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Models of the Hydrogen Atom
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How did scientists figure out the structure of atoms without looking at ...

How did scientists figure out the structure of atoms without looking at them? Try out different models by shooting light at the atom. Check how the prediction of the model matches the experimental results.

Subject:
Physics
Material Type:
Simulation
Provider:
University of Colorado Boulder
Provider Set:
PhET Interactive Simulations
Author:
Adams, Wendy
Carl Wieman
Chris Malley
Dubson, Michael
Gratny, Mindy
Kathy Perkins
Malley, Chris
McKagan, Sam
Michael Dubson
Mindy Gratny
Perkins, Kathy
PhET Interactive Simulations
Sam McKagan
Wendy Adams
Wieman, Carl
The Flaws of Averages
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This learning video presents an introduction to the Flaws of Averages using ...

This learning video presents an introduction to the Flaws of Averages using three exciting examples: the ''crossing of the river'' example, the ''cookie'' example, and the ''dance class'' example. Averages are often worthwhile representations of a set of data by a single descriptive number. The objective of this module, however, is to simply point out a few pitfalls that could arise if one is not attentive to details when calculating and interpreting averages. The essential prerequisite knowledge for this video lesson is the ability to calculate an average from a set of numbers. During this video lesson, students will learn about three flaws of averages: (1) The average is not always a good description of the actual situation, (2) The function of the average is not always the same as the average of the function, and (3) The average depends on your perspective. To convey these concepts, the students are presented with the three real world examples mentioned above.

Subject:
Education
Mathematics
Numbers and Operations
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
M.I.T. Blossoms
Author:
Daniel Livengood
MIT BLOSSOMS
Rhonda Jordan
Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 2nd Edition, Chapter 9: Observations, Analysis, and Prediction
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The chapter describes the challenges of tropical weather forecasting. We examine types ...

The chapter describes the challenges of tropical weather forecasting. We examine types of observations and weather analysis techniques used by tropical forecasters. Those analysis tools are applied to examples of tropical synoptic weather systems as well as mesoscale analysis and nowcasting. The last three sections focus on numerical weather prediction (NWP) including: the fundamentals, data assimilation, comparisons of statistical and dynamical models, ensemble techniques, cumulus convection in NWP, tropical cyclone prediction, and methods of forecast verification and validation. We have special focus sections on Australian-Indonesia Monsoon weather and interviews with forecasters from the National Hurricane Center (audio in English and Spanish), and Tropical Cyclone Centre Météo-France/La Réunion (text in English and French).

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
QPF Verification: Challenges and Tools
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This module looks at the common challenges and tools with respect to ...

This module looks at the common challenges and tools with respect to verification of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF). Through the use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module provides an introduction to a variety of methods and approaches for assessing the quality of QPFs. The module examines the need for, and the challenges of verifying precipitation forecasts. An overview is then presented of three verification programs available to most NWS forecast offices: the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) verification, the National Precipitation Verification Unit (NPVU), and the Boise Verify Program (BOI Verify). For each of these programs, an introduction is provided covering the strengths and weaknesses as well as specific products available. Case examples are provided where appropriate to illustrate the application of the products in the field. Additional NWS verification tools under development are introduced: the Interactive Verification Program (IVP) and the Ensemble Verification System (EVS).

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Streamflow Routing: International Edition
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Streamflow routing provides a set of methods for describing and predicting the ...

Streamflow routing provides a set of methods for describing and predicting the movement of water from one point to another along a river. Typically, this process involves predicting the shape of a hydrograph downstream from a particular location in a channel, reservoir, or lake. This first requires an understanding of the basic flow regimes and how water is stored and released within a channel. From there, information and calculations based on flow and channel bed characteristics are implemented in hydrologic routing methods, which are storage-based, and hydraulic routing methods, which utilize fully-dynamic equations. This module offers a thorough introduction to these routing concepts and processes through illustrations, animations and sample exercises, with a primary focus on hydrologic routing methods.

Subject:
Hydrology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Unit Hydrograph Theory: International Edition
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The role of unit hydrograph theory in the flood prediction process is ...

The role of unit hydrograph theory in the flood prediction process is to provide an estimate of streamflow that results from a given amount precipitation. A unit hydrograph shows the temporal change in flow, or discharge, per excess unit of precipitation runoff. This module offers a thorough introduction to the use of unit hydrographs and the application of unit hydrograph theory in flood prediction. Key terminology and assumptions, the process of creating a unit hydrograph and application of unit hydrograph theory to forecast situations are all explored through comprehensive animations and interactions.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Climate Variability and Change Lectures, July 2013
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This lesson presents 13 recorded presentations from the 29 July–2 August, 2013 ...

This lesson presents 13 recorded presentations from the 29 July–2 August, 2013 offering of the Climate Variability and Change Virtual Course (CVCVC). This five-day live facilitated online course provided an extensive background on a range of climate variability and change topics with an emphasis on developing communication skills for challenging climate topics. The topics covered in this course, while aimed primarily at NOAA operational climate services delivery staff will also be helpful for others who already possess a basic level of understanding of climate science. Presentations include: Weather vs. Climate — Derek Arndt, National Climatic Data Center, NOAA Climate Variability — Matt Newman, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Climate Science Communication — Derek Arndt, National Climatic Data Center, NOAA The El Niño/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Cycle — Michelle L'Heureux, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service NOAA's Atlantic Hurricane Season Outlooks — Gerry Bell, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service The Madden-Julian Oscillation — Jon Gottschalk, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service Drought: Science, Monitoring and Early Warning — Roger Pulwarty, National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), Earth System Research Laboratory/NOAA Climate Prediction Center Outlooks — Mike Halpert, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service Climate.gov: Information, Products, and Tools — David Herring, Climate Program Office, NOAA/National Weather Service Climate Communication Skills for Decision-support Audiences — Susan Buhr, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado Climate Change Science — Wayne Higgins, Climate Program Office, NOAA Climate Change Impacts — Peter Backlund, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Managing Marine and Coastal Resources in a Changing Climate — Kenric Osgood, Marine Ecosystems Division, NOAA, NMFS Please Note: There are no quizzes available on MetEd for these materials. However, National Weather Service users may complete a quiz for each lecture and receive credit in the NWS Learning Center. The quizzes may be found in the NWS Learning Center by searching for "Climate Variability and Change Lecture". Alternatively, a learning plan containing quizzes for all 13 lectures is available on the NWS Learning Center's COMET Page.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Flash Flood Case Studies
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This module takes the learner through seven case studies of flash flood ...

This module takes the learner through seven case studies of flash flood events that occurred in the conterminous U.S. between 2003 and 2006. The cases covered include: * 30-31 August 2003: Chase & Lyon Counties, KS * 16-17 September 2004: Macon County, NC * 31 July 2006: Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson, AZ * 25 December 2003: Fire burn area near San Bernardino, CA * 30 August 2004: Urban flash flood in Richmond, VA * 19-20 August 2003: Urban flash flood in Las Vegas, NV * 9 October 2005: Cheshire County, NH This module assists the learner in applying the concepts covered in the foundation topics of the Basic Hydrologic Sciences course. Some of the specific topics pertinent to these cases are the physical characteristics that make a basin prone to flash floods, basin response to precipitation, flash flood guidance (FFG), the relationship between wildfire and flash floods, and the relationship between urban development and flash floods. Related topics brought out in the cases include radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), the National Weather Service Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (NWS FFMP) products, debris flows, impounded water, and interagency communications. The core foundation topics are recommended prerequisite materials since this module assumes some pre-existing knowledge of hydrologic principles. In particular, the Runoff Processes and Flash Flood Processes modules contain material directly related to these cases.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Unit Hydrograph Theory
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The role of unit hydrograph theory in the flood prediction process is ...

The role of unit hydrograph theory in the flood prediction process is to provide an estimate of streamflow given the precipitation. A unit hydrograph shows the temporal change in flow, or discharge, per unit of runoff from excess precipitation. In other words, the unit hydrograph shows how the flow of a stream will be affected over time by the addition of one unit of runoff. This module offers a thorough introduction to the use of unit hydrographs and the application of unit hydrograph theory in flood prediction. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains key terminology and assumptions, outlines the steps in creation of a unit hydrograph, examines the issues surrounding application of unit hydrograph theory, and discusses important considerations for forecasters.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
AMS/COMET/MSC Mountain Weather Workshop, August 2008, Whistler, BC
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In August 2008, the "Mountain Weather Workshop: Bridging the Gap Between Research ...

In August 2008, the "Mountain Weather Workshop: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Forecasting" was held in Whistler, BC, Canada. It was sponsored by the American Meteorological Society, UCAR/COMET, and the Meteorological Service of Canada. The workshop brought together researchers, faculty, students, and operational forecasters. Its primary goals were to help provide a better understanding of the state of the science of mountain meteorology from both a research and an operational perspective, and to discuss ways of improving interaction between the research and forecasting communities. The workshop consisted of lectures by distinguished speakers covering numerous topics related to weather in complex terrain. This webcast collection contains recordings of the presentations from the workshop.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Precipitation Estimates, Part 2: Analysis
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This is part two of a two-module series on estimation of observed ...

This is part two of a two-module series on estimation of observed precipitation. Through the use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module provides an introduction to the science behind successful application of the products and tools available through the NWS Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) software and related products. An overview is presented of the key fields available in MPE along with illustrations of their use. These include radar, gauge, satellite, bias-adjusted radar, and multisensor fields of precipitation accumulation along with data displays and tables used for evaluating and editing the data. Subsequently, methods for additional data editing with MPE's polygon editing tool are explained, as well as the selection of a best estimate. Finally, a case study section is offered to show how these methods have been applied in the field for a variety of events and locations.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Understanding Evolution
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Your one-stop source for learning and teaching about evolution. This website includes ...

Your one-stop source for learning and teaching about evolution. This website includes information about how evolution works, how evolution impacts our lives, evidence for evolution, and the history of evolutionary thought. There's also an entire Understanding Evolution for Teachers sub-site, which includes lesson plans, a conceptual framework, and discussion of classroom situations that may arise when teaching evolution.

Subject:
Biology
Geology
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Lesson Plan
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
University of California Museum of Paleontology and National Center for Science Education
Collecting Climate Data
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This professional development article identifies resources that show young learners (K-grade 5) ...

This professional development article identifies resources that show young learners (K-grade 5) how scientists study Earth's climate and make predictions. The online lessons either allow students to collect and analyze data or learn about tools and technologies that make data collection possible. The lessons are aligned with national content standards for science education. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which examines the recognized essential principles of climate literacy and the climate sciences for elementary teachers and their students.

Subject:
Education
Mathematics
Physics
Material Type:
Data Set
Lesson Plan
Teaching/Learning Strategy
Provider:
Ohio State University
Ohio State University College of Education and Human Ecology
Provider Set:
Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle
Author:
Jessica Fries-Gaither
National Science Foundation
Verification Methods in the NWS National Blend of Global Models
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This lesson introduces learners to the methods used in verifying the various ...

This lesson introduces learners to the methods used in verifying the various weather element forecasts included in Version 1.0 of the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) National Blend of global Models (NBM). This Level 2 lesson is intended for forecasters and users of NWS forecast products; some prior knowledge of numerical weather prediction and statistics is useful. Learners will be introduced to the analysis of record used to verify the NBM. Learners will also explore single event, grid-to-observation, and grid-to-grid verification methods, as well as how to interpret the results using the Blend Comparative Viewer (BCV).

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
GOES-R ABI: Next Generation Satellite Imaging
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This extension of the COMET module “GOES-R: Benefits of Next Generation Environmental ...

This extension of the COMET module “GOES-R: Benefits of Next Generation Environmental Monitoring” focuses on the ABI instrument, the satellite's 16-channel imager. With increased spectral coverage, greater spatial resolution, more frequent imaging, and improved image pixel geolocation and radiometric performance, the ABI will bring significant advancements to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and climate and environmental monitoring. The first part of the module introduces the ABI's key features and improvements over earlier GOES imagers. The second section lets users interactively explore the ABI's 16 channels. The third section contains movies that show the advancements that the ABI will bring to the following application areas: convection, flooding, wildfires, land cover, hurricanes, climate, air quality, aviation, fog and low visibility, and coastal and marine. The final section contains additional resources pertaining to the ABI. The module has numerous takeaways, including ten application movies and an interactive spectrum.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Space Weather Impacts on Aviation
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Space Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal ...

Space Weather Impacts on Aviation examines the effects of solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and other solar phenomena on aviation operations. The module builds on background science knowledge taught in the course prerequisite, Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition. The content gives aviation forecasters and others an overview of the information and products available from NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and provides practice interpreting and using those products for decision support during space weather events.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Severe Convection II: Mesoscale Convective Systems
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Mesoscale convective systems occur worldwide and year-round and are accompanied by the ...

Mesoscale convective systems occur worldwide and year-round and are accompanied by the potential for severe weather and flooding. This module describes typical system evolution by examining squall line, bow echo, and MCC characteristics throughout their life cycles. This module has less emphasis on the physical processes controlling MCS structure and evolution than our previously released module, Mesoscale Convective Systems: Squall Lines and Bow Echoes. Instead, this newly updated module includes more material on tropical squall lines, MCC's, and on NWP’s ability to predict convective systems. The module starts with a forecast scenario and concludes with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the learning experience.

Subject:
Atmospheric Science
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET
Foundations of Computational and Systems Biology, Spring 2014
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This course is an introduction to computational biology emphasizing the fundamentals of ...

This course is an introduction to computational biology emphasizing the fundamentals of nucleic acid and protein sequence and structural analysis; it also includes an introduction to the analysis of complex biological systems. Topics covered in the course include principles and methods used for sequence alignment, motif finding, structural modeling, structure prediction and network modeling, as well as currently emerging research areas.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Textbook
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
M.I.T. OpenCourseWare
Author:
Burge, Christopher
Fraenkel, Ernest
Gifford, David
Orbital  Mechanics  :  Model   &  Simulation
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Learn Motion of Earth, Sun, Moon & Satellites in Orbit : Astronomical ...

Learn Motion of Earth, Sun, Moon & Satellites in Orbit : Astronomical Time Standards and Time Conversions, Positional Astronomy - earth orbit around sun, Position of Sun on Celestial Sphere, Position of Earth on Celestial Sphere, Satellites Orbit Elements - ephemeris, keplerian elements, state vectors, Satellites Motion around Earth - orbital & positional parameters, Satellite Pass for Earth Station - prediction of ground trace are addressed.

Subject:
Applied Science
Physical Science
Material Type:
Simulation
Provider:
OER Commons
Provider Set:
Open Author Resources
Author:
RC Chakraborty
Flood Frequency Analysis
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The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of ...

The Flood Frequency Analysis module offers an introduction to the use of flood frequency analysis for flood prediction and planning. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the basic concepts, underlying issues, and methods for analyzing flood data. Common concepts such as the 100-year flood and return periods as well as issues affecting the statistical representation of floods are discussed. Common flood data analysis methods as well as an overview of design events are also covered. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

Subject:
Hydrology
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
COMET MetEd Collection
Author:
COMET