Even the news was a business. As Americans streamed into cities from small towns and overseas, journalists realized the economic potential. If half of Boston's citizens would buy a newspaper three times a week, a publisher could become a millionaire.
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The print revolution enabled publications to increase their subscriptions dramatically. What appeared in print was now more powerful than ever. Writing to Congress in hopes of correcting abuses was slow and often produced zero results. Publishing a series of articles had a much more immediate impact. Collectively called muckrakers, a brave cadre of reporters exposed injustices so grave they made the blood of the average American run cold.
On this webpage you will find several open Journalism textbooks along with supplemental material and a few lecture videos.
The purpose of these discipline specific pages is to display content that might be of interest to faculty who are considering adopting open educational resources for use in their classes. This list of content is by no means exhaustive. The nature of open educational resources is very collaborative and it is in that spirit that we encourage any comments about the content featured on this page or recommendations of content that are not already listed here.
On this webpage you will find OER Journalism and Mass Communications textbooks along with supplemental materials and a few lecture videos.
The purpose of these discipline-specific pages is to display content that might be of interest to faculty who are considering adopting open educational resources for use in their classes. This list of content is by no means exhaustive. The nature of open educational resources is very collaborative and it is in that spirit that we encourage any comments about the content featured on this page or recommendations of content that are not already listed here.
David McCandless turns complex data sets (like worldwide military spending, media buzz, Facebook status updates) into beautiful, simple diagrams that tease out unseen patterns and connections. Good design, he suggests, is the best way to navigate information glut -- and it may just change the way we see the world. A quiz, thought provoking question, and links for further study are provided to create a lesson around the 18-minute video. Educators may use the platform to easily "Flip" or create their own lesson for use with their students of any age or level.
In this case study, students analyze a scientific study, first by analyzing news articles reporting on the research and then by reading the original research article. In working through the case, students identify the basic elements of a scientific study; evaluate the study and offer suggestions for improvement; analyze the appropriateness of the headlines of news articles in relation to their content; and compare the accuracy of information offered to the public in a news article with the information presented in a scientific paper. Designed for an introductory course in biological sciences for non-majors, the case could be used in any course that includes the study of the scientific method as well as in a scientific journalism course.
- Life Science
- Material Type:
- Case Study
- National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
- Provider Set:
- Case Study Collection
- Wilma V. Colon Parrilla
- Date Added:
This activity explores how and why war has been photographed and affords students an opportunity to see bias within war reporting. In addition to analyzing war photographs, students learn about Mathematics and Statisticsew Brady's process for photographing the Civil War and how photographic equipment has improved over time.
Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes journalist James Fallows for a discussion of his career, the ideas and events that shaped his thinking, and his perspective on his craft as a writer and author.
In this edition, broadcast journalist and UC Berkeley faculty member Lowell Bergman talks about his intellectual journey, investigative reporting and his years as a producer at 60 Minutes. (56 min)
Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes writer/critic Mark Steyn, the 2007 Nimitz Lecturer at Berkeley. Focusing on his new book, "America Alone: The End of the World As We Know It," they discuss Europe and America's relations with the Islamic world. In the interview, their conversation also focuses on the craft of writing in a multi media globalized world. (55 minutes)
Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes Pakistani Journalist Ahmed Rashid for a discussion of United States foreign policy and the failure of nation building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia. (59 minutes)
Robert Fisk, Middle East correspondent for the British newspaper The Independent, discusses his experiences covering Middle East wars for the last 30 thirty years. (58 minutes)
Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes John Micklethwait, Editor-in-Chief of the Economist. They discuss the challenges of editing the leading global news magazine. They explore the implications of globalization in a post 911 world. Micklethwait also reflects on the enduring features of the conservative movement and its consequences for the global role of the United States. (51 minutes)
Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes Washington Post columnist Michael Kinsley for a discussion of how technology and markets are transforming journalism. Kinsley reflects on his career in journalism including his role as the founding editor of Slate and his recent job as editor of the LA Times editorial pages. (53)
UC Berkeley's Harry Kreisler in conversation with Norman Podhoretz, whose 35 years as an author, literary critic and editor of Commentary magazine has had a profound influence on the ideas that have shaped public debate in the United States. (53 min)
Conversations host Harry Kreisler speaks with William A. Rusher, former publisher of the "National Review" about the conservative movement. (54 min)
In this 1983 interview, Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes one of America's most distinguished journalists Tom Wicker for a discussion of the Presidency and the media at the height of the Cold War. (58 min)
When you combine the sheer scale and range of digital information now available with a journalist’s "nose for news" and her ability to tell a compelling story, a new world of possibility opens up. With The Data Journalism Handbook, you’ll explore the potential, limits, and applied uses of this new and fascinating field.
This valuable handbook has attracted scores of contributors since the European Journalism Centre and the Open Knowledge Foundation launched the project at MozFest 2011. Through a collection of tips and techniques from leading journalists, professors, software developers, and data analysts, you’ll learn how data can be either the source of data journalism or a tool with which the story is told—or both.
Designed to increase students' understanding of, appreciation for, and ability to do documentary photography and photojournalism. Each three-hour class is divided between a discussion of issues and readings, and a group critique of students' projects. Students must have their own photographic equipment and be responsible for processing and printing: either by student or commercial lab. Students must show basic proficiency with their equipment. Readings include Susan Sontag, Robert Coles, Ken Light, Eugene Richards, and others. Previous photographic experience required.
The Documentary Project for Refugee Youth is a collaboration between refugee youth, Raeshma Razvi, Global Action Project, the International Rescue Committee and other community organizations and artists in New York City. The Project revolves around a core group of 12 refugee youth living in New York City, and the Friday night workshop the group attends. The Project engages in multimedia documentary work -- interviews, photography, journal-writing and video -- to create meaningful products about the refugee condition of displacement, desire for connection and need for home.
Leslie Dodson's research focuses on the intersection of micro-enterprise and digital technologies in developing communities. She brings more than 25 years of experience and insight from a career as a broadcast journalist to the academic community. Leslie has been posted to Tokyo, London, New York and throughout Latin America, where she covered high-tech and bio-tech for CNBC and MSNBC, and international finance and the global emerging markets for CNN, NHK-Tokyo and Reuters. Along with covering international business, Leslie has reported on environmental issues from the Arctic, India, Nepal, Ecuador, Burundi and Uganda. A quiz, thought provoking question, and links for further study are provided to create a lesson around the 21-minute video. Educators may use the platform to easily "Flip" or create their own lesson for use with their students of any age or level.
This case is based on an actual news release reporting on research about the effects of eating Lake Ontario fish contaminated with PCBs. Developed to teach students about statistical analysis and experimental design, the case has been used in a senior-level biostatistics course as well as part of a one-week survey of statistics for a biological methods course. It could also be used in an ecology or environmental science course or as a component of a course examining how the media reports science.
This is a "clicker" adaptation of another case in our collection, "Eating PCBs from Lake Ontario: Is There an Effect or Not?" (2001), written by the same author. It encourages students to examine how scientific results get presented and interpreted for the public as well as how experiments are planned, carried out, and analyzed. Students read three different news reports about the same scientific study, then sort through the different accounts to determine for themselves what happened in these studies and what the findings were. The case illustrates the complexities of scientific reporting and challenges students to figure out the original research design and data. It was designed for an introductory biology course for majors that uses personal response systems, or "clickers." The story is presented in class using a PowerPoint (~1MB) presentation punctuated by multiple-choice questions that students answer using their clickers.
Alternative facts, fake news, and post-truth have become common terms in the contemporary news industry. Today, social media platforms allow sensational news to “go viral,” crowdsourced news from ordinary people to compete with professional reporting, and public figures in offices as high as the US presidency to bypass established media outlets when sharing news. However, dramatic reporting in daily news coverage predates the smartphone and tablet by over a century. In the late nineteenth century, the news media war between Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World and William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal resulted in the rise of yellow journalism, as each newspaper used sensationalism and manipulated facts to increase sales and attract readers.
This kit provides the materials and background information needed to engage students in a dynamic and constructive process of learning how global media perspectives differ based on country of production, media source, target audience, and political and social context. There are five lessons representing important issues and media documents from: Africa (news and documentary film clips about the food crisis), Latin America (editorial cartoons about immigration), Europe (news and documentary film clips about Islam and cultural identity), India (magazine covers about India's rise in the global economy), and Southeast Asia (websites concerning Islamic majorities and minorities).
This course examines systematically, and comparatively, great and middle power military interventions, and candidate military interventions, into civil wars from the 1990s to the present. These civil wars did not easily fit into the traditional category of vital interest. These interventions may therefore tell us something about broad trends in international politics including the nature of unipolarity, the erosion of sovereignty, the security implications of globalization, and the nature of modern western military power.
The ICT Policy for Civil Society training materials build the capacity of civil society organisations to understand policy and regulation related to information and communication technologies (ICT) so that they can begin to engage and influence policy processes affecting ICT adoption and implementation at national, regional and global levels.
In this assignment, students learn how to identify and perform basic shot types. These shots are the building blocks for any media project. Students will go out and film examples of each of the basic shots. Students will use cameras on their cell phones and individually. Students will spend approximately 1 hour gathering images and uploading the videos to the class Powerpoint project.
This new publication by UNESCO is a timely resource and highly topical subject for all those who practice or teach journalism in this Digital Age. UNESCO's new handbook is an essential addition to teaching syllabi for all journalism educators, as well as practising journalists and editors who are interested in information, how we share it and how we use it. It is mission critical that those who practice journalism understand and report on the new threats to trusted information. Political parties, health professionals, business people, scientists, election monitors and others will also find the handbook useful in navigating the information disorder. Written by experts in the fight against disinformation, this handbook explores the very nature of journalism - with modules on why trust matters; thinking critically about how digital technology and social platforms are conduits of the information disorder; fighting back against disinformation and misinformation through media and information literacy; fact-checking 101; social media verification and combating online abuse. The seven individual modules are available online to download that enables readers to develop their own course relevant to their media environment.
This handbook is also useful for the library and information science professionals, students, and LIS educators for understanding the different dimensions of fake news and disinformation.
Table of Contents
Module One | Truth, Trust and Journalism: Why it Matters | by Cherilyn Ireton
Module Two | Thinking about "Information Disorder": Formats of Misinformation, Disinformation and Mal-Information | by Claire Wardle & Hossein Derakshan
Module Three | News Industry Transformation: Digital Technology, Social Platforms and the Spread of Misinformation and Disinformation |by Julie Posetti
Module Four | Combatting Disinformation and Misinformation Through Media and Information Literacy (MIL) | by Magda Abu-Fadil
Module Five | Fact-Checking 101 | by Alexios Mantzarlis
Module Six | Social Media Verification: Assessing Sources and Visual Content | by Tom Trewinnard and Fergus Bell
Module Seven | Combatting Online Abuse: When Journalists and Their Sources are Targeted | by Julie Posetti
Additional Resources: https://en.unesco.org/fightfakenews
- Information Science
- Business and Communication
- Career and Technical Education
- Educational Technology
- Higher Education
- Material Type:
- Full Course
- Unit of Study
- Alexios Mantzarlis
- Cherilyn Ireton
- Claire Wardle
- Fergus Bell
- Hossein Derakshan
- Julie Posetti
- Magda Abu-Fadil
- Tom Trewinnard
- Date Added:
In this interrupted case study, students view a documentary film about a coyote hunting contest and then assume the role of various stakeholders in coyote management in the western United States to explore issues associated with wildlife management. As part of this, students complete a number of associated activities in which they are asked to reflect upon their ethical perspective regarding wildlife management. The case would be appropriate for use in a wildlife management, ecology, mid-level biology, or environmental ethics course.
John Emil List murdered his mother, wife, and three teenaged children on November 9, 1971 in their dilapidated Westfield, NJ mansion. The victims were not discovered for nearly a month, and List escaped capture for nearly 18 years. This repository includes primary source materials and lesson plans for instructors in criminal justice, history, and psychology.Repository Locationhttps://unioncc.instructure.com/courses/11394
This kit analyzes Newsweek coverage of the Vietnam War, Gulf War and the War in Afghanistan. Students will learn core information about the wars in Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, and Afghanistan, how media influences public opinion of current events, and how to ask key media literacy questions and identify bias in the news.
This kit covers stereotyping of Arab people, the Arab/Israeli conflict, the war in Iraq and militant Muslim movements. Students will learn core information and vocabulary about the historical and contemporary Middle East issues that challenge stereotypical, simplistic and uninformed thinking, and political and ethical issues involving the role of media in constructing knowledge, evaluating historical truths, and objectivity and subjectivity in journalism.
This kit explores how sustainability within the Finger Lakes region of New York has been presented in the media with a particular focus on issues related to food, water and agriculture. Each of the seven lessons integrates media literacy and critical thinking with key knowledge and concepts related to sustainability. This kit is a companion to the nineteen-lesson collection, Media Constructions of Sustainability: Food, Water and Agriculture.
This kit explores how sustainability has been presented in the media with a particular focus on issues related to food, water and agriculture. Each of the 19 lessons integrates media literacy and critical thinking into lessons about different aspect of sustainability. Constant themes throughout the kit include social justice, climate change, energy, economics and unintended consequences.
This is the first edition of a modular open textbook designed for entrepreneurial journalism, media innovation, and related courses. This book has been undergoing student and faculty testing and open review in fall 2017. Feedback has been implemented in Version 1.0 and will continue to be implemented in Version 2.0 (ETA spring 2018). An accompanying handbook will include additional activities, ancillary materials and faculty resources on media innovation for instructors.
Media, Society, Culture, and You is an approachable introductory Mass Communication text that covers major mass communication terms and concepts including "digital culture." It discusses various media platforms and how they are evolving as Information and Communication Technologies change.
This book has been peer-reviewed by 6 subject experts and is now available for adoption or adaptation. If you plan to adopt or adapt this open textbook, please let us know by filling out our adoption form (https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdIj_Te3hiuJL7cKaofhhUHuDz3_hlVXg6Wg1IPcDZoH2pRrg/viewform?usp=sf_link).
You can view the book's Review Statement (https://press.rebus.community/mscy/back-matter/review-statement/) for more information about reviewers and the review process. An Accessibility Assessment (https://press.rebus.community/mscy/back-matter/accessibility-assessment/) for this is book has also been prepared to see how this book meets accessibility standards.
Media Studies 101 is the open educational resource for media studies studies in New Zealand, Australia, and Pacifica. We have constructed this text so it can be read in a number of ways. You may wish to follow the structured order of 'chapters' like you would in a traditional printed textbook. Each section builds on and refers back to previous sections to build up your knowledge and skills. Alternatively, you may want to go straight to the section you are interested in -- links will help guide you back to definitions and key ideas if you need to refresh your knowledge or understand a new concept.
- Material Type:
- Provider Set:
- BCcampus Open Textbooks
- Bernard Madill
- Brett Nicholls
- Colette Snowden
- Erika Pearson
- Hannah Mettner
- Hazel Phillips
- Jane Ross
- Khin-Wee Chen
- Martina Wengenmeir
- Massimiliana Urbana
- Maud Ceuterick
- Sarah Gallagher
- Shah Nister J. Kabir
- Sy Taffel
- Thelma Fisher
- Date Added:
The digital age has created the need for a new kind of literacy-a literacy that empowers news consumers to determine whether information is credible, reliable and truthful. This is not just a skill; it is a new core competency for the 21st century. So-called “fake news” is hard to spot and spreads easily, leading to disagreements over basic facts. The antidote to the growing challenges posed by this digital revolution is news literacy. This mini news literacy course includes two three-hour sessions that will teach anyone to become a more critical consumer of news.
"Open textbooks are textbooks that have been funded, published, and licensed to be freely used, adapted, and distributed. These books have been reviewed by faculty from a variety of colleges and universities to assess their quality. These books can be downloaded for no cost, or printed at low cost."
- Applied Science
- Computer Science
- Health, Medicine and Nursing
- Arts and Humanities
- Business and Communication
- English Language Arts
- Life Science
- Physical Science
- Social Science
- Material Type:
- Open Textbook Library
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In 1962, an American activist named Michael Harrington wrote a relatively short but influential study on the problem of poverty in the United States. 'The Other America' ultimately found its way into the hands of President John F. Kennedy, and the book had a profound impact on bringing poverty issues to public attention. It ultimately contributed to the launch of the government's "War on Poverty."
TeachableMoment marks the 50 year anniversary, and addresses the ongoing issue, with a series of readings and discussion questions for high school students. Readings one and two, below, give an overview of Michael Harrington's book and consider the state of poverty in the U.S. now. The next pair of readings in the series will examine the debate about who should count as poor in this country and proposals for combating poverty.
Develop skills as science communicators through projects and analysis of theoretical principles. Case studies explore the emergence of popular science communication over the past two centuries and consider the relationships among authors, audiences and media. Project topics are identified early in the term and students work with MIT Museum staff. Projects may include physical exhibits, practical demonstrations, or scripts for public programs.
Mark A. Tambone, Passaic County Community CollegeI created this process chart to aid students through the entire writing and editing process. Additionally, this chart helps students remain mindful of proper time management and scheduling which is needed in order to utilize our tutoring services. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
Through Jim Sill's three TV and video classes, high school students learn a variety of video production skills. In the Introduction to Video Production class, students work on cross-curricular projects. They learn how to use equipment, write and edit scripts, and collaborate to produce videos. In the TV broadcasting class, students produce a news show that is watched across the school. In the Advanced Video Production class, students work with companies and non-profits in the community to produce videos. Through all of Jim's classes, students learn real-world skills as they collaborate to create innovative videos.
These learning materials are designed to engage students in hands-on activities that stimulate them, and, most importantly, encourage critical thinking in the classroom. These educational activities in this section will provide high school social studies, media education and language arts teachers, as well as college journalism and communication educators with extensive lesson plans, resource materials, and discussion questions to introduce students to the world of war correspondence.
Reporting America at War offers students invaluable insights as it allows them to experience the life of a war reporter through the lens and the experiences of such noted journalists such as Christiane Amanpour, Walter Cronkite, David Halberstam, Chris Hedges and Morley Safer. The video explores press censorship, message control, the power of pictures, finding the right words, and works by Ernie Pyle and Edward R. Murrow.
Two units and a selection of supplementary materials are currently available for this module, developed by Julie Clayton, HIV/AIDS co-ordinator for the Science and Development Network, with contributions from TV Padma and Joe Thomas.
HIV/AIDS journalism and communication skills (unit)
Finding and evaluating HIV/AIDS information on the internet (unit)
HIV/AIDS-related mailing lists (supplementary materials)
Core materials (shared across units)
In this case, students work in small groups to analyze and critically evaluate the often political nature of news stories. The case was developed from two newspaper articles published in the New York Times and Wall Street Journal about the release of an EPA report on the state of the environment. While the New York Times article discusses White House editing of the report, which eliminated several references to the causes and dangers of global warming, the Wall Street Journal article focuses more on the report's evidence of environmental improvements. Developed for an undergraduate information literacy course, the subject matter of the case also makes it suitable for use in undergraduate level courses in environmental studies, journalism, or political science.
" The science essay uses science to think about the human condition; it uses humanistic thinking to reflect on the possibilities and limits of science and technology. In this class we read and practice writing science essays of varied lengths and purposes. We will read a wide variety of science essays, ranging across disciplines, both to learn more about this genre and to inspire your own writing. This semester's reading centers on "The Dark Side," with essays ranging from Alan Lightman's "Prisoner of the Wired World" through Robin Marantz Henig's cautionary account of nano-technology ("Our Silver-Coated Future") to David Quammen's investigation of diseases that jump from animals to humans ("Deadly Contact")."
Students will learn how to distinguish different video shots, angles, and movements by watching a professionally created movie trailer. Locate a movie trailer of your choice and convert it into a movie file that can be uploaded into a video editing software, such as iMovie. Students will then detach the audio so it is not a distraction while working during class. The next step will be to locate the different camera uses, angles, and movements as listed in the PowerPoint. Once the shots are located, students will split the video and use a freeze frame with on-screen text to key the name of the shot. An example would be "long shot with bird's eye view." Students should locate at least three examples for each of the camera uses, angles, and movements. Once done, the students will export their movie and submit for grading.
This course closely examines a coherent set of short texts and/or visual works. The selections may be the shorter works of one or more authors (poems, short stories or novellas), or short films and other visual media. Additionally, we will focus on formal issues and thematic meditations around the title of the course "Staying Alive." Content varies from semester to semester.
This course examines the nature of attitudes, beliefs, and values, and the influences which indiviudals' attitudes have upon their behavior. Various theories of attitude organization and attitude change are discussed, and the development of social attitudes is explored by examining the differential impact of the family, the educational system, the mass media, and the general social environment. The changing content of public opinion over time and its relationship to the political system are also discussed.
Dictionarybay houses 16 specialized dictionaries that focus on topics such media, oil terminology, theater, economics, statistics, advertising, and many others. Users can select a dictionary and enter any search term in English or Arabic, but cannot browse the dictionaries.
This educational curriculum package is the product of a five-year labor of love. Beginning in 2011, several educators, history enthusiasts and social activists coalesced around the charismatic Horace Seldon. Horace was finishing a long local career in social work, years with the National Parks Service, Boston, and as one of the founders of the social service organization Community Change. He was intent upon pursuing a historical research project which he had been contemplating for some time. The resultant group, led by Horace Seldon, then embarked on a research and reading circle exploring the hidden history of the Boston antebellum African American community situated on the North Slope of Beacon Hill and in the area immediately adjacent to the current Boston City Hall Plaza. The work began by investigating legendary author, activist and Beacon Hill resident David Walker. It has since grown organically into a full-fledged historical reclamation project, the results of which we now share with you.Being educators, we have naturally gravitated to exploring avenues which facilitate promoting civic engagement and self-actualization, both in the classroom and for lifelong learning. This enterprise reflects that perspective and energizing prospect. We are currently in discussion with the Mayor's Office of Diversity about bringing this project to City Hall Plaza as an integral part of the upcoming 400'h anniversary celebration of the founding of Boston. Roxbury Community College is honored to have been given the opportunity to create a digital curriculum platform to dispense information and inspire enthusiasm for history across the commonwealth, a history which surrounds us but remains invisible to many residents and tourists. It is our intention to combine an interdisciplinary approach using the latest in technological innovations, artistry and networking to share this compelling narrative, illuminating not only the lessons of the past, but the durability of a community preparing for a future of multiple challenges and inconvenient truths.
The primary sources in this set can
be used for inquiry-based learning exercises
and projects. Each document falls under the
umbrella topic of voter education, and students
are encouraged to annotate in the margins in order
to support the development of document analysis
and critical thinking skills. Suggested projects that
make use of this set’s primary sources are also
included for the educator as a springboard for
- Criminal Justice
- Reading Foundation Skills
- Reading Informational Text
- U.S. History
- Political Science
- Material Type:
- Case Study
- Lesson Plan
- Primary Source
- Teaching/Learning Strategy
- Unit of Study
- The Rockefeller Archive Center
- Date Added:
Students explore the issues involved in investigating and reporting on a scatter of skeletal remains to the police in this case study. In addition, the case teaches students about skeletal identification and the quantification of skeletal elements. The case has been used in an introductory archaeology course as well as an upper-division archaeological lab methods class, a senior zooarchaeology and archaeobotany class, and an introductory level forensic anthropology course.
In his 1962 essay “ Who Killed Benny Paret?”, Cousins, a journalist and biobehavioral scientist, investigates the causes of a boxer’s death. This is an example of a cause and effect essay.
The recent discovery of acrylamide in both fried and baked foods like French fries and potato chips has caused alarm. Acrylamide is both a known carcinogen in animals when administered in high doses and a neurotoxin when humans are exposed to large amounts in the workplace. However, the link between acrylamide in food and human health is much less clear. In working through the case, students compare the accuracy of news headlines, articles, and web pages with the information presented in scientific journals. This case was designed for non-science major courses and can also be used in seminars.
In this era of globalization, many of us have multi- or bi-cultural, multilingual or bilingual backgrounds, and even if we don't have such a background, we need urgently to understand the experiences of people who do. You will very likely work outside the United States at some point in your future; you will almost certainly work with people who speak more than one language, whose ancestry or origins are in a country other than the U.S., who have crossed borders of nation, language, culture, class to amalgamate into the large and diverse culture that is America. In this class we will read the personal narratives of bilingual and bicultural writers, some of whom have struggled to assimilate, others of whom have celebrated their own contributions to a culture of diversity. You will write four personal essays of your own for the class, each of which will receive workshop discussion in class and response from me; you will then revise the essays to polish them for possible publication. One of your essays will be an investigative one, where you will focus on a subject of your choice, investigate it thoroughly, and then write with authority about it. The process of the class will encourage you to both improve your writing significantly and gain a greater understanding of experiences of people who are in some way like you as well as those who are in some way different.