The course consists of lectures, readings, discussions, panels of guest speakers, group and individual projects. The purpose of the lectures, readings, discussion and panels of guest speakers is to explore a variety of aspects of adolescence and adolescent health. The group and individual projects are meant to help students develop skills to work in multi-disciplinary teams and analyze adolescent health concerns through conceptual frameworks and recommend effective solutions through interventions.
This course introduces students to the principles, laws, and policies that influence the use of animal and alternative, non-animal-based (humane sciences) research techniques in biomedical research.
Healthcare professionals around the world are experiencing increasing pressures from patients, communities, governments and payers to demonstrate value. Controlling costs, providing high quality outcomes, assuring access, and enhancing patient satisfaction have become leading issues. In addition, services increasingly are provided within the context of multi-disciplinary teams and complex organizational and financial arrangements. Fiscal and other resource constraints abound. Meeting these challenges within healthcare settings requires leadership and managerial skills in addition to clinical expertise.
In this installment of the Bloomberg Leadership Series, Dr. Fineberg shares the personal experiences and professional insights that have informed his leadership style and his approach to formulating sound and persuasive policy recommendations.
This seminar-style course challenges students to look closely at the environment of Baltimore City's complex food systems and to consider what it would take to improve these systems to assure access for all to nutritious, adequate, affordable and sustainably produced food. Students "go backstage" with tour guides at sites including a supermarket, a corner store, an emergency food distribution center, and a farm connected to the city school system. Students learn about the types of food available at these sites, who uses them, relevant aspects of their operations, and site-relevant key barriers to and opportunities for providing access to healthier food, ideally with reduced environmental harm. They also conduct oral history interviews about food with elderly city residents to understand how food access has changed over the years. Class discussions, lectures, readings, and guest speakers support critical thinking, and provide background and frameworks for understanding the experiential sessions. Lectures and discussions consider applicability of lessons gained from the study of Baltimore to other area food systems. Throughout, students consider the relative impacts of access, demand, and stakeholder interests, and consider the relative strengths of voluntary, governmental, legal and other strategies. For their final papers, students apply the Intervention Decision Matrix to selected aspects of the city's food systems and food environments, identifying challenges and opportunities for change, incorporating lessons learned from other food systems and programs, and discussing implications beyond Baltimore .
Covers the basics of R software and the key capabilities of the Bioconductor project (a widely used open source and open development software project for the analysis and comprehension of data arising from high-throughput experimentation in genomics and molecular biology and rooted in the open source statistical computing environment R), including importation and preprocessing of high-throughput data from microarrays and other platforms. Also introduces statistical concepts and tools necessary to interpret and critically evaluate the bioinformatics and computational biology literature. Includes an overview of of preprocessing and normalization, statistical inference, multiple comparison corrections, Bayesian Inference in the context of multiple comparisons, clustering, and classification/machine learning.
This presentation examines the various biological agents that terrorists could use against food or water supplies. This presentation's content is part of a non-credit, professional development training generated by JHSPH faculty and the Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness. The OCW version of this presentation comprises slides only.
This course provides a broad understanding of the application of biostatistics in a regulatory context. Reviews the relevant regulations and guidance documents. Includes topics such as basic study design, target population, comparison groups, and endpoints. Addresses analysis issues with emphasis on the regulatory aspects, including issues of missing data and informative censoring. Discusses safety monitoring, interim analysis and early termination of trials with a focus on regulatory implications.
This course introduces students to the origins, concepts, and development of community-based primary health care through case studies from both developing and developed countries. As in clinical bedside teaching, we use real cases to help students develop problem-solving skills in practical situations. We also discuss participatory approaches in the organization and management of health services and other factors such as equity, socio-cultural change, environmental protection, and the process of community empowerment.Included among this course's lecture materials are several recorded presentations by Carl Taylor, a giant in the field of international health. Dr. Taylor recorded the presentations for this course in January of 2008, just 2 years before he passed away in February of 2010.
The objective of this presentation is to use three illustrative case studies to reinforce basic concepts and principles of terrorism preparedness and response, as well as to identify some specific practical considerations. These case studies will illustrate: (1) Plausible scenarios, (2) Typical first response activities, (3) Critical issues on-the-fly, and (4) Considerations for planning.
This course focuses on the core processes of growth and development in early to middle childhood. Considers developmental theories, issues and research findings related to physical growth and cognitive, emotional, and social development. Considers appropriate instruments to assess growth and development. Evaluates efficacy of popular early intervention programs designed to enhance development in at-risk populations of children.
Describes how economic theory is linked to economic evaluation techniques like cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis and to introduce students to many concepts that are specific to economic evaluation. Introduces students to the many varieties of economic evaluation to establish a common terminology. Discusses cost-benefit with a demonstration of how this type of evaluation is most clearly linked to economic theory. Explores other theories and concepts, including cost measurement, benefit valuation, and incremental decision-making. Finally, explores recommendations on performing economic evaluations that are made in the United States with a focus on how these are related to underlying economic theory and other concepts.
Confronting the Burden of Injuries- A Global Perspective is a course offered by the Department of International Health and the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. This course is intended to guide students interested in working on injury control in areas with little to no tradition in injury prevention from a public health perspective. Students will learn to define the injury problem and assess its magnitude; identify data sources and assess the quality of the data; identify which agencies or institutions should be involved in the solution of the problem; identify which interventions are in place and need to be implemented and evaluated; produce a strategic plan for the establishment and/or improvement of injury prevention programs in such areas; and present such a plan to authorities in a compelling manner.
There is much controversy and anecdotal information about popular diets and dietary supplements, but all too often little scientific or controlled clinical data. We examine the science behind normal mechanisms of weight control, and how weight loss diets are constructed and work. The aim of the course is to acquire the knowledge to critically appraise a weight control diet or dietary supplement and choose the best plan for success, both in the short-term and the long run. Students taking the actual class will, in addition to learning the lecture material presented here, complete in-class assignments where they choose a popular diet or supplement, research the scientific literature on this diet/supplement, and present a critical appraisal of its validity and efficacy.
In this lecture, Professor Brieger discusses some of the lessons he learned during his 26-year experience working in Nigeria and his subsequent work with a wider variety of African nations, focusing on on tropical diseases and their associated social, cultural, and behavioral aspects.
This lecture series features faculty who have been recently promoted to Professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. In these presenteations, the lecturers address challenging public health issues of the day and report on lessons learned from their own research and experience in the field.
The workshop is intended for Doctoral students in the health and social sciences who are at the stage of developing a research proposal. Participants will gain skills in the design of conceptually cogent and methodologically rigorous dissertation proposals. The Workshop has an emphasis on topics that relate to Africa, but can be applied to a broad range of research issues.
This course provides a broad overview of diverse topics in the practice of and approaches to humane animal experimentation. It addresses such issues as experimental design (including statistics and sample size determination), humane endpoints, environmental enrichment, post-surgical care, pain management, and the impact of stress on the quality of data. It was developed by CAAT director Alan Goldberg and James Owiny, the training and compliance administrator of the Johns Hopkins University animal care and use committee, along with Christian Newcomer, associate provost for animal research and resources at Hopkins.The self-paced course consists of 12 audio lectures with accompanying slides, resource lists, and study questions.
This course examines and teaches ways in which education can be subtly but effectively worked into both new and time-honored genres of entertainment to foster positive behavior change and life improvement in both developing countries and local environments. The course develops students' ability to understand the ingredients of successful entertainment (emotions, empathy, efficacy and empowerment) and how these ingredients can be employed to enhance social and personal health and life skills. Examines methodology and develops skills needed to create a successful Entertainment-Education (E-E) project in entertainment (story, drama, etc.) formats with effective behavior change messages.
Examines health issues, scientific understanding of causes, and possible future approaches to control of the major environmental health problems in industrialized and developing countries. Topics include how the body reacts to environmental pollutants; physical, chemical, and biological agents of environmental contamination; vectors for dissemination (air, water, soil); solid and hazardous waste; susceptible populations; biomarkers and risk analysis; the scientific basis for policy decisions; and emerging global environmental health problems.
Introduces the basic methods for infectious disease epidemiology and case studies of important disease syndromes and entities. Methods include definitions and nomenclature, outbreak investigations, disease surveillance, case-control studies, cohort studies, laboratory diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, dynamics of transmission, and assessment of vaccine field effectiveness. Case-studies focus on acute respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, hepatitis, HIV, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, and other vector-borne diseases.
Introduces the theory and application of modern, computationally-based methods for exploring and drawing inferences from data. Covers re-sampling methods, non-parametric regression, prediction, and dimension reduction and clustering. Specific topics include Monte Carlo simulation, bootstrap cross-validation, splines, local weighted regression, CART, random forests, neural networks, support vector machines, and hierarchical clustering. De-emphasizes proofs and replaces them with extended discussion of interpretation of results and simulation and data analysis for illustration.
Lectures and small group discussions focus on ethical theory and current ethical issues in public health and health policy, including resource allocation, the use of summary measures of health, the right to health care, and conflicts between autonomy and health promotion efforts. Student evaluation based on class participation, a group project, and a paper evaluating ethical issues in the student's area of public health specialization.
Ethics of Human Subject Research (2 credits) is offered by the Department of Health Policy and Management and the Distance Education Division, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and The Phoebe R. Berman Bioethics Institute, Johns Hopkins University. The course introduces students to the ethics of human subject research. Ethical theory and principles are introduced, followed by a brief history of research ethics. Topics covered in lectures and moderated discussions include informed consent for research participation, role and function of institutional review boards, just selection of research subjects, ethical aspects of study design, and privacy and confidentiality. Student evaluation will be based on participation in moderated discussions, an informed consent exercise and written case analysis.
This lecture addresses the evaluation challenges posed by observational studies, paying particular attention to the cardiovascular implications raised by recent HAART research.
Introduces issues and programmatic strategies related to the development, organization, and management of family planning programs, especially those in developing countries. Topics include social, economic, health, and human rights rationale for family planning; identifying and measuring populations in need of family planning services; social, cultural, political, and ethical barriers; contraceptive methods and their programmatic requirements; strategic alternatives, including integrated and vertical programs and public and private sector services; information, education, and communication strategies; management information systems; and the use of computer models for program design.
This course provides an understanding of the complex and challenging public health issue of food security and in a world where one billion people are under-nourished while another billion are overweight. Explores the connections among diet, the current food and food animal production systems, the environment and public health, considering factors such as economics, population and equity. Case studies are used to examine these complex relationships and as well as alternative approaches to achieving both local and global food security and the important role public health can play. Guest lecturers include experts from a variety of disciplines and experiences.
The purpose of this course is to familiarize and engage the student in the steps and dynamics of policy making processes that address nutrition problems and issues. An underlying tenant is that, where ever nutrition problems exist, policy and program options may be enacted to address the problem directly (e.g. food subsidies to the poor) and/or indirectly (e.g. income generation or job creation).
Fundamentals of Epidemiology I is the first half of a course that introduces the basic concepts of epidemiology and biostatistics as applied to public health problems. Emphasis is placed on the principles and methods of epidemiologic investigation, appropriate summaries and displays of data, and the use of classical statistical approaches to describe the health of populations. Topics include the dynamic behavior of disease; usage of rates, ratios and proportions; methods of direct and indirect adjustment, and clinical life table which measures and describes the extent of disease problems.
Fundamentals of Epidemiology I and II introduce the basic concepts of epidemiology and biostatistics as applied to public health problems. Emphasis is placed on the principles and methods of epidemiologic investigation, appropriate summaries and displays of data, and the use of classical statistical approaches to describe the health of populations. Fundamentals of Epidemiology II focuses on various epidemiologic study designs for investigating associations between risk factors and disease outcomes, culminating with criteria for causal inferences. The application of these disciplines in the areas of health services, screening, genetics, and environment policy are presented. The influence of epidemiology and biostatistics on legal and ethical issues are also discussed.
Lectures by current practitioners of cancer prevention control in clinical oncology cover the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention/screening measures used for cancers such as lung, breast, prostate, colon/rectal, etc.
Fundamentals of Program Evaluation familiarizes students in different types of program evaluation, including needs assessment, formative research, process evaluation, monitoring of outputs and outcomes, impact assessment, and cost analysis. Students gain practical experience through a series of exercises involving the design of a conceptual framework, development of indicators, analysis of computerized service statistics, and development of an evaluation plan to measure impact. This course covers experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental study designs, including the strengths and limitations of each.
Provides an introduction to global tobacco control. Presents the health and economic burden of tobacco use worldwide and highlights practical approaches to tobacco prevention, control, surveillance, and evaluation. Examines transnational tobacco control issues, including the following: the interpretation and packaging of epidemiologic evidence for policy makers, the determinants of tobacco addiction, the economics of global tobacco control, tobacco industry strategies, legal foundations for regulation, and basic surveillance and evaluation methods using lectures, case-studies, and discussion.
Introduces and examines the basic principles which guide growth and development and the health of individuals across the lifespan, from the prenatal period through senescence. Presents methodological, conceptual and substantive issues necessary for understanding and evaluating empirically based information about growth, development and health at different stages of life and from different academic perspectives. Course covers several themes, including contributions of biological and environmental factors to health and human development, measuring the health of individuals in communities, understanding determinants and consequences of health and development across the lifespan, measuring population health and assessing the implications of health disparities.
This course provides students with conceptual tools to analyze health-related behaviors and the social, cultural and environmental context in which they occur. Applies concepts and theories drawn from medical anthropology, psychology and sociology to programmatic examples from Latin America, Africa and Asia concerning care-seeking, treatment of sick children, insecticide-treated mosquito nets, voluntary counseling and testing, sexual risk behaviors, intimate partner violence and other behavior change challenges in public health.
The Health Information Technology Standards and Systems Interoperability course is designed to provide health professionals with an understanding of the existing health information technology (HIT) standards and HIT standardization processes.The goal of this course is to provide students with methods and tools for participation as users in the HIT standardization activities for the design and evaluation of integrated health data systems at the local, state, regional, national or international levels.The intended audience comprises public health and medical professionals responsible, or advocating, for information systems used in (1) providing services; (2) developing, implementing and evaluating policies; and (3) performing research.
Introduces the study of aging, its implications for individuals, families, and society, and the background for health policy related to older persons. Presents an overview on aging from different perspectives: demography, biology, epidemiology of diseases, physical and mental disorders, functional capacity and disability, health services, federal and state health policies, social aspects of aging, and ethical issues in the care of older individuals.
This lecture explores the statistical methods used for assessing the health effects of air pollution. Dr. Dominici uses examples from her own national-level research.
This training examines the path of the avian influenza and examines how it could impact world health.
This lecture summarizes Professor Leiyu Shi's recent work on primary care, the definition of primary care, and his research rationale and framework. It includes a close look at international primary care studies, US primary care studies, Metropolitan Statistical Area analyses, county-level studies, multi-level studies, meta-analyses, and US health center studies.
This unique training addresses the institutional culture of five responder groups: law enforcement, EMS, fire, public health, and private security in an attempt at fostering understanding among these groups
This is the first part of a two-course survey that introduces an ecologic perspective that can be used to map factors that shape the health of individuals and populations. The course is built around a model that attempts to integrate social and cognitive factors that contribute to health status and health-related behavior. Integrated with the theoretical presentation are examples of interventions. The first course focuses mostly on "macro" and "mezzo" level influences on health, including culture, socio-economic status, race, and the media. Included is a discussion of advocacy as method of creating change at a macro level. The second course focuses more on the "micro" level and introduces several classic health behavior theories before turning to health communication and health education. By the end of both courses, students will be able to apply a number of theories and ecological perspectives to thinking about health problems and behavior.
This course builds upon knowledge of basic public health concepts and theory, showing how they are incorporated into intervention design and evaluation on an individual, group, community, and national scale. Using an ecologic framework and employing a variety of structural, health communication, and health education tools, applies theoretical perspectives from anthropology, geography, sociology, and psychology to health behavior interventions in paradigmatic settings (health services, communities, large populations). Uses a combination of lectures, reading, and small group exercises to demonstrate the dynamic relationship of theory and intervention. This second course of the two-course sequence concentrates on mezzo and micro-level theories of health behavior, provider-patient communication, and health literary.
Presents major nutritional problems that influence the health, survival, and developmental capacity of populations in developing societies. Covers approaches implemented at the household, community, national, and international levels to improve nutritional status. Explores the degree to which malnutrition can be prevented or reduced prior to achieving full economic development through targeted public and private sector interventions that address the causes of malnutrition.
Introduction to Biostatistics provides an introduction to selected important topics in biostatistical concepts and reasoning. This course represents an introduction to the field and provides a survey of data and data types. Specific topics include tools for describing central tendency and variability in data; methods for performing inference on population means and proportions via sample data; statistical hypothesis testing and its application to group comparisons; issues of power and sample size in study designs; and random sample and other study types. While there are some formulae and computational elements to the course, the emphasis is on interpretation and concepts.
This course introduces the basic techniques of demographic analysis. Students will become familiar with the sources of data available for demographic research. Population composition and change measures will be presented. Measures of mortality, fertility, marriage and migration levels and patterns will be defined. Life table, standardization and population projection techniques will also be explored.
Introduces the material covered in the Department of Health Policy and Management. Focuses on four substantive areas that form the analytic basis for many of the issues in Health Policy and Management. The areas are: (1) economics and financing, (2) need and demand, (3) politics/ethics/law, and (4) quality/effectiveness. Illustrates these issues using three specific policy issues: (1) injury, (2) medical care, and (3) public health preparedness.
This presentation introduces the topics of disaster mental health services, mental health surge capacity, and psychiatric first aid.
Introduction to Methods for Health Services Research and Evaluation provides an introduction to basic methods for undertaking research and program evaluation within health services organizations and systems. In addition to basic methods, the course also provides "the state of the art" in research and evaluation through the review of major completed studies. This course is recommended for students who will be carrying out policy research, social science research, or program impact evaluation within health delivery systems. It is also relevant to those who will apply the results of Health Services Research (HSR) done by others.
This course Introduces students to ethics concepts as they apply to questions and challenges in conducting human subject research. The aim is to increase students' knowledge and skills to recognize and consider ethical issues that arise in the conduct of human subject research. The course was designed for clinical investigators in India who will likely collaborate with US investigators; it therefore includes a discussion of US and Indian regulatory requirements relevant to the conduct of collaborative research.
This course introduces mental health as an integral part of global health research, including conducting needs assessments and intervention monitoring and evaluation. Presents and critiques strategies for integrating local cultural perspectives into research models. Examines methods of adapting psychiatric assessment tools for use cross-culturally and presents challenges for developing interventions for use in low-resource contexts. Encourages use of critical and creative thinking skills throughout to discuss the issues involved in this relatively new area of study.
This course leads participants through the process of designing their own survey. Examines the major decisions faced by a health researcher who wants to design and implement a survey. Explores the potential sources of bias associated with alternative approaches to sample design, respondent recruitment, data collection methods (interviews in-person or by telephone, computer assisted interviews, or mail surveys) instrument design, and field administration. Participants prepare a defensible proposal for a survey that they would like to conduct. Emphasizes population surveys, but not exclusively so.
In these interviews, JHSPH faculty deliver expert insight into some of the most important public health challenges facing the world today.
This course teaches students to frame public health issues using a life course perspective. Introduces and examines basic principles of human development across the life span, from the prenatal period through senescence, and the idea that health outcomes reflect developmental processes. Provides a conceptual framework with which to understand the interrelationships among biological, psychological, and social factors and their influence on development and health. Also illustrates the application of this perspective to gain a critical understanding of public health issues.
Presents issues related to malaria as a major public health problem. Emphasizes the biology of malaria parasites and factors affecting their transmission to humans by anopheline vectors. Topics include host-parasite-vector relationships; diagnostics; parasite biology; vector biology; epidemiology; host immunity; risk factors associated with infection, human behavior, chemotherapy, and drug resistances; anti-vector measures; vaccine development; and management and policy issues.
Presents an overview of major issues related to the design, function, management, regulation, and evaluation of health insurance and managed care plans. Provides a firm foundation in basic concepts pertaining to private and public sector health insurance/benefit plans, both as provided by employers and government agencies such as Medicaid and Medicare. Key topics include population care management techniques, provider payment, organizational integration, quality and accountability, cost-containment, and public policy. The course makes extensive use of outside experts Course is relevant for management- or policy-oriented students who will be working in, or interrelating with, public and private (both for-profit and not-for-profit) health insurance plans and organized delivery systems such as HMOs and hospital/physician "integrated" delivery systems. Course is also relevant to students who will be researching and analyzing these systems. Although the emphasis is placed on the US, the material is applicable to international students who are interested in financing and organization of highly developed medical care delivery systems in other nations.
This course will consider long-term service delivery programs designed to meet the special needs of seniors. It will review care and service systems from the unique perspective of an aging population, including the physiological and psychological changes common among seniors.
This reading seminar focusing on male adolescent health and sexual issues and explores the meaning of masculinity and the impact of masculine beliefs on men's health and health care use. Students critique the literature and explore methods to design interventions working within a masculinity framework to improve men's health outcomes.
Presents fundamental concepts in applied probability, exploratory data analysis, and statistical inference, focusing on probability and analysis of one and two samples. Topics include discrete and continuous probability models; expectation and variance; central limit theorem; inference, including hypothesis testing and confidence for means, proportions, and counts; maximum likelihood estimation; sample size determinations; elementary non-parametric methods; graphical displays; and data transformations.
This symposium addresses the interesection of HIV and human rights, particularly as it relates to the population of men who have sex with men (MSM). The speakers approach the issues within a variety of geographic contexts, including Nepal, Africa, and the United States. The risk factors and outcome disparities introduced by human rights violations have a serious effect on prevention and treatment strategies used to combat the global spread of HIV. The research conducted by the speakers in this symposium sheds light on many of the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.