This lesson unit is intended to help you assess whether students recognize ...

This lesson unit is intended to help you assess whether students recognize relationships of direct proportion and how well they solve problems that involve proportional reasoning. In particular, it is intended to help you identify those students who: use inappropriate additive strategies in scaling problems, which have a multiplicative structure; rely on piecemeal and inefficient strategies such as doubling, halving, and decomposition, and have not developed a single multiplier strategy for solving proportionality problems; and see multiplication as making numbers bigger, and division as making numbers smaller.

This lesson unit is intended to help you assess how well students ...

This lesson unit is intended to help you assess how well students are able to: solve simple problems involving ratio and direct proportion; choose an appropriate sampling method; and collect discrete data and record them using a frequency table.

This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess whether students are ...

This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess whether students are able to: identify when two quantities vary in direct proportion to each other; distinguish between direct proportion and other functional relationships; and solve proportionality problems using efficient methods.

This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students ...

This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to interpret percent increase and decrease, and in particular, to identify and help students who have the following difficulties: translating between percents, decimals, and fractions; representing percent increase and decrease as multiplication; and recognizing the relationship between increases and decreases.

This lesson unit is intended to help assess how well students are ...

This lesson unit is intended to help assess how well students are able to interpret and use scale drawings to plan a garden layout. This involves using proportional reasoning and metric units.

Open middle problems require a higher depth of knowledge than most problems ...

Open middle problems require a higher depth of knowledge than most problems that assess procedural and conceptual understanding. They support the Common Core State Standards and provide students with opportunities for discussing their thinking. The Equivalent Ratios problem asks students to use the digits 1-9 to see how many ratios they can make that are equivalent to 2:3

Getting Started Type of Unit: Introduction Prior Knowledge Students should be able ...

Getting Started

Type of Unit: Introduction

Prior Knowledge

Students should be able to:

Understand ratio concepts and use ratios. Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world problems. Identify and use the multiplication property of equality.

Lesson Flow

This unit introduces students to the routines that build a successful classroom math community, and it introduces the basic features of the digital course that students will use throughout the year.

An introductory card sort activity matches students with their partner for the week. Then over the course of the week, students learn about the routines of Opening, Work Time, Ways of Thinking, Apply the Learning (some lessons), Summary of the Math, Reflection, and Exercises. Students learn how to present their work to the class, the importance of students’ taking responsibility for their own learning, and how to effectively participate in the classroom math community.

Students then work on Gallery problems, to further explore the resources and tools and to learn how to organize their work.

The mathematical work of the unit focuses on ratios and rates, including card sort activities in which students identify equivalent ratios and match different representations of an equivalent ratio. Students use the multiplication property of equality to justify solutions to real-world ratio problems.

Students write the relationship between two fractions as a unit rate and ...

Students write the relationship between two fractions as a unit rate and use unit rates and the constant of proportionality to solve problems involving proportional relationships.Key ConceptsIn situations where there is a constant rate involved, the unit rate is a constant of proportionality between the two variable quantities and can be used to write a formula of the form y = kx.A given constant rate can be simplified to find the unit rate by expressing its value with a denominator of 1.The ratios of two fractions can be expressed as a unit rate.Goals and Learning ObjectivesExpress the ratios of two fractions as a unit rate.Understand that when a constant rate is involved, the unit rate is the constant of proportionality.Use the unit rate to write and solve a formula of the form y = kx.

Students interpret verbal descriptions of situations and determine whether the situations represent ...

Students interpret verbal descriptions of situations and determine whether the situations represent proportional relationships.Key ConceptsIn a proportional relationship, there has to be some value that is constant.There are some relationships in some situations that can never be proportional.Goals and Learning ObjectivesIdentify verbal descriptions of situations as being proportional relationships or notUnderstand that some relationships can never be proportionalUnderstand that for two variable quantities to be proportional to one another, something in the situation has to be constant

Students determine whether a relationship between two quantities that vary is a ...

Students determine whether a relationship between two quantities that vary is a proportional relationship in three different situations: the relationship between the dimensions of the actual Empire State Building and a miniature model of the building; the relationship between the distance and time to travel to an amusement park; and the relationship between time and temperature at an amusement park.Key ConceptsWhen the ratio between two varying quantities remains constant, the relationship between the two quantities is called a proportional relationship. For a ratio A:B, the proportional relationship can be described as the collection of ratios equivalent to A:B, or cA:cB, where c is positive.Goals and Learning ObjectivesIdentify proportional relationships.Explain why a situation represents a proportional relationship or why it does not.Determine missing values in a table of quantities based on a proportional relationship.

Students analyze the graph of a proportional relationship in order to find ...

Students analyze the graph of a proportional relationship in order to find the approximate constant of proportionality, to write the related formula, and to create a table of values that lie on the graph.Key ConceptsThe constant of proportionality determines the steepness of the straight-line graph that represents a proportional relationship. The steeper the line is, the greater the constant of proportionality.On the graph of a proportional relationship, the constant of proportionality is the constant ratio of y to x, or the slope of the line.A proportional relationship can be represented in different ways: a ratio table, a graph of a straight line through the origin, or an equation of the form y = kx, where k is the constant of proportionality.Goals and Learning ObjectivesIdentify the constant of proportionality from a graph that represents a proportional relationship.Write a formula for a graph that represents a proportional relationship.Make a table for a graph that represents a proportional relationship.Relate the constant of proportionality to the steepness of a graph that represents a proportional relationship (i.e., the steeper the line is, the greater the constant of proportionality).

Students explore the densities and viscosities of fluids as they create a ...

Students explore the densities and viscosities of fluids as they create a colorful 'rainbow' using household liquids. While letting the fluids in the rainbow settle, students conduct 'The Great Viscosity Race,' another short experiment that illustrates the difference between viscosity and density. Later, students record the density rainbow with sketches and/or photography.

Four full-year digital course, built from the ground up and fully-aligned to ...

Four full-year digital course, built from the ground up and fully-aligned to the Common Core State Standards, for 7th grade Mathematics. Created using research-based approaches to teaching and learning, the Open Access Common Core Course for Mathematics is designed with student-centered learning in mind, including activities for students to develop valuable 21st century skills and academic mindset.

Lesson OverviewStudents calculate the constant of proportionality for a proportional relationship based ...

Lesson OverviewStudents calculate the constant of proportionality for a proportional relationship based on a table of values and use it to write a formula that represents the proportional relationship.Key ConceptsIf two quantities are proportional to one another, the relationship between them can be defined by a formula of the form y = kx, where k is the constant ratio of y-values to corresponding x-values. The same relationship can also be defined by the formula x=(1k)y , where 1k is now the constant ratio of x-values to y-values.Goals and Learning ObjectivesDefine the constant of proportionality.Calculate the constant of proportionality from a table of values.Write a formula using the constant of proportionality.

Students have an opportunity to review their own work on the Self ...

Students have an opportunity to review their own work on the Self Check in the previous lesson, consider feedback that addresses specific aspects of their work, examine a different approach to the problem from the Self Check, and then use what they learned to solve a closely related problem.Key ConceptsStudents reflect on their work, review and critique student work on the same problem, and then apply their learning to solve a similar problem.Goals and Learning ObjectivesUse teacher comments to refine their solution strategies for a proportional relationship problemDeepen their understanding of proportional relationships.Synthesize and connect strategies for representing and investigating proportional relationships.Critique given student work involving proportional relationships.Apply deepened understanding of proportional relationships to a new problem situation.

Students discuss classroom routines and expectations, work with partners to present their ...

Students discuss classroom routines and expectations, work with partners to present their work matching different representations of a ratio situation, and then prepare math summaries.Introduce classroom routines and expectations prior to the full mathematics lesson. Ask students to discuss how to clearly present their work to their classmates. Model an example of partner work, and then have students work with their partners to match different representations of a ratio situation. Read and discuss a Summary of the Math, and then have students write Reflections about their wonderings.Key ConceptsStudents match a data card with its corresponding ratio, decimal, fraction, percent, and description of the relationship in words. Students construct viable arguments for their matches and critique the reasoning of their partner and other classmates.Goals and Learning ObjectivesDescribe the classroom routines and expectations.Consider how to present work clearly to classmates.Collaborate with a partner.Critique a partner’s reasoning.Connect different representations of a ratio situation.

Students connect percent to proportional relationships in the context of sales tax.Key ...

Students connect percent to proportional relationships in the context of sales tax.Key ConceptsWhen there is a constant tax percent, the total cost for items purchase—including the price and the tax—is proportional to the price.To find the cost, c , multiply the price of the item, p, by (1 + t), where t is the tax percent, written as a decimal: c = p(1 + t).The constant of proportionality is (1 + t) because of the structure of the situation:c = p + tp = p(1 + t).Because of the distributive property, multiplying the price by (1 + t) means multiplying the price by 1, then multiplying the price by t, and then taking the sum of these products.Goals and Learning ObjectivesFind the total cost in a sales tax situation.Understand that a proportional relationship only exists between the price of an item and the total cost of the item if the sales tax is constant.Find the constant of proportionality in a sales tax situation.Make a graph of an equation showing the relationship between the price of an item and the total amount paid.

Most of the flavoring in gum is due to the sugar or ...

Most of the flavoring in gum is due to the sugar or other sweetener it contains. As gum is chewed, the sugar dissolves and is swallowed. After a piece of gum loses its flavor, it can be left to dry at room temperature and then the difference between its initial (unchewed) mass and its chewed mass can be used to calculate the percentage of sugar in the gum. This demonstration experiment is used to generate new questions about gums and their ingredients, and students can then design and execute new experiments based on their own questions.

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