
Date Added:
01/31/2007
Chemistry of Cooking
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People around the world are fascinated about the preparation of food for eating. There are countless cooking books, TV shows, celebrity chefs and kitchen gadgets that make cooking an enjoyable activity for everyone. The chemistry of cooking course seeks to understand the science behind our most popular meals by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules present in food. This book is intended to give students a basic understanding of the chemistry involved in cooking such as caramelization, Maillard reaction, acid-base reactions, catalysis, and fermentation. Students will be able to use chemistry language to describe the process of cooking, apply chemistry knowledge to solve questions related to food, and ultimately create their own recipes.

Subject:
Culinary Arts
Chemistry
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Sorangel Rodriguez-Velazquez
Date Added:
01/01/2016
Exploring Microbial Fermentation with Korean Kimchee
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To get a closer look at metabolism and succession, consider the fermentation process for making traditional Kimchee. This non-pathogenic system provides opportunities for real time data acquisition and analysis. Experimental data is provided for variables such as pH and O2 levels. * measure key metabolic indicators and observe succession in a fermentation culture for making Kimchee

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Provider:
BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium
Provider Set:
Microbes Count!
Author:
John M. Greenler
Robin McC. Greenler
Date Added:
05/20/2006
Modeling Wine Fermentation
Conditions of Use:
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Humans have been producing wines for thousands of years. How did wine making get started? How has it changed? The Wine Mini-Model simulation enables us to explore the basic fermentation process as well as model enhancements such as the higher alcohol tolerance of cultivated yeasts used in modern wine making. * model the fermentation process in early and modern wines

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Simulation
Provider:
BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium
Provider Set:
Microbes Count!
Author:
Elisabeth C. Odum
Ethel D. Stanley
Howard T. Odum
Virginia G. Vaughan
Date Added:
05/20/2006
Molecular Structure of Biacetyl
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The study of 2,3-butanedione began with Pasteur s work in the 1870 s. The compound is found naturally in all beers during their fermentation process, as it is produced by yeast. Under normal circumstances the compound will be metabolized into chemicals with no flavor impact on beer. In 1939, 2,3-butandione was linked to the taste and smell of butter. Now, synthetic 2,3-butanedione is added to margarine as a butter flavor.

Subject:
Life Science
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Date Added:
10/11/2002
Molecular Structure of Carbon Dioxide
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Carbon dioxide was first described in the 17th century by Jan Baptist van Helmont, a Belgium chemist. The chemical CO2 is released into the atmosphere when carbon-containing fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal are burned in air. It is also produced by various microorganisms in fermentation and is breathed out by animals. Plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, using both the carbon and the oxygen to construct carbohydrates. Every year the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing. CO2 build-up in the atmosphere is caused by deforestation, therefore reducing the number of trees available to absorb CO2. Excess CO2 in the environment causes Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect. It is also toxic to humans since inhalation of large amounts of CO2 can cause suffocation. Some beverages, such as beer and sparkling wine contain carbon dioxide as a result of fermentation.

Subject:
Life Science
Ecology
Forestry and Agriculture
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Contributed by Indiana University
Date Added:
08/15/2002
Molecular Structure of D-(+)-Tartaric acid
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Tartaric acid is a natural white crystalline compound found in many plants such as tamarind and unripe grapes, giving the sour taste. This substance occurs in three distinct isomers (dextro, levo and meso forms) which differ in the optical activity and some physical properties such as boiling point. Tartaric acid is obtained naturally as a by-product of the fungus responsible for wine fermentation and it is also the principal flavor element in wine. Tartaric acid is found as an antioxidant in foods, as a raw material for the synthesis of other chiral compounds, and as a chemical intermediate in ceramics, photography, textile processing, mirror silvering and metal coloring. It can be synthesized from maleic acids or fumaric acids by reaction with aqueous potassium permanganate. Cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate), Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate) and tartar emetic (antimony potassium tartrate) are derivatives of tartaric acid in the form of its salt.

Subject:
Life Science
Chemistry
Material Type:
Data Set
Interactive
Provider:
Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
Provider Set:
Reciprocal Net: A Distributed Crystallography Network for Researchers, Students, and the General Public
Author:
Common molecules
Obtained courtesy of the Cambridge Structural Database
Date Added:
11/11/2004
What Do Bread and Beer Have in Common?
Conditions of Use:
Read the Fine Print
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Students are presented with information that will allow them to recognize that yeasts are unicellular organisms that are useful to humans. In fact, their usefulness is derived from the contrast between the way yeast cells and human cells respire. Specifically, while animal cells derive energy from the combination of oxygen and glucose and produce water and carbon dioxide as by-products, yeasts respire without oxygen. Instead, yeasts break glucose down and produce alcohol and carbon dioxide as their by-products. The lesson is also intended to provoke questions from students about the effects of alcohol on the human body, to which the teacher can provide objective answers.

Subject:
Engineering
Biology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Provider:
TeachEngineering
Provider Set:
TeachEngineering
Author:
Mary R. Hebrank
Date Added:
09/18/2014