The American Revolution needs to be understood in a broader framework than simply that of domestic events and national politics. The American Revolution started a trans-Atlantic Age of Revolution. Tom Paine, the author of Common Sense (1776), permits a biographical glimpse of the larger currents of revolutionary change in this period. Paine was English-born and had been in the American colonies less than two years when he wrote what would become the most popular publication of the American Revolution.
While western movement and policies were reshaping the republic, European wars also presented a major challenge to the new country. The Napoleonic Wars (1802-1815) were a continuation of the conflict begun in the 1790s when Great Britain lead a coalition of European powers against Revolutionary France, though France was now led by the brilliant military strategist Napoleon Bonaparte. As had also been true in the 1790s, neither European superpower respected the neutrality of the United States. Instead, both tried to prevent U.S. ships from carrying goods to their enemy. Both Britain and France imposed blockades to limit American merchants, though the dominant British navy was clearly more successful.
Most modern American citizens consider Great Britain to be their European "parent" country. However, by the time British arrived in the New World and established their first permanent settlement at Jamestown in 1607, much of the continent had already been claimed by other European nations.
Although many differences separated Spain and France from England, perhaps the factor that contributed most to distinct paths of colonization was the form of their government.
The time had finally come. British and American troops had liberated North Africa and pressed on into Italy. Soviet troops had turned the tide at Stalingrad and were slowly reclaiming their territory. The English Channel was virtually free of Nazi submarines, and American and British planes were bombing German industrial centers around the clock.
The British had an empire to run. The prevailing economic philosophy of seventeenth and eighteenth century empires was called mercantilism. In this system, the colonies existed to enrich the mother country. Restrictions were placed on what the colonies could manufacture, whose ships they could use, and most importantly, with whom they could trade. British merchants wanted American colonists to buy British goods, not French, Spanish, or Dutch products. In theory, Americans would pay duties on imported goods to discourage this practice. The Navigation Acts and the Molasses Act are examples of royal attempts to restrict colonial trade. Smuggling is the way the colonists ignored these restrictions.
Michel-Guillaume de Crčvecoeur was a French settler in the American colonies in the 1770s. Coming from France he could not believe the incredible diversity in the American colonies. Living in one area, he encountered people of English, Welsh, Scots-Irish, German, French, Irish, Swedish, Native American, and African descent. "What then is the American, this new man?" He could not be sure, but he knew it to be different from anything that could be found on the European side of the Atlantic.
The New World was only a small piece of a struggle for global domination between England and France. During the 1600s, France was the dominant power on the European continent, emerging victorious from the Thirty Years War. Louis XIV, the Sun King, built a palace at Versailles that made him the envy of every European monarch. French language, art, and literature prevailed on the continent. England, meanwhile, was in the throes of the only civil war in its history. As the century drew to a close, however, England was ready to start settling the New World.
By studying paintings from the Cave of Lascaux (France) and the Blombos Cave (South Africa), students will discover that pictures can be a way of communicating beliefs and ideas and can give us clues today about what life was like long ago.
For the most part recorded on site in places such as Subiaco, Montecassino, Assis, San Casciano, Florence and Rome in June of 2013, the documentary we present here was produced and then broadcasted by the State Television of Portugal on December 24, 2013 (RTP2) and January 2, 2014 (RTP1). The Program was produced for RTP1 by the Journalist Fátima Campos Ferreira and the Reporter of Image Carlos Oliveira under the scientific advice of João J. Vila-Chã, professor for Philosophy at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. The documentary was particularly enriched by the contribution of Professor Joseph Weiler, President of the European University Institute in Florence, and was edited by Alexandre Leandro, chief-editor at the RTP. Originally titled (in Portuguese) «O Triunfo do Espírito», the documentary was conceived as (a rather unusual form of) narrative about (the Idea of) Europe and out of the recognition that for the present as for the future of the world a confront remains unavoidable with the cultural and the religious dimension of the Idea of Europe as we know it through the media of our cultural (and philosophical) history. We are grateful to all the Institutions that in places such as Subiaco, Montecassino, Assis, Florence, San Casciano and Rome allowed the team sent by the RTP to Italy to realize the work as intended and so contributed in a decisive way to this particular (and somehow peculiar) narrative about the Idea of Europe.
In this study by the European Aluminium Association and FKA (Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen Aachen), a concept crash system for 40t trucks is developed based on the front end design used in the "APROSYS" study. The concept was built around European safety regulations in CAD software and simulated with an FE model using aluminum and steel. It was found that using an octagon shaped aluminum crush box would be the safest due to its characteristics of low weight, high energy absorption, and low technical complexity. Through additional testing it was also found if EU directive 96/53/EC could be modified to exclude cabin dimensions from its requirements, safer collisions for both parties would result.
Conversations with History host Harry Kreisler interviews Joseph Joffe, editor/publisher of Die Zeit, about the implications of the Bush Doctrine for U.S-European relations. (58 min)
Italian Journalist Federico Rampini joins Conversations host Harry Kreisler for a discussion of Italian politics and the role of globalization in the movement toward the uniting of Europe. (49 min)
Host Harry Kreisler welcomes The Right Honorable Lord Patten of Barnes CH for a discussion of the European UnionŐs common foreign and defense policy, relations between Europe and the United States, and the challenges posed by the emergence of the economies of China and India. Lord Patten also offers his reflections on diplomacy, enlargement, and the power of ideas in politics. (53 min)
UC Berkeley's Harry Kreisler welcomes author and columnist William Pfaff for a discussion of U.S. foreign policy, U.S.- European relations and the end of the Cold War. Pfaff reflects on hisĘ intellectual odyssey and comments on the role of the press in shaping U.S.opinion toward world politics. (60 min)
Historian Sir Michael Howard joins Conversations with History host Harry Kreisler for a discussion of the changes in Europe with the end of the Cold War. (53 min)
On this episode of Conversations with History, UC Berkeley's Harry Kreisler talks with Elizabeth Jones, Assistant Secretary of State for Europe and Eurasia, about U.S. foreign policy and the change after 9/11. (53 min)
Major developments in the political, social, and religious history of Western Europe from the accession of Diocletian to the feudal transformation. Topics include the conversion of Europe to Christianity, the fall of the Roman Empire, the rise of Islam and the Arabs, the "Dark Ages," Charlemagne and the Carolingian renaissance, and the Viking and Hungarian invasions.