Several assignments are used for this course, including writing lesson plans, writing a unit plan, creating supplemental items for the unit plan, and designing a classroom management plan. In my course, I assign two units with three lesson plans included in each unit. This is designed for Early Childhood, but it can be edited for secondary.
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Some students misbehave because they are trying to attract teacher attention. Surprisingly, many students who value adult attention don't really care if it is positive (praise) or negative attention (reprimands)--they just want attention!
Unfortunately, instructors with students who thrive on teacher attention can easily fall into a 'reprimand trap.' The scenario might unfold much like this: First, the student misbehaves. Then the teacher approaches the student and reprimands him or her for misbehaving. Because the student finds the negative teacher attention to be reinforcing, he or she continues to misbehave-and the teacher naturally responds by reprimanding the student more often! An escalating, predictable cycle is established, with the student repeatedly acting-out and teacher reprimanding him or her.
Teachers can break out of this cycle, though, by using 'random positive attention' with students. Essentially, the instructor starts to ignore student attention-seeking behaviors, while at the same time 'randomly' giving the student positive attention. That is, the student receives regular positive teacher attention but at times unconnected to misbehavior. So the student still gets the adult attention that he or she craves. More importantly, the link between student misbehavior and resulting negative teacher attention is broken.
Motivating a reluctant student to complete schoolwork is not easy. In a typical classroom, students can choose from a number of sources of potential reinforcement (Billington & DiTommaso, 2003)--and academic tasks often take a back seat to competing behaviors such as talking with peers. One way that teachers can increase the attractiveness of schoolwork is by structuring lessons or assignments around topics or activities of high interest to the student (Miller et al., 2003).In fact, with planning, the teacher can set up a 'trap' that uses motivating elements to capture a student's attention to complete academic tasks (Alber & Heward, 1996). Here is a 6-step blue-print for building an academic 'motivation trap' (adapted from Alber & Heward, 1996).
Students can sometimes have emotional outbursts in school settings. This fact will not surprise many teachers, who have had repeated experience in responding to serious classroom episodes of student agitation. Such outbursts can be attributed in part to the relatively high incidence of mental health issues among children and youth. It is estimated, for example, that at least one in five students in American schools will experience a mental health disorder by adolescence (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). But even students not identified as having behavioral or emotional disorders may occasionally have episodes of agitation triggered by situational factors such as peer bullying, frustration over poor academic performance, stressful family relationships, or perceived mistreatment by educators.
Ryan Berger is in the middle of his first year as a new Kindergarten teacher. He asks Jim Knight to observe a lesson and share strategies to help him specifically with transitioning students between centers. Mr. Knight looks for classroom management strategies he can recommend to help Mr. Berger improve class structure.Mr. Berger shares that transitioning from working with 5th graders to kindergarteners has been stressful and some of the strategies he previously used do not work as well with kindergarteners.Time used during transitions is a major focus of the discussion. They discuss ways to address content during transitions in order to make effective use of time. Finally, they discuss the importance for taking a step back to observe what students are doing well and what needs to be clarified.
This Module—a revision of Who's In Charge? Developing a Comprehensive Behavior Management System—highlights the importance of establishing a comprehensive classroom behavior management system composed of a statement of purpose, rules, procedures, consequences, and an action plan. It also provides information about how culture, classroom factors, and teacher actions can influence student behavior (est. completion time: 1 hour).
This Module—a revision of You're in Charge! Developing Your Own Comprehensive Behavior Management Plan—reviews the major components of classroom management (including rules, procedures, and consequences) and guides users through the steps of creating their own comprehensive behavior plan. The module is a companion to Classroom Management (Part 1): Learning the Components of a Comprehensive Behavior Management Plan (est. completion time: 2 hours).
Our approach to classroom management is based on the premise that students learn to make good choices independently and hold themselves accountable for their behavior. Self-management is always a process in need of refinement. Establishing routines is an essential part of this process. Routines give students a roadmap for important moments during their day and allow them to internalize and take ownership of their choices and move quickly into new learning experiences. This internalization, engagement, and ownership is achieved through the mindful scaffolding of routines.
he teacher's most important objective when faced with a defiant or non-compliant student is to remain outwardly calm. Educators who react to defiant behavior by becoming visibly angry, raising their voices, or attempting to intimidate the student may actually succeed only in making the student's oppositional behavior worse! While the strategies listed here may calm an oppositional student, their main purpose is to help the teacher to keep his or her cool. Remember: any conflict requires at least two people. A power struggle can be avoided if the instructor does not choose to take part in that struggle.
Galeet Cohen, 10th Grade Language Arts teacher at Central High in Pennsylvania, believes that adding humor to her interaction is essential. Galeet reminds us that teachers and students spend long days in classrooms, and humor can make it a good time.Ms. Cohen also uses humor to let students know she is aware of what they are doing and prefers her humor approach to strict rules or detention. She shares that sometimes students are "just testing you" and you can easily diffuse a situation calmly and with humor.
Ms. Noonan has class meetings every morning as part of her daily routine. She demonstrates here how toset ups systems and structures that integrate English Language Arts throughout the day.
This Module, a DEC-recommended resource, includes information on how to create developmentally appropriate behavior rules for early childhood classrooms so that they link to a given school's behavior expectations. The importance of communication with families about rules and expected behaviors is also stressed (est. completion time: 1.5 hours).
This course is designed to prepare you for a successful student teaching experience. Some of the major themes and activities are: analysis of yourself as a teacher and as a learner, subject knowledge, adolescent development, student learning styles, lesson planning, assessment strategies, classroom management techniques and differentiated instruction. The course requires significant personal involvement and time. You will observe high school classes, begin to pursue a more active role in the classroom in the latter part of the semester, do reflective writings on what you see and think (journal), design and teach a mini-lesson, design a major curriculum unit and engage in our classroom discussions and activities.
As classroom managers, teachers regularly use commands to direct students to start and stop activities. Instructors find commands to be a crucial tool for classroom management, serving as instructional signals that help students to conform to the teacher's expectations for appropriate behaviors.
Module OverviewAs we begin to delve into all things teaching, it's good to start with a look at what makes a teacher an effective one. Though the Art of Teaching comes more naturally to some more than others, all teachers who are effective exhibit key teaching behaviors and understand their students.
One of the greatest frustrations mentioned by many teachers is that their students are often not motivated to learn. Teachers quickly come to recognize the warning signs of poor motivation in their classroom: students put little effort into homework and classwork assignments, slump in their seats and fail to participate in class discussion, or even become confrontational toward the teacher when asked about an overdue assignment. One common method for building motivation is to tie student academic performance and classroom participation to specific rewards or privileges. Critics of reward systems note, however, that they can be expensive and cumbersome to administer and may lead the student to engage in academics only when there is an outside 'payoff.' While there is no magic formula for motivating students, the creative teacher can sometimes encourage student investment in learning in ways that do not require use of formal reward systems.
In a multi-grade class of fourth, fifth, and sixth graders, students learn to work and communicate in teams. Through projects and a class structure that supports differentiation, Ms. Ehrke is able to keep students challenged and engaged. Her strategies for differentiation and communication can be used in any classroom.