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B cell differentiation
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Mature B cells that undergo stimulation by an antigen undergo class switching, ...

Mature B cells that undergo stimulation by an antigen undergo class switching, and differentiate into either plasma or memory cells. In the paracortex region of the lymph node binding to MHC II in the presence of IL-4 produced by the CD4+ T cells (TH2 type) causes the B cells to differentiate; most will become plasma cells, however a small number will become memory cells. Follicular dendritic cells present in the germinal centers of peripheral lymphoid organs can absorb intact antigen onto their surface to present to B cells to stimulate differentiation.

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Blood
Cloning an Army of T Cells for Immune Defense
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Read the Fine Print
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View the animation to see how one type of immune cell-the helper ...

View the animation to see how one type of immune cell-the helper T cell-interprets a message presented at the surface of the cell membrane. The message is an antigen, a protein fragment taken from an invading microbe. A series of events unfolds that results in the production of many clones of the helper T cell. These identical T cells can serve as a brigade forming an essential communication network to activate B cells, which make antibodies that will specifically attack the activating antigen.

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Chemistry
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Major Histocompatability Complexes
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T-cells rely on Major Histocompatability Complexes (MHC), which are molecules manufactured within ...

T-cells rely on Major Histocompatability Complexes (MHC), which are molecules manufactured within cells for the purpose of presenting antigen fragments so that they can be detected by the immune system. MHC has evolved to form two classes for antigen presentation: MHC I presents digested fragments from antigen in cellular cytoplasm, and MHC II presents digested fragments from antigen in the tissue fluid (extracellular). MHC I tends to bind slightly smaller peptides (~9 amino acids) than MHC II (~15 amino acids).

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Blood
Natural Killer cells
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NK cells can be classified as lymphocytes because they are capable of ...

NK cells can be classified as lymphocytes because they are capable of recognising antigen, however they are more often associated with the innate immune response. They target cells by monitoring MHC production, which is expressed by healthy cells to present antigen to T-cells. Low MHC levels can be used as a marker for a cell whose machinery is compromised by a replicating virus. When MHC levels drop, it acts as a danger signal to the NK cells, which then release enzymes to kill the infected cells.

Subject:
Life Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Blood
RIAlity
Conditions of Use:
Remix and Share
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The package was written in 1996. Radio immuno assay (RIA) is a ...

The package was written in 1996.

Radio immuno assay (RIA) is a technique for measuring concentrations of antigens. Although better techniques have subsequently been developed from it, understanding RIA forms the basis for understanding these derivatives. RIA belongs to the family of competition assays which are widely used in science, medicine and related industries to measure the concentrations of biologically active molecules. This package introduces the concepts of RIA and will be useful to anyone wanting to understand how this family of techniques work.

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Suitable For: Undergraduate Year One

Dr Martin Luck, School of Biosciences.

Dr Martin Luck is Associate Professor of Animal Physiology at the University of Nottingham. After reading Animal Physiology at Nottingham, he moved to the University of Leeds to complete a Masters in Steroid Endocrinology and a PhD in Physiology. He carried out post-doctoral research at the University of Southampton and then moved to Hamburg, Germany where he led a research group investigating ovarian follicular development. He returned to Nottingham as an academic in 1990. Dr Luck also has a BA in Mathematics, is a Fellow of the Society of Biology and the Higher Education Academy and is Chair of the Management Board of Bioscience Horizons, the National Undergraduate Research Journal. He has held teaching advisory posts at the University and been a consultant for the Quality Assurance Agency and Higher Education Academy.

Subject:
Applied Science
Life Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Interactive
Provider:
University of Nottingham
Author:
Dr Martin Luck