This lesson unit is intended to help sixth grade teachers assess how well students are able to: Analyze a realistic situation mathematically; construct sight lines to decide which areas of a room are visible or hidden from a camera; find and compare areas of triangles and quadrilaterals; and calculate and compare percentages and/or fractions of areas.
Surface Area and Volume
Type of Unit: Conceptual
Students should be able to:
Identify rectangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and triangles and their bases and heights.
Identify cubes, rectangular prisms, and pyramids and their faces, edges, and vertices.
Understand that area of a 2-D figure is a measure of the figure's surface and that it is measured in square units.
Understand volume of a 3-D figure is a measure of the space the figure occupies and is measured in cubic units.
The unit begins with an exploratory lesson about the volumes of containers. Then in Lessons 2–5, students investigate areas of 2-D figures. To find the area of a parallelogram, students consider how it can be rearranged to form a rectangle. To find the area of a trapezoid, students think about how two copies of the trapezoid can be put together to form a parallelogram. To find the area of a triangle, students consider how two copies of the triangle can be put together to form a parallelogram. By sketching and analyzing several parallelograms, trapezoids, and triangles, students develop area formulas for these figures. Students then find areas of composite figures by decomposing them into familiar figures. In the last lesson on area, students estimate the area of an irregular figure by overlaying it with a grid. In Lesson 6, the focus shifts to 3-D figures. Students build rectangular prisms from unit cubes and develop a formula for finding the volume of any rectangular prism. In Lesson 7, students analyze and create nets for prisms. In Lesson 8, students compare a cube to a square pyramid with the same base and height as the cube. They consider the number of faces, edges, and vertices, as well as the surface area and volume. In Lesson 9, students use their knowledge of volume, area, and linear measurements to solve a packing problem.
This lesson unit is intended to help you assess how well students are able to: Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, recognizing and applying the conventional order of operations; Write and evaluate numerical expressions from diagrammatic representations and be able to identify equivalent expressions; apply the distributive and commutative properties appropriately; and use the method for finding areas of compound rectangles.
The purpose of this series of tasks is to build in a natural way from accessible, concrete problems involving volume to a more abstract understanding of volume. In this iteration, we do away with the lines that delineate individual unit cubes (which makes it more abstract) and generalize from cubes to rectangular prisms.
Lesson OverviewStudents revise their packing plans based on teacher feedback and then take a quiz.Students will use their knowledge of volume, area, and linear measurements to solve problems. They will draw diagrams to help them solve a problem and track and review their choice of problem-solving strategies.Key ConceptsConcepts from previous lessons are integrated into this assessment task: finding the volume of rectangular prisms. Students apply their knowledge, review their work, and make revisions based on feedback from the teacher and their peers. This process creates a deeper understanding of the concepts.Goals and Learning ObjectivesApply your knowledge of the volume of rectangular prisms.Track and review your choice of strategy when problem-solving.
In this module, students utilize their previous experiences in order to understand and develop formulas for area, volume, and surface area. Students use composition and decomposition to determine the area of triangles, quadrilaterals, and other polygons. Extending skills from Module 3 where they used coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points on a coordinate plane, students determine distance, perimeter, and area on the coordinate plane in real-world contexts. Next in the module comes real-life application of the volume formula where students extend the notion that volume is additive and find the volume of composite solid figures. They apply volume formulas and use their previous experience with solving equations to find missing volumes and missing dimensions. The final topic includes deconstructing the faces of solid figures to determine surface area. To wrap up the module, students apply the surface area formula to real-life contexts and distinguish between the need to find surface area or volume within contextual situations.
The purpose of this series of tasks is to build in a natural way from accessible, concrete problems involving volume to a more abstract understanding of volume. Here, we are given the volume and are asked to find the height.
In this activity, learners explore scale by using building cubes to see how changing the length, width, and height of a three-dimensional object affects its surface area and its volume. Learners build bigger and bigger cubes to understand these scaling relationships.
Lesson OverviewStudents make two different rectangular prisms by folding two 812 in. by 11 in. sheets of paper in different ways. Then students use reasoning to compare the total areas of the faces of the two prisms (i.e., their surface areas). Students also predict how the amounts of space inside the prisms (i.e., their volumes) compare. They will check their predictions in Lesson 6.Key ConceptsStudents compare the total area of the faces (i.e., surface area) of one rectangular prism to the total area of the faces of another prism. Students make predictions about which prism has the greater amount of space inside (i.e., the greater volume). Students do not compute actual surface areas or volumes. This exploration helps pave the way for a more formal study of volume in Lesson 6 and a more formal study of surface area in Lesson 7.Goals and Learning ObjectivesExplore how the surface areas and volumes of two different prisms made from the same-sized sheet of paper compare.
The purpose of this series of tasks is to build in a natural way from accessible, concrete problems involving volume to a more abstract understanding of volume. This problem is based on ArchimedesŐ Principle that the volume of an immersed object is equivalent to the volume of the displaced water.
Lesson OverviewStudents build prisms with fractional side lengths by using unit-fraction cubes (i.e., cubes with side lengths that are unit fractions, such as 13 unit or 14 unit). Students verify that the volume formula for rectangular prisms, V = lwh or V = bh, applies to prisms with side lengths that are not whole numbers.Key ConceptsIn fifth grade, students found volumes of prisms with whole-number dimensions by finding the number of unit cubes that fit inside the prisms. They found that the total number of unit cubes required is the number of unit cubes in one layer (which is the same as the area of the base) times the number of layers (which is the same as the height). This idea was generalized as V = lwh, where l, w, and h are the length, width, and height of the prism, or as V = Bh, where B is the area of the base of the prism and h is the height.Unit cubes in each layer = 3 × 4Number of layers = 5Total number of unit cubes = 3 × 4 × 5 = 60Volume = 60 cubic unitsIn this lesson, students extend this idea to prisms with fractional side lengths. They build prisms using unit-fraction cubes. The volume is the number of unit-fraction cubes in the prism times the volume of each unit-fraction cube. Students show that this result is the same as the volume found by using the formula.For example, you can build a 45-unit by 35-unit by 25-unit prism using 15-unit cubes. This requires 4 × 3 × 2, or 24, 15-unit cubes. Each 15-unit cube has a volume of 1125 cubic unit, so the total volume is 24125 cubic units. This is the same volume obtained by using the formula V = lwh:V=lwh=45×35×25=24125.15-unit cubes in each layer = 3 × 4Number of layers = 2Total number of 15-unit cubes = 3 × 4 × 2 = 24Volume = 24 × 1125 = 24125 cubic units Goals and Learning ObjectivesVerify that the volume formula for rectangular prisms, V = lwh or V = Bh, applies to prisms with side lengths that are not whole numbers.
This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to: Select appropriate mathematical methods to use for an unstructured problem; interpret a problem situation, identifying constraints and variables, and specify assumptions; work with 2- and 3-dimensional shapes to solve a problem involving capacity and surface area; and communicate their reasoning clearly.
This task is primarily about volume and surface area, although it also gives students an early look at converting between measurements in scale models and the real objects they correspond to.
The purpose of this task is to provide students with a multi-step problem involving volume and to give them a chance to discuss the difference between exact calculations and their meaning in a context.
The purpose of this task is to provide students an opportunity to use mathematics addressed in different standards in the same problem.
The purpose of this series of tasks is to build in a natural way from accessible, concrete problems involving volume to a more abstract understanding of volume. The purpose of this first task is to see the relationship between the side-lengths of a cube and its volume.